Vaccines Development in Australia

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 62842

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: vaccines and nanomedicine; vaccine design; nanotechnology; peptide chemistry; medicinal chemistry; vaccine/drug delivery; antimicrobial agents; macromolecules; adjuvants; immunology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: drug delivery; antimicrobial agents; prodrug strategies; macromolecules; adjuvants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Australia is well-recognized worldwide due to its research on infectious diseases and vaccine development. There are a large number of vaccine research teams working in state universities including University of Queensland, Monash University, University of New South Wales, University of Melbourne, Australian National University, Charles Darwin University, University of Adelaide, and Curtin University, just to list a few. Moreover, practically each state has his own medical research center/institute, including Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, and Doherty Institute, working on many aspects of vaccine development. Australia is home to the first prophylactic vaccine against cancer (HPV vaccine). Several other vaccines developed in Australia have reached clinical trials, including two recent vaccines against COVID.

This Special Issue is devoted to vaccine development in Australia and promoting Australian vaccine work worldwide. Research articles and reviews are invited, which will be expected to provide a consolidated state of the art in this area. Australian academics are called upon to submit their research to this Special Issue.

The Special Issue will publish full research, review, and highly rated manuscripts addressing the above topic.

Dr. Mariusz Skwarczynski
Prof. Dr. Istvan Toth
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vaccines
  • Mucosal
  • Adjuvants/liposomes
  • Immunity
  • Antibody
  • Infectious disease
  • Cancer
  • Anticancer vaccine
  • COVID-19 vaccine

