Special Issue "Alternative Approaches for the Treatment and Control of Endo and Ectoparasites of Farm Animals"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Stefania Perrucci

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2, Pisa 56124, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Gastrointestinal Nematodes, Eimeria, Sarcoptes, Psoroptes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The control of parasite infections of farm animals is still based mainly on the use of synthetic short- and large-spectrum drugs. However, when used in excess, this strategy imposes a risk to environmental and food safety, due to residues in animal products and in the environment and a selection pressure for parasite resistance. The different alternative approaches can either target parasite populations in the host or on pasture, with the final aim to reduce parasite intensity to levels able to minimize endo and ectoparasite impact on host health, welfare and performance. This aim can be achieved through methods that enhance host immunity, such as nutrition, genetic selection and vaccination, by targeted selective treatment strategies, and by using bioactive forages and natural bioactive treatments. The greatest advantage of natural products with anti-parasite action is that they generally show low toxicity for mammals, fast elimination from the animal and the environment, and low selection pressure for parasite-resistance. Although a large number of reports have shown the great potential of natural active compounds and of alternative strategies for parasite control, these topics still need to be fully explored against farm animal parasites.

This Special Issue “Alternative Approaches for the Treatment and Control of Endo and Ectoparasites of Farm Animals” addresses this need to strengthen the flow and exchange of information among veterinary clinicians of farm animals and parasitologists through publication of a selection of research articles on this topic. It is hoped that this Special Issue will further stimulate collaboration between scientists engaged in the control and treatment of farm animal endo and ectoparasite infections.

Prof. Dr. Stefania Perrucci
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Gastrointestinal Nematodes
  • Flukes
  • Coccidia
  • Mange Mites
  • Lice
  • Sheep
  • goat
  • cattle
  • horse
  • pig
  • rabbit
  • poultry

