Special Issue "Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immunity, Re-infection, Treatment and Vaccines"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Norbert J. Roberts, Jr.
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
Interests: influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, viral pathogenesis, monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes
Dr. Leonard R. Krilov
Website
Guest Editor
NYU Long Island School of Medicine, Mineola, NY, USA
Interests: respiratory syncytial virus; influenza virus; clinical trials; respiratory virus vaccines; RSV-related inflammation and immune responses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infections worldwide, with the most severe cases occurring in the very young and in elderly individuals. Infants and children having their first encounter with the virus are more likely to develop bronchiolitis and pneumonia, and even die. However, most deaths overall occur with infections of the elderly. In addition, immunocompromised individuals of any age are at greater risk of adverse outcomes.

RSV re-infection occurs throughout life, but subsequent infections are commonly less severe than the initial episode as a result of the immune response that is established after exposure to the virus. However, the immune response is not able to prevent clinical re-infection even in the absence of RSV strain variation. This aspect makes it important to delineate as much as possible the immune response and correlates of protection, and it also suggests that RSV candidate vaccines that are being developed may not and perhaps should not be expected to prevent clinical re-infection. Such candidate vaccines should render a first infection in the young person less severe, akin to subsequent infections after a natural first encounter in childhood. Such vaccines may also be expected to boost potentially waning immunity in the elderly, used at intervals to promote patient survival with the natural RSV infection.

The aim of this Special Issue of Viruses is to contribute to current knowledge regarding innate and adaptive immunity to RSV, the mechanisms used by the virus to accomplish re-infection, treatment approaches directed at RSV or designed to counteract the suppression of immune responses by RSV, and approaches to vaccine development that are likely to benefit the host upon subsequent natural challenge. Research articles, review articles, as well as short communications are invited. Reports on promising candidate RSV vaccines are encouraged.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. All manuscripts undergo a single-blind peer-review process. Papers belonging to a Special Issue are published online in the Viruses journal immediately after acceptance and collected together on the Special Issue webpage. This means that there is no delay for authors who submit their work. It will appear shortly after acceptance, even if other papers in the Special Issue are still being processed. The Article Processing Charge for publication in this open access journal, Viruses (IF 3.811), is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). 

Dr. Norbert J. Roberts, Jr.
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • RSV pathogenesis
  • Innate immunity to RSV
  • Adaptive immunity to RSV
  • RSV re-infection
  • RSV therapy
  • RSV vaccines

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) G Protein Vaccines With Central Conserved Domain Mutations Induce CX3C-CX3CR1 Blocking Antibodies
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020352 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause bronchiolitis, pneumonia, morbidity, and some mortality, primarily in infants and the elderly, for which no vaccine is available. The RSV attachment (G) protein contains a central conserved domain (CCD) with a CX3C motif implicated in the [...] Read more.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause bronchiolitis, pneumonia, morbidity, and some mortality, primarily in infants and the elderly, for which no vaccine is available. The RSV attachment (G) protein contains a central conserved domain (CCD) with a CX3C motif implicated in the induction of protective antibodies, thus vaccine candidates containing the G protein are of interest. This study determined if mutations in the G protein CCD would mediate immunogenicity while inducing G protein CX3C-CX3CR1 blocking antibodies. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with structurally-guided, rationally designed G proteins with CCD mutations. The results show that these G protein immunogens induce a substantial anti-G protein antibody response, and using serum IgG from the vaccinated mice, these antibodies are capable of blocking the RSV G protein CX3C-CX3CR1 binding while not interfering with CX3CL1, fractalkine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: Evidence from an Indonesian Cohort
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020331 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Although risk factors for hospitalization from a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are well known, RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in the community are much less studied or understood, especially in developing countries. In a prospective, cohort study we studied factors predisposing Indonesian [...] Read more.
Although risk factors for hospitalization from a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are well known, RSV lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in the community are much less studied or understood, especially in developing countries. In a prospective, cohort study we studied factors predisposing Indonesian infants and children under 5 years of age to developing RSV LRIs. Subjects were enrolled in two cohorts: a birth cohort and a cross-sectional cohort of children <48 months of age. Subjects were visited weekly at home to identify any LRI, using the World Health Organization’s criteria. RSV etiology was determined through analysis of nasal washings by enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for the development of the first documented RSV LRI were identified by multivariate analysis using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard modeling. Of the 2014 children studied, 999 were enrolled within 30 days of birth. There were 149 first episodes of an RSV. Risk factors for an RSV LRI were poverty (p < 0.01), use of kerosene as a cooking fuel (p < 0.05), and household ownership of rabbits and chickens (p < 0.01). Our findings suggested that in a middle-income country such as Indonesia, with a substantial burden of RSV morbidity and mortality, lower socioeconomic status, environmental air quality, and animal exposure are predisposing factors for developing an RSV LRI. Full article
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