Vaccines in Small Ruminants

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Vaccines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 23264

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Health, University of León, 24071 León, Spain
Interests: ruminants; vaccines; mycobacteria; paratuberculosis; protozoan diseases; toxoplasmosis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (CSIC-Universidad de León), 24346 Grulleros, León, Spain
Interests: ruminants; vaccines; toxopasmosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is a growing number of infectious or parasitic diseases of small ruminants (sheep and goats) in which the use of vaccines is the only efficient method for control or prophylaxis. In some of them, vaccines have been used for a long time, but new knowledge and new products are emerging for better efficacy. In other cases, new vaccination products are under development. Thus, this is an area where new achievements are appearing every day, and deserves a Special Issue of Vaccines.

This Special Issue “Vaccines in Small Ruminants” welcomes manuscripts in all areas related to recent scientific and technical progresses on vaccine research in sheep and goats, such as (but not limited to) vaccine development, trials, animal models, immune response, mechanisms of protection, evaluation, cross-reaction, vaccination compatible diagnosis (DIVA), etc. Both traditional and novel vaccines and adjuvants and every disease affecting these species are of interest.

Dr. Valentin Pérez
Dr. Julio Benavides
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sheep
  • goat
  • vaccine
  • virus
  • bacteria
  • parasites
  • adjuvant
  • trial
  • immune response

