One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 24014

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Zoonoses, Universidad de León, 24007 Leon, Spain
2. Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Interests: parasitology; zoonoses and microbiology

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences - UVAS, Syed Abdul Qadir Jillani (Out Fall) Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Interests: zoonoses; influenza viruses; epidemiology; molecular epidemiology; tuberculosis; antimicrobial resistance; rabies; respiratory pathogens; emerging infections

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Sharkia Governorate, Zagazig 44511, Egypt
Interests: zoonoses; bacterial zoonoses; AIV; foodborne zoonoses; epidemiology; molecular epidemiology; toxoplasmosis; trypanososmiasis; antimicrobial resistance; biofilm formation; virulence genes; resistance genes

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Co-Guest Editor
Infection Medicine, Deaneary of Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
Interests: zoonoses; vector borne infections; parasitology; epidemiology; molecular epidemiology; trypanososmiasis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 200 zoonotic diseases have been described so far but this number is likely increasing and underestimated since new infectious agents able to cross the species barrier between animals and humans are frequently reported. The current Special Issue brings together papers that broaden our transversal knowledge on epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment of various bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonoses, among others. We especially welcome papers that address the transmission of parasitic and emerging zoonoses in developing countries. Articles which discuss the mechanistic pathways and development of novel drug targets against these diseases are also invited. Different types of manuscript submissions, including case reports, original research articles and reviews are welcomed. This will provide us with baseline data, new insights and innovative ways to combat this category of diseases in animals and humans.

Dr. Ewan MacLeod
Dr. Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy
Dr. Heba Ahmed Abdalla
Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • parasitology
  • microbiology
  • virology
  • pharmacology

