Special Issue "Equine Viruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Romain Paillot
Website
Guest Editor
School of Equine and Veterinary Physiotherapy, Writtle University College, Lordship Rd, Writtle, Chelmsford CM1 3RR, Essex, United Kingdom
Interests: equine infectious diseases; immunology; vaccination; equine influenza
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million (FAOSTAT 2017). Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has a significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. 

With this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of equine viruses, their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare, their economic importance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies. Beyond their potential risk to other species, including humans, equine viruses may also represent an interesting model for reproducing virus infection in the host species. 

Dr. Romain Paillot
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • virus
  • vaccine
  • equine
  • pathogenicity
  • emergence
  • model
  • identification

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Equine Viruses”: Old “Friends” and New Foes?
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020153 - 29 Jan 2020
Abstract
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million (FAOSTAT 2017) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Further Evidence for in Utero Transmission of Equine Hepacivirus to Foals
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121124 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Equine hepacivirus (EqHV), also referred to as non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), infects horses—and dogs in some instances—and is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) that has infected up to 3% of the world’s human population, causing an epidemic of liver cirrhosis [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Equine hepacivirus (EqHV), also referred to as non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), infects horses—and dogs in some instances—and is closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) that has infected up to 3% of the world’s human population, causing an epidemic of liver cirrhosis and cancer. EqHV also chronically infects the liver of horses, but does not appear to cause serious liver damages. Previous studies have been looking to identify route(s) of EqHV transmission to and between horses. (2) Methods: In this retrospective study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of vertical transmission taking place in utero with measuring by quantitative RT-PCR the amounts of EqHV genome in samples from 394 dead foals or fetuses, paired with the allantochorion whenever available. (3) Results: Detection of EqHV in three foals most likely resulted from a vertical transmission from the mares to the fetuses, consistent with the in utero transmission hypothesis. In support of this observation, the presence of EqHV genome was found for the first time in two of the allantochorions. (4) Conclusions: As seemingly benign viruses could turn deadly (e.g., Zika flavivirus) and EqHV happens to have infected a significant proportion of the world’s horse herds, EqHV infectious cycle should be further clarified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Equine Mx1 Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication by Targeting at Distinct Site of its Nucleoprotein
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121114 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Interferon-mediated host factors myxovirus (Mx) proteins are key features in regulating influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Viral polymerases are essential for viral replication. The Mx1 protein has been known to interact with viral nucleoprotein (NP) and PB2, resulting in the influence of polymerase [...] Read more.
Interferon-mediated host factors myxovirus (Mx) proteins are key features in regulating influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Viral polymerases are essential for viral replication. The Mx1 protein has been known to interact with viral nucleoprotein (NP) and PB2, resulting in the influence of polymerase activity and providing interspecies restriction. The equine influenza virus has evolved as an independent lineage to influenza viruses from other species. We estimated the differences in antiviral activities between human MxA (huMxA) and equine Mx1 (eqMx1) against a broad range of IAV strains. We found that huMxA has antiviral potential against IAV strains from non-human species, whereas eqMx1 could only inhibit the polymerase activity of non-equine species. Here, we demonstrated that NP is the main target of eqMx1. Subsequently, we found adaptive mutations in the NP of strains A/equine/Jilin/1/1989 (H3N8JL89) and A/chicken/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013 (H7N9ZJ13) that confer eqMx1 resistance and sensitivity respectively. A substantial reduction in Mx1 resistance was observed for the two mutations G34S and H52N in H3N8JL89 NP. Thus, eqMx1 is an important dynamic force in IAV nucleoprotein evolution. We, therefore, suggest that the amino acids responsible for Mx1 resistance should be regarded as a robust indicator for the pandemic potential of lately evolving IAVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of a S1 Protein-Based ELISA for the Specific Detection of Antibodies against Equine Coronavirus
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121109 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered to be involved in enteric diseases in foals. Recently, several outbreaks of ECoV infection have also been reported in adult horses from the USA, France and Japan. Epidemiological studies of ECoV infection are still limited, and the seroprevalence [...] Read more.
Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is considered to be involved in enteric diseases in foals. Recently, several outbreaks of ECoV infection have also been reported in adult horses from the USA, France and Japan. Epidemiological studies of ECoV infection are still limited, and the seroprevalence of ECoV infection in Europe is unknown. In this study, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method utilizing ECoV spike S1 protein was developed in two formats, and further validated by analyzing 27 paired serum samples (acute and convalescent sera) from horses involved in an ECoV outbreak and 1084 sera of horses with unknown ECoV exposure. Both formats showed high diagnostic accuracy compared to virus neutralization (VN) assay. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the best cut-off values for both ELISA formats, assuming a test specificity of 99%. Employing the developed ELISA method, we detected seroconversion in 70.4% of horses from an ECoV outbreak. Among the 1084 horse sera, seropositivity varied from 25.9% (young horses) to 82.8% (adult horses) in Dutch horse populations. Further, sera of Icelandic horses were included in this study and a significant number of sera (62%) were found to be positive. Overall, the results demonstrated that the ECoV S1-based ELISA has reliable diagnostic performance compared to the VN assay and is a useful assay to support seroconversion in horses involved with ECoV outbreaks and to estimate ECoV seroprevalence in populations of horses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
No Evidence of Mosquito Involvement in the Transmission of Equine Hepacivirus (Flaviviridae) in an Epidemiological Survey of Austrian Horses
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111014 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Prevalence studies have demonstrated a global distribution of equine hepacivirus (EqHV), a member of the family Flaviviridae. However, apart from a single case of vertical transmission, natural routes of EqHV transmission remain elusive. Many known flaviviruses are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and [...] Read more.
Prevalence studies have demonstrated a global distribution of equine hepacivirus (EqHV), a member of the family Flaviviridae. However, apart from a single case of vertical transmission, natural routes of EqHV transmission remain elusive. Many known flaviviruses are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. This study represents the first investigation of potential EqHV transmission by mosquitoes. More than 5000 mosquitoes were collected across Austria and analyzed for EqHV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Concurrently, 386 serum samples from horses in eastern Austria were analyzed for EqHV-specific antibodies by luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) and for EqHV RNA by RT-qPCR. Additionally, liver-specific biochemistry parameters were compared between EqHV RNA-positive horses and EqHV RNA-negative horses. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted in comparison to previously published sequences from various origins. No EqHV RNA was detected in mosquito pools. Serum samples yielded an EqHV antibody prevalence of 45.9% (177/386) and RNA prevalence of 4.15% (16/386). EqHV RNA-positive horses had significantly higher glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) levels (p = 0.013) than control horses. Phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between nucleotide sequences of EqHV in Austrian horses and EqHV circulating in other regions. Despite frequently detected evidence of EqHV infection in Austrian horses, no viral RNA was found in mosquitoes. It is therefore unlikely that mosquitoes are vectors of this flavivirus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Equine Parvovirus in Thoroughbred Breeding Horses from Germany
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100965 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
An equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been recently identified in association with equine serum hepatitis, also known as Theiler’s disease. The disease was first described by Arnold Theiler in 1918 and is often observed with parenteral use of blood products in equines. However, natural [...] Read more.
An equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been recently identified in association with equine serum hepatitis, also known as Theiler’s disease. The disease was first described by Arnold Theiler in 1918 and is often observed with parenteral use of blood products in equines. However, natural ways of viral circulation and potential risk factors for transmission still remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of EqPV-H infections in Thoroughbred horses in northern and western Germany and aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with viral infections. A total of 392 Thoroughbreds broodmares and stallions were evaluated cross-sectionally for the presence of anti-EqPV-H antibodies and EqPV-H DNA using a luciferase immunoprecipitation assay (LIPS) and a quantitative PCR, respectively. In addition, data regarding age, stud farm, breeding history, and international transportation history of each horse were collected and analysed. An occurrence of 7% EqPV-H DNA positive and 35% seropositive horses was observed in this study cohort. The systematic analysis of risk factors revealed that age, especially in the group of 11–15-year-old horses, and breeding history were potential risk factors that can influence the rate of EqPV-H infections. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity on nucleotide level within the sequenced Thoroughbred samples. In conclusion, this study demonstrates circulating EqPV-H infections in Thoroughbred horses from central Europe and revealed age and breeding history as risk factors for EqPV-H infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Equine Rhinitis A Virus Infection in Thoroughbred Racehorses—A Putative Role in Poor Performance?
