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Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Presence of a Novel Ungulate Bocaparvovirus in Alpacas

1
Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080701
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Parvovirus Research)
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Abstract

Viruses belonging to the genus Bocaparvovirus (BoV) are a genetically diverse group of DNA viruses known to cause respiratory, enteric, and neurological diseases in animals, including humans. An intestinal sample from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd with reoccurring diarrhea and respiratory disease was submitted for next-generation sequencing, revealing the presence of a BoV strain. The alpaca BoV strain (AlBoV) had a 58.58% whole genome nucleotide percent identity to a camel BoV from Dubai, belonging to a tentative ungulate BoV 8 species (UBoV8). Recombination events were lacking with other UBoV strains. The AlBoV genome was comprised of the NS1, NP1, and VP1 proteins. The NS1 protein had the highest amino acid percent identity range (57.89–67.85%) to the members of UBoV8, which was below the 85% cut-off set by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The low NS1 amino acid identity suggests that AlBoV is a tentative new species. The whole genome, NS1, NP1, and VP1 phylogenetic trees illustrated distinct branching of AlBoV, sharing a common ancestor with UBoV8. Walker loop and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) motifs that are vital for virus infectivity were identified in NS1 and VP1 proteins, respectively. Our study reports a novel BoV strain in an alpaca intestinal sample and highlights the need for additional BoV research. View Full-Text
Keywords: alpaca; virus; Bocaparvovirus; genome; next-generation sequencing; metagenomics alpaca; virus; Bocaparvovirus; genome; next-generation sequencing; metagenomics
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Kumar, D.; Chaudhary, S.; Lu, N.; Duff, M.; Heffel, M.; McKinney, C.A.; Bedenice, D.; Marthaler, D. Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Presence of a Novel Ungulate Bocaparvovirus in Alpacas. Viruses 2019, 11, 701.

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