Special Issue "Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Chrissanthy Papadopoulou
Website
Advisory Board Member
Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Greece
Interests: Food-Water microbiology, Foodborne-Waterborne diseases, Zoonotic diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance
Dr. Vangelis Economou
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hygiene and Technology of Foods of Animal origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Interests: food microbiology; safety and hygiene; antimicrobial resistance; zoonoses
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Hercules Sakkas
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Greece
Interests: microbiology; infectious diseases; foodborne–waterborne diseases; antimicrobial resistance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foodborne and waterborne diseases both in human and animal hosts are constantly occurring, despite the improved food and water processing practices. Salmonella remains a widespread pathogen in many animal species as well as in humans, but the nature of the risks to public health has changed due to changes in several factors such as resistance to antibiotics, transmission to humans via vegetable and fruit consumption, and changes in infecting serotypes. Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne-waterborne disease, but there is insufficient knowledge on the bacterial and host factors contributing to infection. E. coli O157:H7, and other VTEC serotypes, continue to be of major concern for public health, while though fortunately their prevalence is not so high, the disease can be life-threatening. Novel methods for rapid identification and differentiation of the VTEC strains are needed for effective containment of foodborne outbreaks. Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in animals and humans, presenting with diverse manifestations in different hosts, ranging from asymptomatic (cattle, horses) to symptomatic, causing congenital diseases or abortion (sheep, humans), ocular disease (humans), acute fatal disease (sea mammals, immunodeficient humans) and waterborne outbreaks (humans). Hepatitis E virus genotypes G3 and G4 are distributed worldwide infecting both humans and animals through contaminated water. This list is not limiting and other less frequent food (as brucellosis or tuberculosis by unpasteurised milk products) or water borne (e.g. Leptospirosis, Francisella tularensis) infections or intoxications by toxins from microorganisms (as for example Bacillus cereus or Staphylococcus aureus toxin) have also their importance and can be handled in this issue.

The majority of foodborne and waterborne diseases are transmitted from animals to humans through the contaminated food or water. Travel and movement of human and animal populations, environmental changes (altering land use patterns, urbanization, soil-water pollution due to animal and human wastes, climate change) are important factors in the world-wide spread of these diseases. People with immune disorders or other underlying chronic conditions are at particular risk and domestic animals particularly those of intensive breeding are at higher risk. Foodborne-waterborne pathogens shared between humans and animals signify the need to strengthen the One Health approach to efficiently guard public health and food safety at a global level.

This Special Issue on “Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases in Animals and Humans” addresses cutting edge research and review articles from leading scientists in the field of food and waterborne infections.

Prof. Dr. Chrissanthy Papadopoulou, DVM, MSc, PhD, Diplomate ECVPH
Dr. Vangelis Economou, DVM, PhD
Dr. Hercules Sakkas, MD, PhD
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Foodborne diseases,
  • Waterborne diseases
  • Animals
  • Humans

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4040065 - 07 Dec 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats) from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent [...] Read more.
Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats) from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 26.1, 36.3) of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3) of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2) was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9) compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3) for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar) spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p-value = 0.021). The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
Open AccessArticle
Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine)
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4040064 - 01 Dec 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or [...] Read more.
Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine) farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days) was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested) presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively). The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals) was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively). In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
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Open AccessArticle
Foodborne Norovirus State of Affairs in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4040061 - 25 Nov 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications [...] Read more.
The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) “risk dispersion” from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers. The information retrieved from the RASFF database on norovirus-contaminated food could prove helpful in the planning of future norovirus risk analysis endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
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Open AccessArticle
Raw Meat-Based Diets in Dogs and Cats
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4030033 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Feeding pets raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) is commonly practiced by many companion animal owners and has received increasing attention in recent years. It may be beneficial for the animals, but may also pose a health risk for both pets and their owners, as [...] Read more.
Feeding pets raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) is commonly practiced by many companion animal owners and has received increasing attention in recent years. It may be beneficial for the animals, but may also pose a health risk for both pets and their owners, as RMBDs may be contaminated by enteric pathogens—such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia—which are the most common zoonotic bacteria causing enteritis in humans. Little information exists on the prevalence of these pathogens in pet food, and thus one aim was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Yersinia in commercial RMBDs from retail stores. Little evidence also exists on the significance of raw meat feeding on the shedding of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and enteropathogenic Yersinia in the feces of pets, and therefore, the second goal was to study the presence of these pathogens in dogs and cats fed RMBDs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only sporadically detected Campylobacter, Salmonella, and enteropathogenic Yersinia in RMBDs. These pathogens were not found by culturing, indicating a low contamination level in frozen RMBDs. They were also detected in the feces of dogs and cats, but the association with feeding RMBDs to them remained unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
Open AccessArticle
Detection and Characterization of Histamine-Producing Strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Isolated from Mullets
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4020031 - 20 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured [...] Read more.
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd) is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured in the Ligurian Sea were characterized, and a method to detect histamine-producing Pdd from fish samples was developed. The histamine-producing potential of the strains was evaluated in culture media (TSB+) using a histamine biosensor. Subsequently, two strains were used to contaminate mackerel fillets (4 or 40 CFU/g), simulating a cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls. Sample homogenates were enriched in TSB+. The cultures were then inoculated on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS) and the dark green colonies were cultured on Niven agar. The violet isolates were characterized using specific biochemical and PCR based tests. All Pdd strains were histamine producers, yielding concentration varying from 167 and 8977 µg/mL in TSB+ cultures incubated at 30 °C for 24 h. Pdd colonies were detected from the inoculated mackerel samples and their histidine decarboxylase gene was amplified using species-specific primer pairs designed for this study. The results indicate that mullets can be source of Pdd and the fish retailers needs to evaluate the risk posed by cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Inquiring into the Gaps of Campylobacter Surveillance Methods
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4030036 - 19 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of [...] Read more.
Campylobacter is one of the most common pathogen-related causes of diarrheal illnesses globally and has been recognized as a significant factor of human disease for more than three decades. Molecular typing techniques and their combinations have allowed for species identification among members of the Campylobacter genus with good resolution, but the same tools usually fail to proceed to subtyping of closely related species due to high sequence similarity. This problem is exacerbated by the demanding conditions for isolation and detection from the human, animal or water samples as well as due to the difficulties during laboratory maintenance and long-term storage of the isolates. In an effort to define the ideal typing tool, we underline the strengths and limitations of the typing methodologies currently used to map the broad epidemiologic profile of campylobacteriosis in public health and outbreak investigations. The application of both the old and the new molecular typing tools is discussed and an indirect comparison is presented among the preferred techniques used in current research methodology Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
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Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Foodborne Disease and the Need for Greater Foodborne Disease Surveillance in the Caribbean
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci4030040 - 11 Aug 2017
Abstract
The Caribbean is a net importer of food, and with billions of dollars’ worth of food products being imported each year, territorial governments are now seeking to encourage local production of foods in an attempt to stem the loss of foreign exchange from [...] Read more.
The Caribbean is a net importer of food, and with billions of dollars’ worth of food products being imported each year, territorial governments are now seeking to encourage local production of foods in an attempt to stem the loss of foreign exchange from these economies with little resilience. The Caribbean, however, lacks the comprehensive food safety system that should be a corollary to successful food production. Regional authorities underestimate the burden of foodborne diseases especially on its workforce and major economic base, the tourism industry. Anecdotally after every mass event in the region, many officially unreported cases of gastroenteritis are recognized. This short communication makes the argument of the importance of food borne illnesses specific to the Caribbean, and improvements that could be made to surveillance to reduce negative outcomes associated with the food supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Waterborne Infections in Animals and Humans)
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