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100963 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses circulating amongst elite racehorses in a training yard by serological testing of serial samples and to determine their impact on health status and ability to race. A six-month longitudinal study was conducted in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses circulating amongst elite racehorses in a training yard by serological testing of serial samples and to determine their impact on health status and ability to race. A six-month longitudinal study was conducted in 30 Thoroughbred racehorses (21 two-year-olds, five three-year-olds and four four-year-olds) during the Flat racing season. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) and equine rhinitis viruses A and B (ERAV and ERBV) by complement fixation (CF) and equine arteritis virus (EAV) by ELISA. Antibodies against equine influenza (EI) were measured by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Only ERAV was circulating in the yard throughout the six-month study period. Seroconversion to ERAV frequently correlated with clinical respiratory disease and was significantly associated with subsequent failure to race (p = 0.0009). Over 55% of the two-year-olds in the study seroconverted to ERAV in May and June. In contrast, only one seroconversion to ERAV was observed in the older horses. They remained free of any signs of respiratory disease and raced successfully throughout the study period. The importance of ERAV as a contributory factor in the interruption of training programmes for young horses may be underestimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
The First Detection of Equine Coronavirus in Adult Horses and Foals in Ireland
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100946 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of equine coronavirus (ECoV) in clinical samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Ireland. A total of 424 clinical samples were examined from equids with enteric disease in 24 Irish counties between 2011 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of equine coronavirus (ECoV) in clinical samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Ireland. A total of 424 clinical samples were examined from equids with enteric disease in 24 Irish counties between 2011 and 2015. A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ECoV RNA. Nucleocapsid, spike and the region from the p4.7 to p12.7 genes of positive samples were sequenced, and sequence and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Five samples (1.2%) collected in 2011 and 2013 tested positive for ECoV. Positive samples were collected from adult horses, Thoroughbred foals and a donkey foal. Sequence and/or phylogenetic analysis showed that nucleocapsid, spike and p12.7 genes were highly conserved and were closely related to ECoVs identified in other countries. In contrast, the region from p4.7 and the non-coding region following the p4.7 gene had deletions or insertions. The differences in the p4.7 region between the Irish ECoVs and other ECoVs indicated that the Irish viruses were distinguishable from those circulating in other countries. This is the first report of ECoV detected in both foals and adult horses in Ireland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Viruses in Horses with Neurologic and Respiratory Diseases
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100942 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Metagenomics was used to identify viral sequences in the plasma and CSF (cerobrospinal fluid) of 13 horses with unexplained neurological signs and in the plasma and respiratory swabs of 14 horses with unexplained respiratory signs. Equine hepacivirus and two copiparvoviruses (horse parvovirus-CSF and [...] Read more.