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Value of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Patterns by Western Blotting Immunodetection in Treated Dogs Previously Infected with Leishmania infantum
by Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy, Stefania Zanet, Marco Poggi, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Maha S. Lokman, Anna Trisciuoglio and Ezio Ferroglio
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(12), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8120293 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2494
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a heterogeneous group of neglected tropical diseases with various clinical syndromes, which is caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of a female phlebotomine sandfly. Humans and several animal species are considered as reservoirs [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is a heterogeneous group of neglected tropical diseases with various clinical syndromes, which is caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of a female phlebotomine sandfly. Humans and several animal species are considered as reservoirs of the disease. Among other animal species, dogs are the most important reservoirs in a domestic environment, maintaining the endemic focus of the parasite. The behavior of the disease progression and the clinical symptoms of the disease in the infected dog is mainly associated with depressed cellular immunity and strong humoral response. This study aimed to assess the role of Western blotting in the analysis of the idiotype expression of the two main immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgG2) in dogs that are naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) and treated with N-methyl meglumine antimoniate. Interestingly, for the first time, our study identified several L. infantum antigen polypeptides (14, 31, 33, 49, 64, 66, 99, and 169 kDa) that more frequently stimulate an immune reaction in recovered dogs after treatment, whereas in the non-recovered group of dogs, four antigen polypeptides of L. infantum with molecular weights of 31, 49, 66, and 115 kDa with unfavorable prognosis were identified. Clearly, these interesting findings confirm the strong association between the detected immunodominant bands and the successful recovery in treated dogs that can be used for differentiating the treated dogs from the untreated dogs, as well as the markers of a favorable or unfavorable prognosis and, as a consequence, the prediction of the clinical outcome of the disease. Likewise, these data could be helpful in the implementation of novel vaccines from the detected antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
15 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Multispecies Q Fever Outbreak in a Mixed Dairy Goat and Cattle Farm Based on a New Bovine-Associated Genotype of Coxiella burnetii
by Benjamin U. Bauer, Michael R. Knittler, T. Louise Herms, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, Svea Matthiesen, Dennis Tappe, Martin Runge and Martin Ganter
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(11), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8110252 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
A Q fever outbreak on a dairy goat and cattle farm was investigated with regard to the One Health concept. Serum samples and vaginal swabs from goats with different reproductive statuses were collected. Cows, cats, and a dog were investigated with the same [...] Read more.
A Q fever outbreak on a dairy goat and cattle farm was investigated with regard to the One Health concept. Serum samples and vaginal swabs from goats with different reproductive statuses were collected. Cows, cats, and a dog were investigated with the same sample matrix. The farmer’s family was examined by serum samples. Ruminant sera were analyzed with two phase-specific enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs). Dominant immunoglobulin G (IgG) phase II levels reflected current infections in goats. The cows had high IgG phase I and II levels indicating ongoing infections. Feline, canine, and human sera tested positive by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Animal vaginal swabs were analyzed by qPCR to detect C. burnetii, and almost all tested positive. A new cattle-associated C. burnetii genotype C16 was identified by the Multiple-Locus Variable-number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA/VNTR) from ruminant samples. Additionally, a possible influence of 17ß-estradiol on C. burnetii antibody response was evaluated in goat sera. Goats in early/mid-pregnancy had significantly lower levels of phase-specific IgGs and 17ß-estradiol than goats in late pregnancy. We conclude that the cattle herd may have transmitted C. burnetii to the pregnant goat herd, resulting in a Q fever outbreak with one acute human case. The influence of placentation and maternal pregnancy hormones during pregnancy on the immune response is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
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12 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Feline Leishmaniosis in Northwestern Italy: Current Status and Zoonotic Implications
by Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy, Stefania Zanet, Marco Poggi, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Ahmad Agil, Anna Trisciuoglio and Ezio Ferroglio
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100215 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Leishmaniasis remains one of the major neglected tropical diseases. The epidemiological profile of the disease comprises a wide range of hosts, including dogs and cats. Despite several studies about feline Leishmaniosis, the role of cats in disease epidemiology and its clinical impact is [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis remains one of the major neglected tropical diseases. The epidemiological profile of the disease comprises a wide range of hosts, including dogs and cats. Despite several studies about feline Leishmaniosis, the role of cats in disease epidemiology and its clinical impact is still debated. The present study raises awareness about the impact of leishmaniasis in cats from an endemic region in of Northwestern Italy (Liguria). A total number of 250 serum and 282 blood samples were collected from cats, then assessed for Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) serologically using western blot (WB) and molecularly using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We also tested the association of Leishmania infection with some infectious agents like haemotropic Mycoplasma, Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) together with the hematobiochemical status of the examined animals. Interestingly, all tested animals were asymptomatic and out of 250 examined serum samples, 33 (13.20%) samples (confidence interval (CI) 95% 9.56–17.96%) were positive at WB for L. infantum, whereas of the 282 blood samples, 80 (28.36%) returned a positive PCR (CI 95% 23.43–33.89%). Furthermore, there was a statistical association between PCR positivity for L. infantum and some hematological parameters besides FIV infection as well as a direct significant correlation between Mycoplasma infection and WB positivity. Taken together, the present findings report high prevalence of L. infantum among cats, which reinforces the significance of such positive asymptomatic animals and confirms the very low humoral response in this species. In addition, the laboratory values provide evidence that infection by the parasite is linked to alteration of some hematological parameters and is correlated to some infectious agents. These data are of interest and suggest future research for accurate diagnosis of such zoonosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