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 2773 KiB  
Article
Engineering Antigens to Assemble into Polymer Particle Vaccines for Prevention of Streptococcus suis Infection
by Zennia Jean C. Gonzaga, Shuxiong Chen, Mélanie Lehoux, Mariela Segura and Bernd H. A. Rehm
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1386; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121386 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2331
Abstract
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen affecting pigs and humans. This bacterium causes severe economic losses in the swine industry and poses a serious threat to public health and food safety. There is no effective commercial vaccine available for pigs or humans. In [...] Read more.
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen affecting pigs and humans. This bacterium causes severe economic losses in the swine industry and poses a serious threat to public health and food safety. There is no effective commercial vaccine available for pigs or humans. In this study, we applied the biopolymer particle (BP) vaccine technology to incorporate seven conserved S. suis antigens (38 kDa protein (38), enolase (Enol), SSU1915, SSU1355, SSU0185, SSU1215, and SSU1773 (SSU1 and SSU2)). Two combinations of these antigens (38 and Enol; all SSU antigens designated as SSU1 and SSU2) were engineered to mediate production of BPs coated with either antigens 38 and Enol or SSU1 and SSU2 inside recombinant Escherichia coli. The isolated and purified empty BPs, 38-BP-Enol and SSU1-BP-SSU2, showed size ranges of 312–428 nm and 292–344 nm with and without the QuilA® adjuvant, respectively, and all showed a negative surface charge. Further characterization of purified BPs confirmed the presence of the expected antigen-comprising fusion proteins as assessed by tryptic peptide fingerprinting analysis using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. Vaccination with 38-BP-Enol and SSU1-BP-SSU2 formulated with and without QuilA® adjuvant induced significant antigen-specific humoral immune responses in mice. Antigen-coated BPs induced significant and specific Ig (IgM + IgG) and IgG immune responses (1.0 × 106–1.0 × 107) when compared with mice vaccinated with empty BPs. Functionality of the immune response was confirmed in challenge experiments using an acute murine S. suis infection model, which showed 100% survival of the 38-BP-Enol and SSU1-BP-SSU2 vaccinated mice compared to 70% survival when vaccinated with empty BPs. Overall, our data suggest that S. suis antigen-coated BPs could be developed into particulate vaccines that induce protective immunity against S. suis infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4573 KiB  
Article
An Advax-Adjuvanted Inactivated Cell-Culture Derived Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Induces Broadly Neutralising Anti-Flavivirus Antibodies, Robust Cellular Immunity and Provides Single Dose Protection
by Tomoyoshi Komiya, Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Jeremy Baldwin and Nikolai Petrovsky
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111235 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of [...] Read more.
ccJE+Advax is an inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine formulated with Advax, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin. This vaccine has previously shown promise in murine and equine studies and the current study sought to better understand its mechanism of action and assess the feasibility of single dose vaccine protection. Mice immunised with ccJE+Advax had higher serum neutralisation titres than those immunised with ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. ccJE+Advax induced extraordinarily broad cross-neutralising antibodies against multiple flaviviruses including West Nile virus (WNV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), St Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Dengue virus-1 and -2 (DENV-1 and -2). Notably, the DENV-2 cross-neutralising antibodies from ccJE+Advax immunised mice uniquely had no DENV-2 antibody-dependent infection enhancement (ADIE) activity, in contrast to high ADIE activity seen with DENV-1 cross-reactive antibodies induced by mbJE or ccJE alone or with alum adjuvant. JEV-stimulated splenocytes from ccJE+Advax immunised mice showed increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, consistent with a mixed Th1 and Th17 response, whereas ccJE-alum was associated with production of mainly Th2 cytokines. In a mouse lethal challenge study against highly virulent JaTH160 JEV strain, ccJE+Advax conferred complete protection in a two-dose schedule with 50 ng of vaccine antigen and near complete protection after a single 200 ng dose of vaccine antigen. There is an ongoing lack of human vaccines against particular flaviviruses, including WNV, SLEV and MVEV. Given its ability to provide single-dose JEV protection and induce broadly neutralising antibodies devoid of ADIE activity, ccJE+Advax vaccine could be useful in situations where rapid protection is desirable, e.g., during a local outbreak or for use in travellers or armies requiring rapid deployment to JEV endemic regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5519 KiB  
Article
Oral Peptide Vaccine against Hookworm Infection: Correlation of Antibody Titers with Protective Efficacy
by Ahmed O. Shalash, Luke Becker, Jieru Yang, Paul Giacomin, Mark Pearson, Waleed M. Hussein, Alex Loukas, Mariusz Skwarczynski and Istvan Toth
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091034 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3701
Abstract
Approximately 0.4 billion individuals worldwide are infected with hookworm. An effective vaccine is needed to not only improve the health of those affected and at high risk, but also to improve economic growth in disease-endemic areas. An ideal anti-hookworm therapeutic strategy for mass [...] Read more.
