Special Issue "Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 10359

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Myriam Ermonval
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut Pasteur, Université Paris-Cité, Unité Environnement et Risques Infectieux, 75015 Paris, France
Interests: hantaviruses; rodent-borne emerging viruses; host-virus interactions
Prof. Dr. Serge Morand
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, MIVEGEC, Montpellier Université, Montpellier, France
2. Faculty of Veterinary Technology, Bangkok University, Bangkok, France
Interests: rodents and other wildlife-borne diseases; ecology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most emerging diseases are caused by viruses of animal origin, with a long history of adaptation to their natural hosts, becoming pathogenic when crossing species barriers. Conditions of virus outcomes, such as persistence in reservoirs and pathogenicity in humans, are not always elucidated. Meanwhile, outbreaks are increasing worldwide influenced by human activities perturbing the ecosystems and increasing contact between infected animals and humans, as exemplified by orthohantavirus. The comprehension of different levels of interactions between viruses and cellular and environmental factors with the contribution of different disciplinary approaches integrated into the "One Health" concept, are important for the implementation of measures to prevent new viral emergences.

This special issue will relate to RNA viruses having mammals as animal reservoirs, not arthropod-borne. It will cover general aspects of the pathophysiology of zoonotic viruses in different hosts in particular in their reservoirs and cellular and environmental factors influencing their transmission and spillover to other species, even from humans to domestic or wild animals in the event of a major epidemic episode, as recently evidenced by the spillback of SARS-CoV-2 to farmed mink, white-tailed deer and hamster.

Dr. Myriam Ermonval
Prof. Dr. Serge Morand
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonosis
  • RNA viruses
  • virus-host interaction
  • virus transmission
  • animal reservoir persistence
  • pathogenicity
  • environmental factors
  • spillover
  • one health