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 4048 KiB  
Article
Duration of Protective Immunity in Sheep Vaccinated with a Combined Vaccine against Peste des Petits Ruminants and Sheep Pox
by Zhanat Amanova, Kuandyk Zhugunissov, Kainar Barakbayev, Zhanat Kondybaeva, Zhanna Sametova, Yeraly Shayakhmetov, Dastan Kaissenov, Kuanysh Dzhekebekov, Asankadyr Zhunushov, Yergaly Abduraimov, Kunsulu Zakarya and Yerbol Bulatov
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 912; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080912 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2812
Abstract
In this study, the ability of the combined vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) (Nigeria strain 75/1) and sheep pox (SPP) (NISKhI strain) to form a protective immune response for 12 months in Kazakh breed fine-fleeced sheep aged 6–12 months was demonstrated. [...] Read more.
In this study, the ability of the combined vaccine against peste des petits ruminants (PPR) (Nigeria strain 75/1) and sheep pox (SPP) (NISKhI strain) to form a protective immune response for 12 months in Kazakh breed fine-fleeced sheep aged 6–12 months was demonstrated. The duration of the protective immunity of immunized sheep from PPR and from SPP was evaluated using a serum neutralization test (SNT), followed by testing of the resistance of vaccinated sheep to infection with the field strain Kentau-7 of the PPRV and the virulent strain A of the SPPV. The PPR antibody response was additionally measured by c-ELISA. A single immunization of sheep with a combined vaccine in a volume of 2.0 mL, containing the PPR and SPP vaccine viruses in the titers of 103.0 TCID50/mL, provided reliable protection of animals from two infections simultaneously for 12 months (observation period). At the same time, in sheep immunized with the combined vaccine, antibodies of PPRV persisted for up to 12 months, with slight fluctuations. The combined vaccine induced 100% clinical protection against the field strain of PPRV and the virulent strain of SPPV in immunized sheep for up to 12 months, while unvaccinated animals became ill with the manifestation of clinical signs specific to PPRV and SPPV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1177 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of Two Chlamydia abortus Subcellular Vaccines in a Pregnant Ewe Challenge Model for Ovine Enzootic Abortion
by Morag Livingstone, Sean Ranjan Wattegedera, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Kevin Aitchison, Cecilia Corbett, Michelle Sait, Kim Wilson, Francesca Chianini, Mara Silvia Rocchi, Nicholas Wheelhouse, Gary Entrican and David Longbottom
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080898 - 13 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3114
Abstract
Chlamydia abortus, the aetiological agent of enzootic abortion of ewes, is a major cause of reproductive loss in small ruminants worldwide, accounting for significant economic losses to the farming industry. Disease can be managed through the use of commercial inactivated or live [...] Read more.
Chlamydia abortus, the aetiological agent of enzootic abortion of ewes, is a major cause of reproductive loss in small ruminants worldwide, accounting for significant economic losses to the farming industry. Disease can be managed through the use of commercial inactivated or live whole organism-based vaccines, although both have limitations particularly in terms of efficacy, safety and disease-associated outbreaks. Here we report a comparison of two experimental vaccines (chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC) and octyl glucoside (OG)-COMC) based on detergent extracted outer membrane preparations of C. abortus and delivered as prime-boost immunisations, with the commercial live vaccine Cevac® Chlamydia in a pregnant sheep challenge model. No abortions occurred in either experimental vaccine group, while a single abortion occurred in the commercial vaccine group. Bacterial shedding, as a measure of potential risk of transmission of infection to naïve animals, was lowest in the COMC vaccinated group, with reductions of 87.5%, 86.4% and 74% observed for the COMC, OG-COMC and live commercial vaccine groups, respectively, compared to the unvaccinated challenge control group. The results show that the COMC vaccine performed the best and is a safer efficacious alternative to the commercial vaccines. However, to improve commercial viability, future studies should optimise the antigen dose and number of inoculations required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Vaccination of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Vaccines Does Not Protect against Fetal Infection after Challenge of Pregnant Ewes with Border Disease Virus
by Gilles Meyer, Mickael Combes, Angelique Teillaud, Celine Pouget, Marie-Anne Bethune and Herve Cassard
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080805 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Border Disease (BD) is a major sheep disease characterized by immunosuppression, congenital disorders, abortion, and birth of lambs persistently infected (PI) by Border Disease Virus (BDV). Control measures are based on the elimination of PI lambs, biosecurity, and frequent vaccination which aims to [...] Read more.
Border Disease (BD) is a major sheep disease characterized by immunosuppression, congenital disorders, abortion, and birth of lambs persistently infected (PI) by Border Disease Virus (BDV). Control measures are based on the elimination of PI lambs, biosecurity, and frequent vaccination which aims to prevent fetal infection and birth of PI. As there are no vaccines against BDV, farmers use vaccines directed against the related Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). To date, there is no published evidence of cross-effectiveness of BVDV vaccination against BDV infection in sheep. We tested three commonly used BVDV vaccines, at half the dose used in cattle, for their efficacy of protection against a BDV challenge of ewes at 52 days of gestation. Vaccination limits the duration of virus-induced leukopenia after challenge, suggesting partial protection in transient infection. Despite the presence of BDV neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated ewes on the day of the challenge, fetuses of vaccinated and unvaccinated sheep were, two months after, highly positive for BDV RNA loads and seronegative for antibodies. Therefore, BVDV vaccination at half dose was not sufficient to prevent ovine fetal infection by BDV in a severe challenge model and can only be reconsidered as a complementary mean in BD control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 4872 KiB  
Article
Nanoparticles (PLGA and Chitosan)-Entrapped ADP-Ribosylation Factor 1 of Haemonchus contortus Enhances the Immune Responses in ICR Mice
