Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 12495

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Guest Editor
Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Interests: infectious diseases; immunology; epidemiology; mathematical modeling; diagnosis; biosensor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycobacterial diseases are a significant threat to humans and other animals. According to WHO statistics, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of human deaths worldwide, with 10 million people falling ill with TB in 2017, and 1.6 million dying from the disease. Bovine tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic risk and a significant economic threat to agricultural industries. Johne’s disease, a mycobacterial disease that mainly affects ruminants, is another economic threat to agriculture. Mycobacteria in wild species as diverse as seals and armadillos are of potential zoonotic concern.

Mycobacteria are sturdy organisms that can persist in the environment. Therefore, system-oriented solutions and One Health approaches are critically important for the control and eventual eradication of mycobacterial diseases. In this Special Issue, we will collect scientific works from a broad range of research fields to better understand the current challenges, opportunities, and successes in the research field of “Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals”.

Suitable topics for contributions to the Special Issue include:

  • Microbiology and genetics of mycobacteria
  • Host immunity against mycobacterial infection
  • Host–pathogen interactions
  • Host susceptibility
  • Experimental methods
  • Epidemiology and mathematical modeling of mycobacterial disease
  • Zoonotic risk
  • Diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination
  • Opportunities and alternatives for mycobacterial disease management and control

Contributions are not limited to the above list; we particularly encourage submissions with a focus on systems and/or One Health approaches in this field of study.