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Swine-to-Fserret Transmission of Antigenically Drifted Contemporary Swine H3N2 Influenza A Virus Is an Indicator of Zoonotic Risk to Humans
Viruses 2023, 15(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/v15020331 - 24 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Human-to-swine transmission of influenza A (H3N2) virus occurs repeatedly and plays a critical role in swine influenza A virus (IAV) evolution and diversity. Human seasonal H3 IAVs were introduced from human-to-swine in the 1990s in the United States and classified as 1990.1 and [...] Read more.
Human-to-swine transmission of influenza A (H3N2) virus occurs repeatedly and plays a critical role in swine influenza A virus (IAV) evolution and diversity. Human seasonal H3 IAVs were introduced from human-to-swine in the 1990s in the United States and classified as 1990.1 and 1990.4 lineages; the 1990.4 lineage diversified into 1990.4.A–F clades. Additional introductions occurred in the 2010s, establishing the 2010.1 and 2010.2 lineages. Human zoonotic cases with swine IAV, known as variant viruses, have occurred from the 1990.4 and 2010.1 lineages, highlighting a public health concern. If a variant virus is antigenically drifted from current human seasonal vaccine (HuVac) strains, it may be chosen as a candidate virus vaccine (CVV) for pandemic preparedness purposes. We assessed the zoonotic risk of US swine H3N2 strains by performing phylogenetic analyses of recent swine H3 strains to identify the major contemporary circulating genetic clades. Representatives were tested in hemagglutination inhibition assays with ferret post-infection antisera raised against existing CVVs or HuVac viruses. The 1990.1, 1990.4.A, and 1990.4.B.2 clade viruses displayed significant loss in cross-reactivity to CVV and HuVac antisera, and interspecies transmission potential was subsequently investigated in a pig-to-ferret transmission study. Strains from the three lineages were transmitted from pigs to ferrets via respiratory droplets, but there were differential shedding profiles. These data suggest that existing CVVs may offer limited protection against swine H3N2 infection, and that contemporary 1990.4.A viruses represent a specific concern given their widespread circulation among swine in the United States and association with multiple zoonotic cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Infection of Wild White-Tailed Deer in New York City
Viruses 2022, 14(12), 2770; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14122770 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3343
Abstract
There is mounting evidence of SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans into many domestic, companion, and wild animal species. Research indicates that humans have infected white-tailed deer, and that deer-to-deer transmission has occurred, indicating that deer could be a wildlife reservoir and a source of [...] Read more.
There is mounting evidence of SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans into many domestic, companion, and wild animal species. Research indicates that humans have infected white-tailed deer, and that deer-to-deer transmission has occurred, indicating that deer could be a wildlife reservoir and a source of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. We examined the hypothesis that the Omicron variant is actively and asymptomatically infecting the free-ranging deer of New York City. Between December 2021 and February 2022, 155 deer on Staten Island, New York, were anesthetized and examined for gross abnormalities and illnesses. Paired nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies. Of 135 serum samples, 19 (14.1%) indicated SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and 11 reacted most strongly to the wild-type B.1 lineage. Of the 71 swabs, 8 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (4 Omicron and 4 Delta). Two of the animals had active infections and robust neutralizing antibodies, revealing evidence of reinfection or early seroconversion in deer. Variants of concern continue to circulate among and may reinfect US deer populations, and establish enzootic transmission cycles in the wild: this warrants a coordinated One Health response, to proactively surveil, identify, and curtail variants of concern before they can spill back into humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
Risk of Viral Infectious Diseases from Live Bats, Primates, Rodents and Carnivores for Sale in Indonesian Wildlife Markets
Viruses 2022, 14(12), 2756; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14122756 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Southeast Asia is considered a global hotspot of emerging zoonotic diseases. There, wildlife is commonly traded under poor sanitary conditions in open markets; these markets have been considered ‘the perfect storm’ for zoonotic disease transmission. We assessed the potential of wildlife trade in [...] Read more.
Southeast Asia is considered a global hotspot of emerging zoonotic diseases. There, wildlife is commonly traded under poor sanitary conditions in open markets; these markets have been considered ‘the perfect storm’ for zoonotic disease transmission. We assessed the potential of wildlife trade in spreading viral diseases by quantifying the number of wild animals of four mammalian orders (Rodentia, Chiroptera, Carnivora and Primates) on sale in 14 Indonesian wildlife markets and identifying zoonotic viruses potentially hosted by these animals. We constructed a network analysis to visualize the animals that are traded alongside each other that may carry similar viruses. We recorded 6725 wild animals of at least 15 species on sale. Cities and markets with larger human population and number of stalls, respectively, offered more individuals for sale. Eight out of 15 animal taxa recorded are hosts of 17 zoonotic virus species, nine of which can infect more than one species as a host. The network analysis showed that long-tailed macaque has the greatest potential for spreading viral diseases, since it is simultaneously the most traded species, sold in 13/14 markets, and a potential host for nine viruses. It is traded alongside pig-tailed macaques in three markets, with which it shares six viruses in common (Cowpox, Dengue, Hepatitis E, Herpes B, Simian foamy, and Simian retrovirus type D). Short-nosed fruit bats and large flying foxes are potential hosts of Nipah virus and are also sold in large quantities in 10/14 markets. This study highlights the need for better surveillance and sanitary conditions to avoid the negative health impacts of unregulated wildlife markets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
Rabies Virus Populations in Humans and Mice Show Minor Inter-Host Variability within Various Central Nervous System Regions and Peripheral Tissues
Viruses 2022, 14(12), 2661; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14122661 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Rabies virus (RABV) has a broad host range and infects multiple cell types throughout the infection cycle. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and minor variant analysis are powerful tools for studying virus populations within specific hosts and tissues, leading to novel insights into the mechanisms [...] Read more.
Rabies virus (RABV) has a broad host range and infects multiple cell types throughout the infection cycle. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and minor variant analysis are powerful tools for studying virus populations within specific hosts and tissues, leading to novel insights into the mechanisms of host-switching and key factors for infecting specific cell types. In this study we investigated RABV populations and minor variants in both original (non-passaged) samples and in vitro-passaged isolates of various CNS regions (hippocampus, medulla oblongata and spinal cord) of a fatal human rabies case, and of multiple CNS and non-CNS tissues of experimentally infected mice. No differences in virus populations were detected between the human CNS regions, and only one non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected in the fifth in vitro passage of virus isolated from the spinal cord. However, the appearance of this SNP shows the importance of sequencing newly passaged virus stocks before further use. Similarly, we did not detect apparent differences in virus populations isolated from different CNS and non-CNS tissues of experimentally infected mice. Sequencing of viruses obtained from pharyngeal swab and salivary gland proved difficult, and we propose methods for improving sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
Interspecies Transmission from Pigs to Ferrets of Antigenically Distinct Swine H1 Influenza A Viruses with Reduced Reactivity to Candidate Vaccine Virus Antisera as Measures of Relative Zoonotic Risk
Viruses 2022, 14(11), 2398; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112398 - 29 Oct 2022
Viewed by 808
Abstract
During the last decade, endemic swine H1 influenza A viruses (IAV) from six different genetic clades of the hemagglutinin gene caused zoonotic infections in humans. The majority of zoonotic events with swine IAV were restricted to a single case with no subsequent transmission. [...] Read more.
During the last decade, endemic swine H1 influenza A viruses (IAV) from six different genetic clades of the hemagglutinin gene caused zoonotic infections in humans. The majority of zoonotic events with swine IAV were restricted to a single case with no subsequent transmission. However, repeated introduction of human-seasonal H1N1, continual reassortment between endemic swine IAV, and subsequent drift in the swine host resulted in highly diverse swine IAV with human-origin genes that may become a risk to the human population. To prepare for the potential of a future swine-origin IAV pandemic in humans, public health laboratories selected candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) for use as vaccine seed strains. To assess the pandemic risk of contemporary US swine H1N1 or H1N2 strains, we quantified the genetic diversity of swine H1 HA genes, and identified representative strains from each circulating clade. We then characterized the representative swine IAV against human seasonal vaccine and CVV strains using ferret antisera in hemagglutination inhibition assays (HI). HI assays revealed that 1A.3.3.2 (pdm09) and 1B.2.1 (delta-2) demonstrated strong cross reactivity to human seasonal vaccines or CVVs. However, swine IAV from three clades that represent more than 50% of the detected swine IAVs in the USA showed significant reduction in cross-reactivity compared to the closest CVV virus: 1A.1.1.3 (alpha-deletion), 1A.3.3.3-clade 3 (gamma), and 1B.2.2.1 (delta-1a). Representative viruses from these three clades were further characterized in a pig-to-ferret transmission model and shown to exhibit variable transmission efficiency. Our data prioritize specific genotypes of swine H1N1 and H1N2 to further investigate in the risk they pose to the human population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
Drivers of Spatial Expansions of Vampire Bat Rabies in Colombia
Viruses 2022, 14(11), 2318; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112318 - 22 Oct 2022
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Spatial expansions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) are increasing the risk of lethal infections in livestock and humans in Latin America. Identifying the drivers of these expansions could improve current approaches to surveillance and prevention. We aimed to identify if VBR spatial expansions [...] Read more.
Spatial expansions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) are increasing the risk of lethal infections in livestock and humans in Latin America. Identifying the drivers of these expansions could improve current approaches to surveillance and prevention. We aimed to identify if VBR spatial expansions are occurring in Colombia and test factors associated with these expansions. We analyzed 2336 VBR outbreaks in livestock reported to the National Animal Health Agency (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario—ICA) affecting 297 municipalities from 2000–2019. The area affected by VBR changed through time and was correlated to the reported number of outbreaks each year. Consistent with spatial expansions, some municipalities reported VBR outbreaks for the first time each year and nearly half of the estimated infected area in 2010–2019 did not report outbreaks in the previous decade. However, the number of newly infected municipalities decreased between 2000–2019, suggesting decelerating spatial expansions. Municipalities infected later had lower cattle populations and were located further from the local reporting offices of the ICA. Reducing the VBR burden in Colombia requires improving vaccination coverage in both endemic and newly infected areas while improving surveillance capacity in increasingly remote areas with lower cattle populations where rabies is emerging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Article
Climate Anomalies and Spillover of Bat-Borne Viral Diseases in the Asia–Pacific Region and the Arabian Peninsula
Viruses 2022, 14(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14051100 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 1537
Abstract
Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the [...] Read more.
Climate variability and anomalies are known drivers of the emergence and outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential association between climate factors and anomalies, including El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and land surface temperature anomalies, as well as the emergence and spillover events of bat-borne viral diseases in humans and livestock in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Our findings from time series analyses, logistic regression models, and structural equation modelling revealed that the spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were differently impacted by climate variability and with different time lags. We also used event coincidence analysis to show that the emergence events of most bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula were statistically associated with ENSO climate anomalies. Spillover patterns of the Nipah virus in Bangladesh and the Hendra virus in Australia were also significantly associated with these events, although the pattern and co-influence of other climate factors differed. Our results suggest that climate factors and anomalies may create opportunities for virus spillover from bats to livestock and humans. Ongoing climate change and the future intensification of El Niño events will therefore potentially increase the emergence and spillover of bat-borne viral diseases in the Asia–Pacific region and the Arabian Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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Review

