Special Issue "Infectious Diseases Immunology"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines against Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Maria Antonia De Francesco
Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Institute of Microbiology, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, I-25123 Brescia, Italy
Interests: virus; bacteria; antibacterial resistance; antiviral resistance; molecular epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of an infectious disease is the result of complex interactions between pathogens and host immune system. It exists a dynamic equilibrium between immune system which elaborates mechanisms to eradicate infections and the evolution of different microbial strategies to overcome immune defences such as antigenic variation, resistance to phagocytic or complement killing and the production of enzymes inactivating some host cellular proteins.

Our immune system is able to enhance protective immunity against an almost unlimited number of pathogens comprising bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Immunity enhancing is traditionally obtained by using vaccines, even if other modalities of immune modulation are currently under investigation. Likewise, besides this friendly aspect (Mr. Hyde) of host immune system, there is a contradictory aspect (Mr. Jeckyll) where the immune system itself is responsible of disease and tissue damage because some microorganisms have evolved ingenious tools to subvert host’s immune responses for their own survival.

In this special issues, all papers, reviews, diagnostic methodologies able to shed new light both on the mechanisms able to enhance immunity or to elucidate the strategies adopted by pathogens to establish immune interference and induce persistent infections are welcome. Also all studies able to clarify the interrelationship between microorganisms and host immune responses are included.

Prof. Maria Antonia De Francesco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Infections
  • Vaccine
  • Immunomodulation
  • Immunopathogenesis
  • Immune evasion
  • Humoral immune response
  • Adaptive Immune response

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Antibody Response to Canine Parvovirus Vaccination in Dogs with Hyperadrenocorticism Treated with Trilostane
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030547 - 19 Sep 2020
Abstract
It is unknown how dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) respond to vaccination. This study measured antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs with HAC treated with trilostane before and after CPV vaccination, and compared the immune response to that from healthy dogs. Eleven dogs [...] Read more.
It is unknown how dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) respond to vaccination. This study measured antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs with HAC treated with trilostane before and after CPV vaccination, and compared the immune response to that from healthy dogs. Eleven dogs with HAC, and healthy age-matched control dogs (n = 31) received a modified-live CPV vaccine. Antibodies were determined on days 0, 7, and 28 by hemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis was used to compare the immune response of dogs with HAC and healthy dogs. Pre-vaccination antibodies (≥10) were detected in 100% of dogs with HAC (11/11; 95% CI: 70.0–100) and in 93.5% of healthy dogs (29/31; 95% CI: 78.3–99.2). No ≥4-fold increase in antibody titer was observed in dogs with HAC while in 22.6% of healthy dogs, a ≥4-fold titer increase was observed (7/31; 95% CI: 11.1–40.1). Mild vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) were detected in 54.5% of dogs with HAC (6/11; 95% CI: 28.0–78.8) and in 29.0% of healthy dogs (9/31; 95% CI: 15.9–46.8). There was neither a significant difference in presence of pre-vaccination antibodies (p = 1.000), or response to vaccination (p = 0.161), nor in the occurrence of VAAEs (p = 0.158). Immune function of dogs with HAC treated with trilostane seems comparable to that of healthy dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Open AccessArticle
Kinetics of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Titers in Nurse Students after a Two-Year Follow-Up
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030467 - 21 Aug 2020
Abstract
Infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented through a safe and effective vaccine. This study analysed the kinetics of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (anti-HBs) titers in relation to previous vaccine boosters in Italian nursing students who [...] Read more.
Infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be prevented through a safe and effective vaccine. This study analysed the kinetics of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (anti-HBs) titers in relation to previous vaccine boosters in Italian nursing students who were followed up for two years. Serum anti-HBs titers were evaluated at the first visit, after vaccine booster (if required) and at visit after two years. Overall, 483 students (mean age = 21.7 years; SD = 3.7) with median anti-HBs IgG titer of 6 mUI/mL (interquartile range (IQR) = 0–34) were enrolled. A total of 254 (52.5%) students with a titer lower than 10 mIU/mL were offered an anti-HBV booster at the first visit. Among these students, an exponential relation between anti-HBs IgG titer, one month after HBV booster and anti-HBs IgG titer two years later was found (y = 3.32 exp (0.0045x); R2 = 0.48; p < 0.001). Students with anti-HBV titer higher than 10 mIU/mL (N = 229) were followed up, and anti-HBs IgG titers at follow-up visit linearly correlated with anti-HBV baseline titers (y = 0.86x + 26.2; R2 = 0.67; p < 0.001). A decrease in anti-HBs titers can be expected a few years after the anti-HBV booster dose. This reduction is more pronounced than that observed in students not administered the booster dose and is exponential with respect to basal titers assessed after the booster dose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Hepatitis E Virus Mediates Renal Injury via the Interaction between the Immune Cells and Renal Epithelium
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030454 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
Renal disorders are associated with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Progression to end-stage renal disease and acute kidney injury are complications associated with HEV infection. The mechanisms by which HEV mediates the glomerular diseases remain unclear. CD10+/CD13+ primary proximal tubular [...] Read more.
