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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Colostrum and Vitamins A, D3, and E on Early Intestinal Colonization of Neonatal Holstein Calves Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

1
US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA
2
Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: AgriBio Centre for AgriBioscience, Department of Animal, Plant and Soil Sciences, LaTrobe University, Bundoora 3086, Australia.
Current address: College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6040093
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
Exposure of neonates to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) via infected dams is the primary mode of transmission of Johne’s disease. Little is known about the impacts of feeding colostrum and supplemental vitamins on the gut microbiome in calves exposed to MAP. In the present study, calves were assigned at birth to one of six treatment groups: (1) Colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with five calves per treatment in a 14-day study. All calves were orally inoculated with MAP on days 1 and 3 of the study. Differences due to vitamin supplementation were not significant but treatment groups CR-A, CR-E, and CR-ADE had higher numbers of MAP-positive tissues overall. Shannon diversity indices demonstrated regional differences in microbial communities, primarily Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, between the ileum, cecum, and spiral colon of all calves. CD calves exhibited increased richness compared with CR calves in the cecum and spiral colon and harbored increased Proteobacteria and decreased Bacteroidetes in the mucosa compared with the lumen for all three tissues. Overall, supplementation with vitamins did not appear to influence gut microbiome or impact MAP infection. Feeding of colostrum influenced gut microbiome and resulted in fewer incidences of dysbiosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy calf; microbiome; colostrum; vitamins; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis dairy calf; microbiome; colostrum; vitamins; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stabel, J.; Krueger, L.; Jenvey, C.; Wherry, T.; Hostetter, J.; Beitz, D. Influence of Colostrum and Vitamins A, D3, and E on Early Intestinal Colonization of Neonatal Holstein Calves Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 93.

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