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Review
SARS-CoV-2 at the Human–Animal Interface: Implication for Global Public Health from an African Perspective
Viruses 2022, 14(11), 2473; https://doi.org/10.3390/v14112473 - 09 Nov 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the most far-reaching public health crisis of modern times. Several efforts are underway to unravel its root cause as well as to proffer adequate preventive or inhibitive measures. Zoonotic spillover of the causative virus from [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the most far-reaching public health crisis of modern times. Several efforts are underway to unravel its root cause as well as to proffer adequate preventive or inhibitive measures. Zoonotic spillover of the causative virus from an animal reservoir to the human population is being studied as the most likely event leading to the pandemic. Consequently, it is important to consider viral evolution and the process of spread within zoonotic anthropogenic transmission cycles as a global public health impact. The diverse routes of interspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 offer great potential for a future reservoir of pandemic viruses evolving from the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic circulation. To mitigate possible future infectious disease outbreaks in Africa and elsewhere, there is an urgent need for adequate global surveillance, prevention, and control measures that must include a focus on known and novel emerging zoonotic pathogens through a one health approach. Human immunization efforts should be approached equally through the transfer of cutting-edge technology for vaccine manufacturing throughout the world to ensure global public health and one health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Zoonoses: Interactions and Factors Driving Virus Transmission)
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