Metagenomics was used to identify viral sequences in the plasma and CSF (cerobrospinal fluid) of 13 horses with unexplained neurological signs and in the plasma and respiratory swabs of 14 horses with unexplained respiratory signs. Equine hepacivirus and two copiparvoviruses (horse parvovirus-CSF and a novel parvovirus) were detected in plasma from neurological cases. Plasma from horses with respiratory signs contained the same two copiparvoviruses plus equine pegivirus D and respiratory swabs contained equine herpes virus 2 and 5. Based on genetic distances the novel copiparvovirus qualified as a member of a new parvovirus species we named Eqcopivirus. These samples plus another 41 plasma samples from healthy horses were tested by real-time PCRs for multiple equine parvoviruses and hepacivirus. Over half the samples tested were positive for one to three viruses with eqcopivirus DNA detected in 20.5%, equine hepacivirus RNA and equine parvovirus-H DNA in 16% each, and horse parvovirus-CSF DNA in 12% of horses. Comparing viral prevalence in plasma none of the now three genetically characterized equine parvoviruses (all in the copiparvovirus genus) was significantly associated with neurological and respiratory signs in this limited sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Molecular Surveillance of EHV-1 Strains Circulating in France during and after the Major 2009 Outbreak in Normandy Involving Respiratory Infection, Neurological Disorder, and Abortion
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100916 - 04 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an Alphaherpesvirus infecting not only horses but also other equid and non-equid mammals. It can cause respiratory distress, stillbirth and neonatal death, abortion, and neurological disease. The different forms of disease induced by EHV-1 infection can have dramatic [...] Read more.
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an Alphaherpesvirus infecting not only horses but also other equid and non-equid mammals. It can cause respiratory distress, stillbirth and neonatal death, abortion, and neurological disease. The different forms of disease induced by EHV-1 infection can have dramatic consequences on the equine industry, and thus the virus represents a great challenge for the equine and scientific community. This report describes the progress of a major EHV-1 outbreak that took place in Normandy in 2009, during which the three forms of disease were observed. A collection of EHV-1 strains isolated in France and Belgium from 2012 to 2018 were subsequently genetically analysed in order to characterise EHV-1 strain circulation. The open reading frame 30 (ORF30) non-neuropathogenic associated mutation A2254 was the most represented among 148 samples analysed in this study. ORF30 was also sequenced for 14 strains and compared to previously published sequences. Finally, a more global phylogenetic approach was performed based on a recently described Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) method. French and Belgian strains were clustered with known strains isolated in United Kingdom and Ireland, with no correlation between the phylogeny and the time of collection or location. This new MLST approach could be a tool to help understand epidemics in stud farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 from Italian Horses: Evaluation of the Variability of the ORF30, ORF33, ORF34 and ORF68 Genes
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090851 - 13 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses. It is spread worldwide and causes significant economic losses. The ORF33 gene has a conserved region that is often used as target in diagnostic PCR protocols. Single nucleotide point (SNP) mutations in ORF30 [...] Read more.
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses. It is spread worldwide and causes significant economic losses. The ORF33 gene has a conserved region that is often used as target in diagnostic PCR protocols. Single nucleotide point (SNP) mutations in ORF30 are usually used to distinguish between neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic genotypes. An ORF68 SNP-based scheme has been used for grouping different isolates. Recently, the highest number of variable sites in EHV-1 from the UK has been found in ORF34. In this study, EHV-1 positive samples from Italian horses with a history of abortion were investigated by amplifying and sequencing the ORF30, ORF33, ORF34 and ORF68 genes. Most animals were infected by the neuropathogenic type A2254G. A 118 bp deletion was found at nucleotide positions 701–818 of the ORF68 gene, making impossible to assign the samples to a known group. Sequencing of the ORF34 gene with a newly designed nested PCR showed new SNPs. Analysis of these sequences and of those obtained from genetic databases allowed the identification of at least 12 groups. These data add depth to the knowledge of EHV-1 genotypes circulating in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Approach to Strain Selection and the Propagation of Viral Stocks for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Efficacy Testing under the Animal Rule
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090807 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Licensure of a vaccine to protect against aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) requires use of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule to assess vaccine efficacy as human studies are not feasible or ethical. An approach to selecting VEEV challenge [...] Read more.
