Special Issue "Mechanisms of Tumor Escape from Host Immunity"
A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2016) | Viewed by 133797
2. Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Interests: clinical cancer immunology; cancer immunotherapy; extracellular vesicles; immuno-oncology; immune suppression in cancer; regulatory T cells; tumor-derived exosomes; tumor microenvironment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Special Issue in Cancers: Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression: An Achilles’ Heel of Current Immunotherapy
Special Issue in Cancers: Exosomes in Cancer Metastasis
This special issue of Vaccines is aimed at reviewing different mechanisms operating in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that are responsible for tumor escape from the host immune system. These mechanisms have emerged and have been identified in the last two decades, providing us with a broad repertoire of factors, receptors, ligands and nanoparticles that contribute to dysfunction of anti-tumor immune cells in the TME. Recent efforts to develop, test, move to the clinic and evaluate benefits of therapeutic anti-tumor vaccines for patients with cancer have been largely frustrating. There may be many reasons for this lack of therapeutic success with anti-tumor vaccines in man. Nevertheless, the main obstacle seems to be the presence in the TME of inhibitory signals that interfere with functions of immune cells, especially targeting freshly-minted tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in response to anti-tumor vaccines. While the presence of immunoinhibitory factors in the TME that are either tumor-derived or produced by normal cells re-programed by the tumor is well recognized today, the diverse nature and individual profiles of existing immunosuppressive programs are only now being discovered. The large diversity of immunosuppressive mechanisms and molecular pathways they engage at the level of the tumor type, stage, differentiation and progression might be taken to indicate that each human tumor operates its own immunosuppressive strategy and that this strategy changes as the tumor progresses and metastasizes. This would suggest the immunosuppressive mechanisms operating in the TME are personalized. If this is the case, then understanding and silencing of the inhibitory mechanisms each individual tumor engages becomes a necessary component of any anti-tumor therapeutic strategy, including anti-tumor vaccines. The fate of immune cells in the TME as well as success of anti-tumor vaccines will be strictly dependent on the complete or partial elimination of the prevalent immunosuppressive mechanisms that the individual tumor operates. The current understanding of these mechanisms is not complete, and efforts to dissect and understand their molecular and cellular regulation are ongoing. The contributions in this special issue are expected to provide much needed insights into the complexity of mechanisms that allow for tumor escape from host immunity and that interfere with cancer immunotherapies.
Prof. Dr. Theresa L. Whiteside
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- tumor microenvironment
- immune suppression
- checkpoint inhibition
- inhibitory factors
- regulatory T cells
- regulatory B cells
- myeloid-derived suppressor cells