Renal disorders are associated with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Progression to end-stage renal disease and acute kidney injury are complications associated with HEV infection. The mechanisms by which HEV mediates the glomerular diseases remain unclear. CD10+/CD13+ primary proximal tubular (PT) epithelial cells, isolated from healthy donors, were infected with HEV. Inflammatory markers and kidney injury markers were assessed in the presence or absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from the same donors. HEV replicated efficiently in the PT cells as shown by the increase in HEV load over time and the expression of capsid Ag. In the absence of PBMCs, HEV was not nephrotoxic, with no direct effect on the transcription of chemokines (Cxcl-9, Cxcl-10, and Cxcl-11) nor the kidney injury markers (kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and interleukin 18 (lL-18)). While higher inflammatory responses, upregulation of chemokines and kidney injury markers expression, and signs of nephrotoxicity were recorded in HEV-infected PT cells cocultured with PBMCs. Interestingly, a significantly higher level of IFN-γ was released in the PBMCs-PT coculture compared to PT alone during HEV infection. In conclusion: The crosstalk between immune cells and renal epithelium and the signal axes IFN-γ/chemokines and IL-18 could be the immune-mediated mechanisms of HEV-induced renal disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Serotype b Strains with Five Different, Including Two Novel, Leukotoxin Promoter Structures
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030398 - 20 Jul 2020
Abstract
The JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans, serotype b has attracted much interest during the past three decades due to its close association with periodontitis in young individuals and the enhanced expression of a leukotoxin (LtxA). A typical feature of this genotype is [...] Read more.
The JP2 genotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans, serotype b has attracted much interest during the past three decades due to its close association with periodontitis in young individuals and the enhanced expression of a leukotoxin (LtxA). A typical feature of this genotype is a 530-base pair (bp) deletion in the ltxCABD promoter region controlling leukotoxin expression. In the present work, we have characterized serotype b strains with four additional promoter types. Two novel types have been recognized, that is, one with a 230-bp deletion and one with a 172-bp duplication. Moreover, a strain with a 640-bp deletion and three strains with a full-length promoter, including the type strain Y4, were included in the present study. The seven strains were characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and assessed for LtxA production. MLST showed that the strains with the non-JP2-like deletions represented distinct monophyletic groups, whereas the JP2 strain, HK1651, represented a separate branch. LtxA production was high in all three strains with a promoter deletion, whereas the other four strains showed significantly lower levels. It can be concluded that the genetic characterization and determination of LtxA production of A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates from individuals with periodontitis can contribute to the identification of novel virulent genotypes of this bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Replication of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Primary Human-Derived Monocytes and Macrophages In Vitro
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020239 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
HEV is the most causative agent of acute viral hepatitis globally. HEV causes acute, chronic, and extrahepatic manifestations. Chronic HEV infection develops in immunocompromised patients such as organ transplant patients, HIV-infected patients, and leukemic patients. The source of chronic HEV infection is not [...] Read more.