11 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Zoonotic Disease Management and Infection Control Practices Among Veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates
by Ihab Habib and Zainab Alshehhi
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8050082 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4153
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess zoonotic disease management and infection control practices (ICPs) among veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A questionnaire was developed in SurveyMonkey, an online tool, and was distributed by email during February–May 2020 to 470 veterinarians practicing [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to assess zoonotic disease management and infection control practices (ICPs) among veterinarians in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A questionnaire was developed in SurveyMonkey, an online tool, and was distributed by email during February–May 2020 to 470 veterinarians practicing across the UAE. A total of 110 individuals completed the survey, giving a response rate of 23.4% (110/470). Results indicate that reported hand hygiene, sharps management, barrier or isolation practices, and personal choices for personal protective equipment (PPE) in common practice scenarios varied among practitioners. The majority (>75%) of veterinarians in all practice types reported always washing their hands before eating, drinking, or smoking at work. The survey revealed that 19% and 10% of large and small animal veterinarians indicated they sterilized and reused disposable needles. Veterinarians among all practices indicated high rates (75% to 80%) of recapping needles before disposal. When handling an animal suspected of having a zoonotic disease, most (90%) of small animal veterinarians reported always using practices such as isolating the animal and removing outwear before contact with other animals. However, only half (55%) of the large animal respondents reported always isolating the animal or sterilizing all equipment used on the animal of concern. Fewer than half of the large animal (35%) and mixed practice (44%) veterinarians indicated they would always be limiting human contact with the animal of concern. All of the small animal respondents reported full compliance with PPE while performing surgery and necropsy. Among large animal veterinarians, 44% reported not using respiratory or eye protection when aiding with parturition or handling conception products. Failure to use appropriate PPE when handling blood samples was the second most common noncompliant practice among large animal (39%) veterinarians and mixed practice (41%) respondents. Our study indicates a need for continuous education regarding ICPs in the veterinary community in the UAE. Better awareness of the risk of zoonotic disease exposure and options for managing this risk and liability issues could drive the adoption of infection control practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
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14 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Demographic and Pathogens of Domestic, Free-Roaming Pets and the Implications for Wild Carnivores and Human Health in the San Luis Region of Costa Rica
by Joseph Conrad, Jason Norman, Amalia Rodriguez, Patricia M. Dennis, Randall Arguedas, Carlos Jimenez, Jenifer G. Hope, Michael J. Yabsley and Sonia M. Hernandez
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8040065 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4583
Abstract
Habitat loss and degradation, restricted ranges, prey exploitation, and poaching are important factors for the decline of several wild carnivore populations and additional stress from infectious agents is an increasing concern. Given the rapid growth of human populations in some regions like Costa [...] Read more.
Habitat loss and degradation, restricted ranges, prey exploitation, and poaching are important factors for the decline of several wild carnivore populations and additional stress from infectious agents is an increasing concern. Given the rapid growth of human populations in some regions like Costa Rica, pathogens introduced, sustained, and transmitted by domestic carnivores may be particularly important. To better understand the significance of domestic carnivore pathogens for wildlife, we determine the prevalence of infection and possible mechanisms for contact between the two groups. The demographics, role in the household, and pathogens of pet dogs and cats was studied during three annual spay/neuter clinics in San Luis, Costa Rica. Most dogs were owned primarily as pets and guard animals, but ~10% were used for hunting. Cats were owned primarily as pets and for pest control. Both roamed freely outdoors. We detected high prevalences of some pathogens (e.g., carnivore protoparvovirus 1 and Toxoplasma gondii). Some pathogens are known to persist in the environment, which increases the probability of exposure to wild carnivores. This study demonstrated that domestic pets in San Luis, home to a number of protected and endangered wildlife species, are infected with pathogens to which these wild species are potentially susceptible. Additionally, results from our questionnaire support the potential for domestic and wild animal contact, which may result in disease spillover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)

Review

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21 pages, 2237 KiB  
Review
Insights into Leishmania Molecules and Their Potential Contribution to the Virulence of the Parasite
by Ehab Kotb Elmahallawy and Abdulsalam A. M. Alkhaldi
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8020033 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4549
Abstract
Neglected parasitic diseases affect millions of people worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Among other parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis remains an important public health problem caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of the female sand fly. [...] Read more.
Neglected parasitic diseases affect millions of people worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Among other parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis remains an important public health problem caused by the protozoa of the genus Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of the female sand fly. The disease has also been linked to tropical and subtropical regions, in addition to being an endemic disease in many areas around the world, including the Mediterranean basin and South America. Although recent years have witnessed marked advances in Leishmania-related research in various directions, many issues have yet to be elucidated. The intention of the present review is to give an overview of the major virulence factors contributing to the pathogenicity of the parasite. We aimed to provide a concise picture of the factors influencing the reaction of the parasite in its host that might help to develop novel chemotherapeutic and vaccine strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue One Health Approach to Veterinary Medicine)
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