Prof. Dr. Shigetoshi Eda
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis microbiology immunology susceptibility epidemiology diagnosis control and management Johne's disease bovine tuberculosis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Histopathological Changes Associated with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Lymph Nodes Condemned at a Bovine Slaughterhouse
by Angélica M. Hernández-Jarguín, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Gloria M. Molina-Salinas, Ned I. de la Cruz-Hernández, José L. Palomares-Rangel, Alfonso López Mayagoitia and Hugo B. Barrios-García
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040172 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2945
Abstract
Background: non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infect humans and animals and have a critical confounding effect on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. The Official Mexican Standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-ZOO-031-1995) for food safety regulates Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, but not the NTM species. The [...] Read more.
Background: non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infect humans and animals and have a critical confounding effect on the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. The Official Mexican Standard (Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-ZOO-031-1995) for food safety regulates Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, but not the NTM species. The study’s objective was to isolate and identify the NTM present in condemned bovine lymph nodes in a slaughterhouse, characterize the histological lesions, and correlate bacteriological and microscopic findings with the antemortem tuberculin skin test. Methods: from 528 cattle, one or two pooled samples of lymph nodes from each animal were cultured for Mycobacteria spp. and processed for histopathology. Results: mycobacteria were isolated from 54/528 (10.2%) of the condemned lymph nodes; 25/54 (46.2%) of these isolates were NTM; 4 bacteriological cultures with fungal contamination were discarded. Granulomatous and pyogranulomatous inflammation were present in 6/21 (28.6%) and 7/21 (33.3%) of the NTM-positive lymph nodes, respectively. The species of NTM associated with granulomatous lymphadenitis were M. scrofulaceum, M. triviale, M. terrae, and M. szulgai, while those causing pyogranulomatous lesions were M. szulgai, M. kansasii, M. phlei, and M. scrofulaceum. Conclusions: the NTM infections can cause false-positive results in the tuberculin test because of cross immune reactivity and interference with the postmortem identification of M. bovis in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
14 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Serological Footprints of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Infections in Zoo Animals
by Marco Roller, Sören Hansen, Susanne Böhlken-Fascher, Tobias Knauf-Witzens, Claus-Peter Czerny, Ralph Goethe and Ahmed Abd El Wahed
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030117 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
Background: Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pose a significant risk to zoological collections. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a member of MAC and the causative agent of Johne’s disease. Despite many reports in animals kept in zoological gardens, systemic surveillance [...] Read more.
Background: Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pose a significant risk to zoological collections. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a member of MAC and the causative agent of Johne’s disease. Despite many reports in animals kept in zoological gardens, systemic surveillance has rarely been reported. Methods: In this study, archived serum samples collected from animal species at the Wilhelma Zoological and Botanical Gardens in Stuttgart, Germany, were screened for the presence of antibodies against MAC and MAP. In addition, molecular investigations were performed on necropsy, fecal, and environmental samples. Results: In total, 30/381 serum samples of various mammalian species were positive for MAC antibodies in ELISA, while one sample of a reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was positive in MAP-specific ELISA. Samples from many species were positive in pan-Mycobacterium real-time PCR (40/43 fecal samples, 27/43 environmental samples, and 31/90 necropsy samples). Surprisingly, no sample was positive in the MAP-specific molecular assays. However, two environmental samples from primate enclosures were positive in Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH)-specific real-time PCR. Conclusions: The results reveal serological indications of MAC infections in the zoological collection. However, the presence of a MAP-contaminated environment by a high-shedding individual animal or MAP-infected population is unlikely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
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6 pages, 710 KiB  
Communication
Seroprevalence of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies Against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Dogs Bred in Japan
by Takashi Kuribayashi, Davide Cossu and Eiichi Momotani
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030093 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 2663
Abstract
In this study, the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dogs bred in Japan was evaluated. Ninety-two non-clinical samples were obtained from three institutes and fifty-seven clinical samples were obtained from a veterinary hospital in Japan. [...] Read more.
In this study, the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in dogs bred in Japan was evaluated. Ninety-two non-clinical samples were obtained from three institutes and fifty-seven clinical samples were obtained from a veterinary hospital in Japan. Serum titers of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 isotype antibodies against MAP were measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IgG antibodies against MAP in non-clinical serum obtained from three institutes was observed to be 2.4%, 20% and 9.0%. Similarly, the IgG1 antibodies titers against MAP were observed to be 7%, 20% and 0%. Lastly, the IgG2 antibodies against MAP were observed to be 7%, 20% and 4.4%. No significance differences in these titers were observed among the three institutes. The IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies in serum obtained from a veterinary hospital were observed to be 55.3%, 42% and 42%, respectively. Significant differences were found between the non-clinical and clinical samples. The titers in the clinical samples showed a high degree of variance, whereas low variance was found in the non-clinical samples. The IgG antibody levels were thought to be induced following exposure to MAP-contaminated feed. The difference in titers between the clinical and non-clinical samples is likely to be related to the amount of MAP antigen contamination in dog foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
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11 pages, 2080 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Study of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Antibody Kinetics in Dairy Cattle Using Sera and Milk throughout the Lactation Period
by Md. Shohel Al Faruk, Young-hoon Jung, Tai-young Hur, Sang-suk Lee and Yong-il Cho
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030081 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle populations around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate MAP antibody kinetics in serum and milk samples throughout the lactation period in dairy cattle. The [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle populations around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate MAP antibody kinetics in serum and milk samples throughout the lactation period in dairy cattle. The samples were collected simultaneously from eight MAP-positive and two healthy MAP-negative (control group) cows. The MAP antibody was detected by using serum and milk ELISA. The serum and milk MAP antibody titers fluctuated between the positive and negative cut-off values in this study. Specifically, cattle with low MAP antibody titer (<100) showed fluctuation between the cut-off values. Variable changes of MAP antibody titer were also observed after parturition. Between the serum and milk MAP antibody titers, there was a positive correlation (R2 = 0.5358) observed throughout the assessment period. The milk MAP ELISA test had low diagnostic performance in cows with low MAP titer due to its weak correlation (R2 = 0.0198). Finally, this study suggest that the periodic MAP ELISA test is recommended for the application of Johne’s eradication program due to the fluctuating nature of MAP antibody kinetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Infections in Livestock, Companion, and Wild Animals)
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