HEV is the most causative agent of acute viral hepatitis globally. HEV causes acute, chronic, and extrahepatic manifestations. Chronic HEV infection develops in immunocompromised patients such as organ transplant patients, HIV-infected patients, and leukemic patients. The source of chronic HEV infection is not known. Also, the source of extrahepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection is still unclear. Hepatotropic viruses such as HCV and HBV replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and these cells become a source of chronic reactivation of the infections in allograft organ transplant patients. Herein, we reported that PBMCs and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), isolated from healthy donors (n = 3), are susceptible to HEV in vitro. Human monocytes (HMOs), human macrophages (HMACs), and human BMDMs were challenged with HEV-1 and HEV-3 viruses. HEV RNA was measured by qPCR, the marker of the intermediate replicative form (ds-RNA) was assessed by immunofluorescence, and HEV capsid protein was assessed by flow cytometry and ELISA. HEV infection was successfully established in primary HMOs, HMACs, and human BMDMs, but not in the corresponding cells of murine origin. Intermediate replicative form (ds RNA) was detected in HMOs and HMACs challenged with HEV. The HEV load was increased over time, and the HEV capsid protein was detected intracellularly in the HEV-infected cells and accumulated extracellularly over time, confirming that HEV completes the life cycle inside these cells. The HEV particles produced from the infected BMDMs were infectious to naive HMOs in vitro. The HEV viral load was comparable in HEV-1- and HEV-3-infected cells, but HEV-1 induced more inflammatory responses. In conclusion, HMOs, HMACs, and human BMDMs are permissive to HEV infection and these cells could be the source of chronic and recurrent infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. Replication of HEV in human BMDMs could be related to hematological disorders associated with extrahepatic manifestations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Tropomyosin: An Excretory/Secretory Protein from Haemonchus contortus Mediates the Immuno-Suppressive Potential of Goat Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells In Vitro
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010109 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
During host-parasite interactions, binding of excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) on the host immune cells is considered the fundamental phase for regulation of immune responses. In this study, gene encoding Haemonchus contortus tropomyosin (Hc-TpMy), was successfully cloned and expressed, and the recombinant protein after host [...] Read more.
During host-parasite interactions, binding of excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) on the host immune cells is considered the fundamental phase for regulation of immune responses. In this study, gene encoding Haemonchus contortus tropomyosin (Hc-TpMy), was successfully cloned and expressed, and the recombinant protein after host cell surface attachment was evaluated for immune functional analysis with goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. The isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-induced recombinant protein was successfully recognized by the sera of rat experimentally infected with rHc-TpMy. The immunofluorescence assay detected attachment of rHc-TpMy on the surface of host PBMCs. Furthermore, immunoregulatory roles of rHc-TpMy on cytokines expression, PBMC proliferation, migration, nitric oxide (NO) production, apoptosis and monocytes phagocytosis were observed. The results showed that expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ cytokines, cell proliferation, NO production and PBMC migration were significantly suppressed by goat PBMCs after co-incubation with rHc-TpMy protein. However, the productions of IL-10, IL-17 and TGF-β1 cytokines, PBMCs apoptosis and monocytes phagocytosis were elevated at dose dependent manner. Our findings indicated that rHc-TpMy is an important ES binding protein exhibit distinct immuno-suppressive roles on goat PBMCs which might be a potential molecular target to control haemonchosis in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Advances in the Development of Anti-Haemonchus contortus Vaccines: Challenges, Opportunities, and Perspectives
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030555 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
The gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a resident of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide that imposes significant production losses, economic losses, and animal health issues in the small ruminant industry, particularly sheep and goats. Considerable efforts have been [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a resident of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide that imposes significant production losses, economic losses, and animal health issues in the small ruminant industry, particularly sheep and goats. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how immunity is elicited against H. contortus infection. Various potential vaccine antigens have been tested by different methods and strategies applied in animal models, and significant progress has been made in the development of vaccines against H. contortus. This review highlighted and shared the knowledge about the current understanding of host immune responses to H. contortus and ongoing challenges in the development of a protective, effective, and long-lasting vaccine against H. contortus infection. We have also pinpointed some achievements and failures in the development and testing of vaccines, which will establish a road map for future research directions to explore new effective vaccine candidates for controlling and preventing H. contortus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Influenza–Host Interplay and Strategies for Universal Vaccine Development
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030548 - 20 Sep 2020
Abstract
Influenza is an annual epidemic and an occasional pandemic caused by pathogens that are responsible for infectious respiratory disease. Humans are highly susceptible to the infection mediated by influenza A viruses (IAV). The entry of the virus is mediated by the influenza virus [...] Read more.