Licensure of a vaccine to protect against aerosolized Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) requires use of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Animal Rule to assess vaccine efficacy as human studies are not feasible or ethical. An approach to selecting VEEV challenge strains for use under the Animal Rule was developed, taking into account Department of Defense (DOD) vaccine requirements, FDA Animal Rule guidelines, strain availability, and lessons learned from the generation of filovirus challenge agents within the Filovirus Animal Nonclinical Group (FANG). Initial down-selection to VEEV IAB and IC epizootic varieties was based on the DOD objective for vaccine protection in a bioterrorism event. The subsequent down-selection of VEEV IAB and IC isolates was based on isolate availability, origin, virulence, culture and animal passage history, known disease progression in animal models, relevancy to human disease, and ability to generate sufficient challenge material. Methods for the propagation of viral stocks (use of uncloned (wild-type), plaque-cloned, versus cDNA-cloned virus) to minimize variability in the potency of the resulting challenge materials were also reviewed. The presented processes for VEEV strain selection and the propagation of viral stocks may serve as a template for animal model development product testing under the Animal Rule to other viral vaccine programs. This manuscript is based on the culmination of work presented at the “Alphavirus Workshop” organized and hosted by the Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program (JVAP) on 15 December 2014 at Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Identification of a Novel Equine Papillomavirus in Semen from a Thoroughbred Stallion with a Penile Lesion
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080713 - 04 Aug 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been identified in a wide range of animal species and are associated with a variety of disease syndromes including classical papillomatosis, aural plaques, and genital papillomas. In horses, 13 PVs have been described to date, falling into six genera. Using [...] Read more.
Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been identified in a wide range of animal species and are associated with a variety of disease syndromes including classical papillomatosis, aural plaques, and genital papillomas. In horses, 13 PVs have been described to date, falling into six genera. Using total RNA sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) we identified a novel equine papillomavirus in semen taken from a thoroughbred stallion suffering a genital lesion, which was confirmed by nested RT-PCR. We designate this novel virus Equus caballus papillomavirus 9 (EcPV9). The complete 7656 bp genome of EcPV9 exhibited similar characteristics to those of other horse papillomaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated E1-E2-L2-L1 amino acid sequences revealed that EcPV9 clustered with EcPV2, EcPV4, and EcPV5, although was distinct enough to represent a new viral species within the genus Dyoiotapapillomavirus (69.35%, 59.25%, and 58.00% nucleotide similarity to EcPV2, EcPV4, and EcPV5, respectively). In sum, we demonstrate the presence of a novel equine papillomavirus for which more detailed studies of disease association are merited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010023 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of [...] Read more.
Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mission of prevention and surveillance, plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis of viral encephalitis. The general management of the horse is essentially supportive, focused on controlling pain and inflammation within the central nervous system, preventing injuries and providing supportive care. Despite its high medical relevance and economic impact in the equine industry, vaccines are not always available and there is no specific antiviral therapy. In this review, the major virological, clinical and epidemiological features of the main neuropathogenic viruses inducing encephalitis in equids in Europe, including rabies virus (Rhabdoviridae), Equid herpesviruses (Herpesviridae), Borna disease virus (Bornaviridae) and West Nile virus (Flaviviridae), as well as exotic viruses, will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
African Horse Sickness: A Review of Current Understanding and Vaccine Development
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090844 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges. The disease [...] Read more.
African horse sickness is a devastating disease that causes great suffering and many fatalities amongst horses in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by nine different serotypes of the orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and it is spread by Culicoid midges. The disease has significant economic consequences for the equine industry both in southern Africa and increasingly further afield as the geographic distribution of the midge vector broadens with global warming and climate change. Live attenuated vaccines (LAV) have been used with relative success for many decades but carry the risk of reversion to virulence and/or genetic re-assortment between outbreak and vaccine strains. Furthermore, the vaccines lack DIVA capacity, the ability to distinguish between vaccine-induced immunity and that induced by natural infection. These concerns have motivated interest in the development of new, more favourable recombinant vaccines that utilize viral vectors or are based on reverse genetics or virus-like particle technologies. This review summarizes the current understanding of AHSV structure and the viral replication cycle and also evaluates existing and potential vaccine strategies that may be applied to prevent or control the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses) Printed Edition available
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