Special Issue "Virus Immune Escape and Host Immune System"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.
Interests: Virus-host interactions; molecular virology; innate immune signaling pathways; molecular biology; microbiology; cell biology; immunology; oncolytic virotherapy and immunotherapy; cancer biology; development of therapeutic proteins
Virus-host interaction studies is a fascinating area of research. Hosts have numerous counter-measures against virus infections, viruses, on the other hand, have co-evolved to defend the host anti-viral innate and adaptive immune responses. In their natural host, viruses have learned to co-exist with the hosts; however, the same virus could cause severe disease and pathogenesis when infecting a new host. Such incidence might cause a severe burden on society. Recent discoveries made significant progress in finding novel virus-host interactions, more to be discovered and learned in terms of the development of vaccines against new emerging viruses. The understanding of virus-host interaction is particularly important for the recent developments in the use of viruses as potential therapeutics such as oncolytic viruses, gene therapy vectors, cancer vaccines, and treatment of emerging genetic and infectious diseases.
This special issue focuses on the recent findings of viral immune evasion strategies and host counter-measures to prevent virus infection. The goal is to enhance our understanding of the complex and fascinating interaction between the virus and host defense. Understanding virus-host interactions will eventually help to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics against life-threatening viral infections. This special issue invites contribution to these areas of research.
Prof. Masmudur M. Rahman
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Virus-host interactions
- Immune evasion
- Innate immunity Adaptive immunity
- Host anti-viral defenses
- Viral pathogenicity Vaccines
- Immunomodulatory proteins
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: NK cell memory to cytomegalovirus: implications for vaccine development
Authors: 1 Calum Forrest; 1 Ariane Gomes; 1 Matthew Reeves; 2 Victoria Male
Affiliation: 1 Institute for Immunity and Transplantation, UCL, Royal Free Campus, London NW3 2PF, UK
2 Department of Metabolism, Digestion & Reproduction, Imperial College, Chelsea & Westminster Campus, London, UK
Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that recognise and eliminate virally infected and cancerous cells. Members of the innate immune system are not usually considered to mediate immune memory, but over the past decade evidence has emerged that NK cells can do this in a number of contexts. Of these, the best-understood and most-widely accepted is the response to cytomegaloviruses, with strong evidence for memory to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) and several lines of investigation suggesting that the same is likely to be true of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The importance of NK cells in the context of CMV infection is underscored by the armoury of NK immune evasion genes encoded by CMV aimed at subverting the NK cell immune response. As such ongoing studies that have utilised CMV to investigate NK cell diversity and function have proven instructive. Here, we discuss our current understanding of NK cell memory with a focus on the response to cytomegaloviruses. We will then discuss the implications that this will have for the development of a vaccine against HCMV with particular emphasis on how a strategy that can harness the innate immune system and NK cells could be crucial for the development of a vaccine against in this high priority medical pathogen.
Title: Adaptation of H2N2 influenza viruses with different receptor specificities to MDCK cells: implications for the development of a cell-based pandemic H2N2 influenza vaccine
Authors: Victoria Matyushenko; Irina Isakova-Sivak; Ekaterina Stepanova; Larisa Rudenko
Affiliation: Department of Virology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg, 197376 Russia
Abstract: H2N2 influenza viruses caused a pandemic in 1957 due to the adaptation of avian influenza hemagglutinin from avian-type α2,3 to human-type α2,6 receptor specificity. These viruses have not circulated among humans for more than 50 years but are still found in avian reservoir, indicating their pandemic potential. It is known that at the beginning of a pandemic wave viruses with α2,3 and α2,6 receptor specificities can co-circulate, and the selection of one or another isolate for the development of a better pandemic influenza vaccine should be based on strong scientific evidence. Although the vast majority of influenza vaccines are produced in eggs, mammalian cell culture may be a preferred substrate for the production of pandemic influenza vaccines. Here we studied two variants of A/Singapore/1/57 (H2N2) virus which differed by their receptor specificity defined by three residues in the HA1 molecule: E156, Q226, G228 (Sing/EQG) for α2,3 avian-type and K156, L226, S228 (Sing/KLS) for α2,6 human-type receptor specificity. We conducted serial passaging of these viruses on MDCK cells and analyzed growth properties of plaque-purified clones in vitro and in vivo, as well as their immunogenicity and cross-reactivity in a mouse model. Adaptation to MDCK cells significantly increased viral titers in MDCK cells; however their receptor specificity was not affected. Viruses with α2,6 receptor specificity generated higher homologous HAI and IgG antibody titers compared to the viruses with α2,3 receptor specificity, but these antibodies could react only with the α2,6 viruses. In contrast, antibody induced by viruses with α2,3 receptor specificity had broad reactivity against all studied viruses. Although we detected an escape mutation P221S in a MDCK-adapted Sing/EQG variant, this mutant virus still induced serum antibodies with broad reactivity. The results of our study indicate that in the case of a new transmission of H2N2 avian influenza viruses to the human population and co-circulation of viruses with both receptor specificities, the variant with α2,3 specificity should be selected for the development of cross-reactive influenza vaccines.