Influenza is an annual epidemic and an occasional pandemic caused by pathogens that are responsible for infectious respiratory disease. Humans are highly susceptible to the infection mediated by influenza A viruses (IAV). The entry of the virus is mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein that binds to the cellular sialic acid receptors and facilitates the fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane. During IAV infection, virus-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by host intracellular specific sensors including toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) either on the cell surface or intracellularly in endosomes. Herein, we comprehensively review the current knowledge available on the entry of the influenza virus into host cells and the molecular details of the influenza virus–host interface. We also highlight certain strategies for the development of universal influenza vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Role of Opsonophagocytosis in Immune Protection against Malaria
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020264 - 30 May 2020
Abstract
The quest for immune correlates of protection continues to slow vaccine development. To date, only vaccine-induced antibodies have been confirmed as direct immune correlates of protection against a plethora of pathogens. Vaccine immunologists, however, have learned through extensive characterizations of humoral responses that [...] Read more.
The quest for immune correlates of protection continues to slow vaccine development. To date, only vaccine-induced antibodies have been confirmed as direct immune correlates of protection against a plethora of pathogens. Vaccine immunologists, however, have learned through extensive characterizations of humoral responses that the quantitative assessment of antibody responses alone often fails to correlate with protective immunity or vaccine efficacy. Despite these limitations, the simple measurement of post-vaccination antibody titers remains the most widely used approaches for vaccine evaluation. Developing and performing functional assays to assess the biological activity of pathogen-specific responses continues to gain momentum; integrating serological assessments with functional data will ultimately result in the identification of mechanisms that contribute to protective immunity and will guide vaccine development. One of these functional readouts is phagocytosis of antigenic material tagged by immune molecules such as antibodies and/or complement components. This review summarizes our current understanding of how phagocytosis contributes to immune defense against pathogens, the pathways involved, and defense mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to deal with the threat of phagocytic removal and destruction of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Open AccessReview
Dynamics of Population Immunity Due to the Herd Effect in the COVID-19 Pandemic
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020236 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
The novel Coronavirus 2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) has led to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has surprised health authorities around the world, quickly producing a global health crisis. Different actions to cope with this situation are being developed, including [...] Read more.
The novel Coronavirus 2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) has led to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has surprised health authorities around the world, quickly producing a global health crisis. Different actions to cope with this situation are being developed, including confinement, different treatments to improve symptoms, and the creation of the first vaccines. In epidemiology, herd immunity is presented as an area that could also solve this new global threat. In this review, we present the basis of herd immunology, the dynamics of infection transmission that induces specific immunity, and how the application of immunoepidemiology and herd immunology could be used to control the actual COVID-19 pandemic, along with a discussion of its effectiveness, limitations, and applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Recent Insight into SARS-CoV2 Immunopathology and Rationale for Potential Treatment and Preventive Strategies in COVID-19
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020224 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
As the outbreak of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is spreading globally, great effort is being made to understand the disease pathogenesis and host factors that predispose to disease progression in an attempt to find a window of opportunity for intervention. In addition [...] Read more.
As the outbreak of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is spreading globally, great effort is being made to understand the disease pathogenesis and host factors that predispose to disease progression in an attempt to find a window of opportunity for intervention. In addition to the direct cytopathic effect of the virus, the host hyper-inflammatory response has emerged as a key factor in determining disease severity and mortality. Accumulating clinical observations raised hypotheses to explain why some patients develop more severe disease while others only manifest mild or no symptoms. So far, Covid-19 management remains mainly supportive. However, many researches are underway to clarify the role of antiviral and immunomodulating drugs in changing morbidity and mortality in patients who become severely ill. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune system and discusses recent findings on proposed pharmacologic treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report
Pneumocystis jirevocii and SARS-CoV-2 Co-Infection: A Common Feature in Transplant Recipients?
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030544 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
COVID-19 might potentially give rise to a more severe infection in solid organ transplant recipients due to their chronic immunosuppression. These patients are at a higher risk of developing concurrent or secondary bacterial and fungal infections. Co-infections can increase systemic inflammation influencing the [...] Read more.
COVID-19 might potentially give rise to a more severe infection in solid organ transplant recipients due to their chronic immunosuppression. These patients are at a higher risk of developing concurrent or secondary bacterial and fungal infections. Co-infections can increase systemic inflammation influencing the prognosis and the severity of the disease, and can in turn lead to an increased need of mechanical ventilation, antibiotic therapy and to a higher mortality. Here we describe, for the first time in Europe, a fatal case of co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and Pneumocystis jirevocii in a kidney transplant recipient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
Back to TopTop