by Muhammad Waqqas Hasan, Muhammad Haseeb, Muhammad Ehsan, Javaid Ali Gadahi, Muhammad Ali-ul-Husnain Naqvi, Qiang Qiang Wang, Xinchao Liu, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho, Ruofeng Yan, Lixin Xu, Xiaokai Song and Xiangrui Li
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040726 - 2 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2348
Abstract
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (HcARF1) is one of the Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) excretory/secretory proteins involved in modulating the immune response of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of recombinant HcARF1 (rHcARF1) against H. contortus infection [...] Read more.
ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (HcARF1) is one of the Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) excretory/secretory proteins involved in modulating the immune response of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Here, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of recombinant HcARF1 (rHcARF1) against H. contortus infection in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Briefly, rHcARF1 was entrapped in poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NP) and injected into mice as a vaccine. Fifty-six ICR mice were assigned randomly into seven groups, with eight animals in each group, and they were vaccinated subcutaneously. At the end of the experiment (14th day), the blood and the spleen were collected from euthanized mice to detect lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine analysis, and the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Scanning electron microscope was used to determine the size, morphology, and zeta potential of nanoparticles. Flow cytometry was performed, which presented the increase percentages of CD4+ T cells (CD3e+CD4+), CD8+ T cells (CD3e+CD8+) and dendritic cells (CD11c+CD83+, CD11c+CD86+) in mice vaccinated with rHcARF1+PLGA NP. Immunoassay analysis show raised humoral (Immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2a, IgM) and cell-mediated immune response (Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and IL-17, and Interferon (IFN)-γ) induced by rHcARF1+PLGA NP. Experimental groups that were treated with the antigen-loaded NP yield higher lymphocyte proliferation than the control groups. Based on these results, we could propose that the rHcARF1 encapsulated in NP could stimulate a strong immune response in mice rather than administering alone against the infection of H. contortus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 4013 KiB  
Review
Immunomodulatory Strategies for Parapoxvirus: Current Status and Future Approaches for the Development of Vaccines against Orf Virus Infection
by Alhaji Modu Bukar, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mustapha M. Noordin, Zaharaddeen Lawan, Hassana Kyari Mangga, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan and Mohd-Lila Mohd Azmi
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111341 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5501
Abstract
Orf virus (ORFV), the prototype species of the parapoxvirus genus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, an extremely devastating skin disease of sheep, goats, and humans that causes enormous economic losses in livestock production. ORFV is known for its ability to repeatedly [...] Read more.
Orf virus (ORFV), the prototype species of the parapoxvirus genus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, an extremely devastating skin disease of sheep, goats, and humans that causes enormous economic losses in livestock production. ORFV is known for its ability to repeatedly infect both previously infected and vaccinated sheep due to several immunomodulatory genes encoded by the virus that temporarily suppress host immunity. Therefore, the development of novel, safe and effective vaccines against ORFV infection is an important priority. Although, the commercially licensed live-attenuated vaccines have provided partial protection against ORFV infections, the attenuated viruses have been associated with major safety concerns. In addition to safety issues, the persistent reinfection of vaccinated animals warrants the need to investigate several factors that may affect vaccine efficacy. Perhaps, the reason for the failure of the vaccine is due to the long-term adaptation of the virus in tissue culture. In recent years, the development of vaccines against ORFV infection has achieved great success due to technological advances in recombinant DNA technologies, which have opened a pathway for the development of vaccine candidates that elicit robust immunity. In this review, we present current knowledge on immune responses elicited by ORFV, with particular attention to the effects of the viral immunomodulators on the host immune system. We also discuss the implications of strain variation for the development of rational vaccines. Finally, the review will also aim to demonstrate future strategies for the development of safe and efficient vaccines against ORFV infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 741 KiB  
Review
Early Life Vaccination of Companion Animal Pets
by W. Jean Dodds
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020092 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5091
Abstract
Development of the immune system of mammalian animal species parallels that of humans and involves the innate and adaptive (acquired) immune responses acting together with the thymus gland. Consequently, issues surrounding the adequacy and safety of vaccinations to protect pet animals from their [...] Read more.
Development of the immune system of mammalian animal species parallels that of humans and involves the innate and adaptive (acquired) immune responses acting together with the thymus gland. Consequently, issues surrounding the adequacy and safety of vaccinations to protect pet animals from their relevant infectious diseases need to be addressed just as they are for humans. Pet animals, especially canines, also have unique needs because of the wide diversity of purebred and mixed breeds that vary greatly in size, type, temperament, and even maturation rates. Furthermore, pets in early life encounter a series of changes that can affect their development and induce stressors including parasite control, new homes and environment, novel foods, and the socialization that is essential at a time when vaccinations need to be given. While recognizing that this overall need is becoming more understood, current vaccination policy guidelines for companion animals are still only adhered to by about 40% of veterinarians worldwide. Clearly, vaccination of pets should no longer be considered as “one size fits all”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines in Small Ruminants)
Back to TopTop