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Review

The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Viral Infection and Transmission

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Centro di Eccellenza sui Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati (CEMIN), University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06123 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2019, 7(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030102
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus Immune Escape and Host Immune System)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been found to be released by any type of cell and can be retrieved in every circulating body fluid, namely blood (plasma, serum), saliva, milk, and urine. EVs were initially considered a cellular garbage disposal tool, but later it became evident that they are involved in intercellular signaling. There is evidence that viruses can use EV endocytic routes to enter uninfected cells and hijack the EV secretory pathway to exit infected cells, thus illustrating that EVs and viruses share common cell entry and biogenesis mechanisms. Moreover, EVs play a role in immune response against viral pathogens. EVs incorporate and spread both viral and host factors, thereby prompting or inhibiting immune responses towards them via a multiplicity of mechanisms. The involvement of EVs in immune responses, and their potential use as agents modulating viral infection, will be examined. Although further studies are needed, the engineering of EVs could package viral elements or host factors selected for their immunostimulatory properties, to be used as vaccines or tolerogenic tools in autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; exosomes; mechanisms of viral spreading; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); HCV extracellular vesicles; exosomes; mechanisms of viral spreading; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); HCV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Urbanelli, L.; Buratta, S.; Tancini, B.; Sagini, K.; Delo, F.; Porcellati, S.; Emiliani, C. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Viral Infection and Transmission. Vaccines 2019, 7, 102. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030102

AMA Style

Urbanelli L, Buratta S, Tancini B, Sagini K, Delo F, Porcellati S, Emiliani C. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Viral Infection and Transmission. Vaccines. 2019; 7(3):102. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030102

Chicago/Turabian Style

Urbanelli, Lorena, Sandra Buratta, Brunella Tancini, Krizia Sagini, Federica Delo, Serena Porcellati, and Carla Emiliani. 2019. "The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Viral Infection and Transmission" Vaccines 7, no. 3: 102. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7030102

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