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Open AccessReview

Advances in the Development of Anti-Haemonchus contortus Vaccines: Challenges, Opportunities, and Perspectives

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China
MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 555;
Received: 4 August 2020 / Revised: 13 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Diseases Immunology)
The gastrointestinal nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a resident of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide that imposes significant production losses, economic losses, and animal health issues in the small ruminant industry, particularly sheep and goats. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how immunity is elicited against H. contortus infection. Various potential vaccine antigens have been tested by different methods and strategies applied in animal models, and significant progress has been made in the development of vaccines against H. contortus. This review highlighted and shared the knowledge about the current understanding of host immune responses to H. contortus and ongoing challenges in the development of a protective, effective, and long-lasting vaccine against H. contortus infection. We have also pinpointed some achievements and failures in the development and testing of vaccines, which will establish a road map for future research directions to explore new effective vaccine candidates for controlling and preventing H. contortus infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Haemonchus contortus; immune responses; host–parasite interactions; vaccine Haemonchus contortus; immune responses; host–parasite interactions; vaccine
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Ehsan, M.; Hu, R.-S.; Liang, Q.-L.; Hou, J.-L.; Song, X.; Yan, R.; Zhu, X.-Q.; Li, X. Advances in the Development of Anti-Haemonchus contortus Vaccines: Challenges, Opportunities, and Perspectives. Vaccines 2020, 8, 555.

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