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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Characterization and Evolutionary Analyses of Carnivore Protoparvovirus 1 NS1 Gene

1
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia “A.Mirri”, Via Gino Marinuzzi n. 3, 90129 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Ave., St. John’s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Strada provinciale per Casamassima Km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11040308
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 is the etiological agent of a severe disease of terrestrial carnivores. This unique specie encompasses canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV). Studies widely analyzed the main capsid protein (VP2), but limited information is available on the nonstructural genes (NS1/NS2). This paper analyzed the NS1 gene sequence of FPLV and CPV strains collected in Italy in 2009–2017, along with worldwide related sequences. Differently from VP2, only one NS1 amino-acid residue (248) clearly and constantly distinguished FPLV from CPV-2, while five possible convergent amino-acid changes were observed that may affect the functional domains of the NS1. Some synonymous mutation in NS1 were non-synonymous in NS2 and vice versa. No evidence for recombination between the two lineages was found, and the predominance of negative selection pressure on NS1 proteins was observed, with low and no overlap between the two lineages in negatively and positively selected codons, respectively. More sites were under selection in the CPV-2 lineage. NS1 phylogenetic analysis showed divergent evolution between FPLV and CPV, and strains were clustered mostly by country and year of detection. We highlight the importance of obtaining the NS1/NS2 coding sequence in molecular epidemiology investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carnivore protoparvovirus 1; canine parvovirus; feline panleukopenia virus; NS1; NS2; sequence analysis; evolution Carnivore protoparvovirus 1; canine parvovirus; feline panleukopenia virus; NS1; NS2; sequence analysis; evolution
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Mira, F.; Canuti, M.; Purpari, G.; Cannella, V.; Di Bella, S.; Occhiogrosso, L.; Schirò, G.; Chiaramonte, G.; Barreca, S.; Pisano, P.; Lastra, A.; Decaro, N.; Guercio, A. Molecular Characterization and Evolutionary Analyses of Carnivore Protoparvovirus 1 NS1 Gene. Viruses 2019, 11, 308.

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