Early Diagnosis and Surveillance of Transboundary and Emerging Viral Diseases of Animals

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 1025

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, National Center for Foreign Animal Disease, Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Interests: transboundary and emerging animal diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rapid and accurate identification is critical for the effective control and eradication of transboundary and emerging viral diseases. Most of these diseases cannot be differentially identified based on clinical signs, especially during the early stages of infection. The currently available diagnostic assays for transboundary viral diseases of animals are highly specific and sensitive; however, they are almost exclusively performed in central laboratories using sophisticated instrumentation by highly skilled laboratory staff. Some of the assays also requires the use of live virus and therefore cannot be performed outside high-containment laboratories, limiting their use. Furthermore, the sample types recommended for these assays are mostly based on individual animals, and therefore, the collection of these samples requires a substantial amount of human and financial resources, and often causes undue stress to the animals. Hence, in order to enhance surveillance for transboundary diseases in both endemic and disease-free countries, novel diagnostic tools and approaches are required.

In this Special Issue, we will focus on novel diagnostic approaches for the rapid detection of transboundary and emerging diseases, both in the laboratory as well as in the field. This Special Issue offers an opportunity for the scientists to share high-quality research in the areas of the development and/or validation of novel and/or improved diagnostic assays that can be used in both low- and high-containment laboratories or in the field (portable assays). This Special Issue also welcome studies conducted on the evaluation and/or validation of novel, alternative sample types that can be used for the early detection and/or the enhancement of ongoing surveillance of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. 

Dr. Aruna Ambagala
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diagnostics
  • surveillance
  • transboundary
  • emerging
  • animal diseases
  • virus
  • detection
  • validation
  • novel
  • sample types
  • alternative

Published Papers (2 papers)

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11 pages, 1746 KiB  
Article
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Henipavirus-Receptor EphrinB2 and Monoclonal Antibodies for Detecting Nipah and Hendra Viruses
by Wenjun Zhu, Greg Smith, Bradley Pickering, Logan Banadyga and Ming Yang
Viruses 2024, 16(5), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050794 - 16 May 2024
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Abstract
The Nipah virus (NiV) and the Hendra virus (HeV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases that can cause fatal infections in humans and animals. Early detection is critical for the control of NiV and HeV infections. We present the development of two antigen-detection ELISAs [...] Read more.
The Nipah virus (NiV) and the Hendra virus (HeV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases that can cause fatal infections in humans and animals. Early detection is critical for the control of NiV and HeV infections. We present the development of two antigen-detection ELISAs (AgELISAs) using the henipavirus-receptor EphrinB2 and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to detect NiV and HeV. The NiV AgELISA detected only NiV, whereas the NiV/HeV AgELISA detected both NiV and HeV. The diagnostic specificities of the NiV AgELISA and the NiV/HeV AgELISA were 100% and 97.8%, respectively. Both assays were specific for henipaviruses and showed no cross-reactivity with other viruses. The AgELISAs detected NiV antigen in experimental pig nasal wash samples taken at 4 days post-infection. With the combination of both AgELISAs, NiV can be differentiated from HeV. Complementing other henipavirus detection methods, these two newly developed AgELISAs can rapidly detect NiV and HeV in a large number of samples and are suitable for use in remote areas where other tests are not available. Full article
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12 pages, 1201 KiB  
Brief Report
Rapid Detection and Quick Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Using the VolTRAX Automated Library Preparation Platform
by Vivian O’Donnell, Jim L. Pierce, Oleg Osipenko, Lizhe Xu, Amy Berninger, Steven M. Lakin, Roger W. Barrette, Douglas P. Gladue and Bonto Faburay
Viruses 2024, 16(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/v16050731 - 5 May 2024
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Abstract
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a severe and highly contagious viral disease affecting domestic and wild swine. The current ASFV pandemic strain has a high mortality rate, severely impacting pig production and, for countries suffering outbreaks, preventing the [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a severe and highly contagious viral disease affecting domestic and wild swine. The current ASFV pandemic strain has a high mortality rate, severely impacting pig production and, for countries suffering outbreaks, preventing the export of their pig products for international trade. Early detection and diagnosis of ASFV is necessary to control new outbreaks before the disease spreads rapidly. One of the rate-limiting steps to identify ASFV by next-generation sequencing platforms is library preparation. Here, we investigated the capability of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ VolTRAX platform for automated DNA library preparation with downstream sequencing on Nanopore sequencing platforms as a proof-of-concept study to rapidly identify the strain of ASFV. Within minutes, DNA libraries prepared using VolTRAX generated near-full genome sequences of ASFV. Thus, our data highlight the use of the VolTRAX as a platform for automated library preparation, coupled with sequencing on the MinION Mk1C for field sequencing or GridION within a laboratory setting. These results suggest a proof-of-concept study that VolTRAX is an effective tool for library preparation that can be used for the rapid and real-time detection of ASFV. Full article
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