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anthelminthic Efficacy of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) Extracts on Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040089
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN (Trichostrongylus [...] Read more.
The anthelminthic efficacy of the crude extracts of Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R.Br (Acanthaceae) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep was investigated using the in vitro egg hatch inhibition assay. Faecal samples were collected from sheep with naturally occurring infection of GIN (Trichostrongylus spp., Chabertia ovina, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia spp.). Crude leaf extracts of H. forskaolii was obtained using increasing polarity solvents: n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform:methanol 9:1, methanol. Thiabendazole (0.2 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL) was used as a positive control and untreated GIN eggs in deionised water served as the negative control. All the extracts exhibited a weak ovicidal activity against GIN (less than 50% of egg hatch). Noteworthy, the n-hexane extract showed a percentage of inhibition of egg hatching greater than other extracts inhibiting the 30.8% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL showing a dose-dependent effect on nematode eggs hatching. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects of extracts used and to evaluate the ovicidal effects of other extracts of H. forskaolii. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Hydroalcoholic Extract and Its Efficiency against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030080
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. is a xerophylous plant that originated in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is popularly known in Brazil as “palma forrageira” (cactus pear) and plays a fundamental role in animal nutrition, mainly in the Northeastern semi-arid region of the [...] Read more.
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. is a xerophylous plant that originated in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is popularly known in Brazil as “palma forrageira” (cactus pear) and plays a fundamental role in animal nutrition, mainly in the Northeastern semi-arid region of the country. The plant has several uses since it presents bioactive compounds that confer biological and pharmacological properties. In this context, the cactus pear can also be considered a potential product to combat parasite infections. The objective of this study was to chemically characterize the O. ficus-indica hydroalcoholic extract (OFIEOH) and to determine its efficacy against gastrointestinal parasites using in vitro tests. Initially, the hydroalcoholic extract from cladode peels of O. ficus-indica was produced by maceration for 21 days. For the chemical characterization, colorimetric dosages were performed for carbohydrates, proteins, phenols and condensed tannins. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry/electron spray ionization (LC-MS/ESI) was used to characterize the polyphenolic profile of the OFIEOH extract. Fifteen compounds were identified in the OFIEOH extract, such as methyl, glycosylated and aglycone quercetin derivatives and aglycone and glycosylated kaempferol derivatives. Tri-glycosylated methyl quercetin derivatives were the main compounds identified. In vitro egg hatch (EHT) and larval migration tests (LMT) were used in a range of concentrations of OFIEOH from 12.5 to 100 mg/mL for EHT and 12.5 to 200 mg/mL for LMT. In addition, the LMT was used to test ivermectin (IVM) (from 11.4 to 57.1 µM), associated with the inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) for OFIEOH. The combination of OFIEOH (12.5 to 200 mg/mL) plus the IC50 of IVM was also tested. The efficacy of OFIEOH alone varied from 19.33 to 90.0% using the EHT. The LMT revealed an efficacy of 5.78 to 77.26% for the extract. Both tests showed a concentration-dependence inhibitory effect. We found a drug-extract antagonistic neutralizing effect when doses of IVM were added to OFIEOH (maximum efficacy of 73.78%), while a positive additive effect was observed when OFIEOH was added to the IC50 of IVM (IC50 of 82.79 for OFIEOH alone against an IC50 of 55.08 of OFIEOH + IVM). The data from this work indicate that OFIEOH alone may be considered as a suitable ecofriendly product to control gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, offering a more holistic approach to improve animal farming and welfare. The drug-extract interaction is also a promising therapeutic alternative, reducing the final dose to the host, with an optimum combination effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Four Plant-Derived Compounds against Sheep Gastrointestinal Nematodes
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030078
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
By using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT) and the larval mortality/paralysis test (LMT), the in vitro anthelmintic activity on sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) of four plant-derived pure compounds, mangiferin (at 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625%), rutin (at 1%, 0.75%, [...] Read more.
By using the egg hatch test (EHT), the larval development test (LDT) and the larval mortality/paralysis test (LMT), the in vitro anthelmintic activity on sheep gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) of four plant-derived pure compounds, mangiferin (at 0.25%, 0.125% and 0.0625%), rutin (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), quercetin (at 1%), and β-sitosterol (at 1%, 0.75%, 0.5%), was investigated. For comparison, untreated and treated (0.1% thiabendazole, 0.1% TBZ) controls were used. Six repetitions were made throughout the experiment. Data were statistically elaborated using the χ2 test. The concentration able to inhibit the development of the 50% of L1s to L3s and causing the mortality of the 50% of L3s (EC50) was also calculated. L3s recovered from untreated Petri dishes were identified at the genus level. In EHT, all tested compounds at all concentrations significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the hatch of the eggs when compared to the untreated controls, but none of them was as effective as 0.1% TBZ. In LDT, rutin (at 1%, 0.75% and 0.5%), mangiferin (at 0.25% and 0.125%), β-sitosterol (at 1%) and 0.1% TBZ completely prevented the larval development from L1 to L3 in respect to the untreated controls (p < 0.01). In LMT, all tested compounds significantly (p < 0.01) increased the death of L3s compared to the untreated controls, except for β-sitosterol at 0.5%. However, only rutin at all concentrations and 0.25% and 0.125% mangiferin were as effective as 0.1% TBZ. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Chabertia and Teladorsagia/Ostertagia GIS genera, were identified. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Sixteen Essential Oils against Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus Isolated from Poultry
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030062
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 18 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus are two pathogens largely present among poultry. They can cause mild or severe forms of disease, and are associated with significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and the in [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus are two pathogens largely present among poultry. They can cause mild or severe forms of disease, and are associated with significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activity of sixteen essential oils (EOs) and five mixtures against E. coli and A. fumigatus strains previously isolated from poultry. The study was performed with the following EOs: Aloysiatryphilla, Boswelliasacra, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula hybrida, Litsea cubeba, Ocimum basilicum, Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita, Pelargoniumgraveolens, and Syzygium aromaticum. Moreover, the following mixtures were also tested: L. cubeba and C. citratus (M1), L. cubeba and A. triphylla (M2), A. triphylla and C. citratus (M3), A. triphylla, C.citratus and L. cubeba (M4), S. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum (M5). One hundred and ninety-one compounds were identified in the tested EOs and mixtures. MIC determination found good anti-E. coli activity with C. zeylanicum (2.52 mg/mL), C. citratus (1.118 mg/mL), L. cubeba (1.106 mg/mL), M. piperita (1.14 mg/mL) and S. aromaticum (1.318 mg/mL) EOs. Among the mixtures, M5 showed the best result with a MIC value of 2.578 mg/mL. The best antimycotic activity was showed by A. triphylla (0.855 mg/mL), followed by C. citratus (0.895 mg/mL), while C. aurantium, M. piperita, B. sacra and P. graveolens did not yield any antifungal effect at the highest dilution. The mixtures exhibited no antifungal activity at all. This study shows promising results in order to use EOs in the environment for disinfection purposes in poultry farms and/or in hatcheries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Activity of 30 Essential Oils against Bovine Clinical Isolates of Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca blaschkeae
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020045
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Protothecal mastitis poses an emergent animal health problem in dairy herds, with a high impact on dairy industries, causing heavy economic losses. Current methods of treating protothecal infections are ineffective, and no drug is licensed for use in cattle. The aim of the [...] Read more.
Protothecal mastitis poses an emergent animal health problem in dairy herds, with a high impact on dairy industries, causing heavy economic losses. Current methods of treating protothecal infections are ineffective, and no drug is licensed for use in cattle. The aim of the present study was to check the antialgal activity of 30 chemically defined essential oils (EOs) against Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca blaschkeae isolated from the milk of dairy cows with mastitis. A microdilution test was carried out to estimate the antialgal effectiveness of the selected chemically defined EOs. The microdilution test showed different degrees of inhibition among the examined Prototheca species. The activity of some of the examined EOs seem interesting. In particular, Citrus paradisi yielded the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.75%) for both algal species. P. zopfii appeared to be more sensitive to EOs in comparison to P. blaschkeae. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of P. zopfii and P. blaschkeae to a wide range of EOs, obtained from different botanical families. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of EO-based formulations intended for the disinfection of both udder and milking products. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Phytochemical Molluscicides and Schistosomiasis: What We Know and What We Still Need to Learn
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040094
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Worldwide schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with approximately 67 million people infected and 200 million at risk of infection from inhabiting or transiting endemically active regions. Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East are the main transmission regions of [...] Read more.
Worldwide schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with approximately 67 million people infected and 200 million at risk of infection from inhabiting or transiting endemically active regions. Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East are the main transmission regions of Schistosoma mansoni. The fight against transmission through the use of molluscicides is not recent and has been advocated as the only activity with the possibility of interruption of transmission in small, epidemiologically active outbreaks. Euphorbia milii var. hislopii (syn. splendens) (Des Moulins, 1826) is the most promising for use in official schistosomiasis control programs according to the WHO. In this review, we show that an understanding of some how E. milii latex affects the snail vector and their parasites from a molecular level to field conditions is lacking. On the other hand, this type of treatment could also provide a rationale for the control of schistosomiasis and other parasitosis. Several publications contribute to enforcing the use of E. milii latex in endemic countries as a cheap alternative or complement to mass drug treatment with praziquantel, the only available drug to cure the patients (without preventing re-infection). Full article
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