Approximately 0.4 billion individuals worldwide are infected with hookworm. An effective vaccine is needed to not only improve the health of those affected and at high risk, but also to improve economic growth in disease-endemic areas. An ideal anti-hookworm therapeutic strategy for mass administration is a stable and orally administered vaccine. Oral vaccines are advantageous as they negate the need for trained medical staff for administration and do not require strict sterility conditions. Vaccination, therefore, can be carried out at a significantly reduced cost. One of the most promising current antigenic targets for hookworm vaccine development is the aspartic protease digestive enzyme (APR-1). Antibody-mediated neutralization of APR-1 deprives the worm of nourishment, leading to reduced worm burdens in vaccinated hosts. Previously, we demonstrated that, when incorporated into vaccine delivery systems, the APR-1-derived p3 epitope (TSLIAGPKAQVEAIQKYIGAEL) was able to greatly reduce worm burdens (≥90%) in BALB/c mice; however, multiple, large doses of the vaccine were required. Here, we investigated a variety of p3-antigen conjugates to optimize antigen delivery and establish immune response/protective efficacy relationships. We synthesized, purified, and characterized four p3 peptide-based vaccine candidates with: (a) lipidic (lipid core peptide (LCP)); (b) classical polymeric (polymethylacrylate (PMA)); and (c) novel polymeric (polyleucine in a branched or linear arrangement, BL10 or LL10, respectively) groups as self-adjuvanting moieties. BL10 and LL10 induced the highest serum anti-p3 and anti-APR-1 IgG titers. Upon challenge with rodent hookworms, the highest significant reduction in worm burden was observed in mice immunized with LL10. APR-1-specific serum IgG titers correlated with worm burden reduction. Thus, we provide the first vaccine-triggered immune response-protection relationship for hookworm infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2764 KiB  
Article
Guiding the Immune Response to a Conserved Epitope in MSP2, an Intrinsically Disordered Malaria Vaccine Candidate
by Jeffrey Seow, Sreedam C. Das, Rodrigo A. V. Morales, Ricardo Ataide, Bankala Krishnarjuna, Mitchell Silk, David K. Chalmers, Jack Richards, Robin F. Anders, Christopher A. MacRaild and Raymond S. Norton
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080855 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
The malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) has shown promise in clinical trials and is in part responsible for a reduction in parasite densities. However, strain-specific reductions in parasitaemia suggested that polymorphic regions of MSP2 are immuno-dominant. One strategy to bypass [...] Read more.
The malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) has shown promise in clinical trials and is in part responsible for a reduction in parasite densities. However, strain-specific reductions in parasitaemia suggested that polymorphic regions of MSP2 are immuno-dominant. One strategy to bypass the hurdle of strain-specificity is to bias the immune response towards the conserved regions. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies, 4D11 and 9H4, recognise the conserved C-terminal region of MSP2. Although they bind overlapping epitopes, 4D11 reacts more strongly with native MSP2, suggesting that its epitope is more accessible on the parasite surface. In this study, a structure-based vaccine design approach was applied to the intrinsically disordered antigen, MSP2, using a crystal structure of 4D11 Fv in complex with its minimal binding epitope. Molecular dynamics simulations and surface plasmon resonance informed the design of a series of constrained peptides that mimicked the 4D11-bound epitope structure. These peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and used to immunise mice, with high to moderate antibody titres being generated in all groups. The specificities of antibody responses revealed that a single point mutation can focus the antibody response towards a more favourable epitope. This structure-based approach to peptide vaccine design may be useful not only for MSP2-based malaria vaccines, but also for other intrinsically disordered antigens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2584 KiB  
Article
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Derived Particulate Vaccine Protects against P. aeruginosa Infection
by Zennia Jean C. Gonzaga, Christina Merakou, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Gregory P. Priebe and Bernd H. A. Rehm
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070803 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4383
Abstract
Despite numerous efforts to develop an effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, no vaccine has yet been approved for human use. This study investigates the utility of the P. aeruginosa inherently produced polyhydroxyalkanaote (PHA) inclusions and associated host–cell proteins (HCP) as a [...] Read more.
Despite numerous efforts to develop an effective vaccine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, no vaccine has yet been approved for human use. This study investigates the utility of the P. aeruginosa inherently produced polyhydroxyalkanaote (PHA) inclusions and associated host–cell proteins (HCP) as a particulate vaccine platform. We further engineered PHA inclusions to display epitopes derived from the outer membrane proteins OprF/OprI/AlgE (Ag) or the type III secretion system translocator PopB. PHA and engineered PHA beads induced antigen-specific humoral, cell-mediated immune responses, anti-HCP and anti-polysaccharide Psl responses in mice. Antibodies mediated opsonophagocytic killing and serotype-independent protective immunity as shown by 100% survival upon challenge with P. aeruginosa in an acute pneumonia murine model. Vaccines were stable at 4 °C for at least one year. Overall, our data suggest that vaccination with subcellular empty PHA beads was sufficient to elicit multiple immune effectors that can prevent P. aeruginosa infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 1201 KiB  
Review
Chimeric Vaccines Based on Novel Insect-Specific Flaviviruses
by Jessica J. Harrison, Jody Hobson-Peters, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann and Roy A. Hall
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111230 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3394
Abstract
Vector-borne flaviviruses are responsible for nearly half a billion human infections worldwide each year, resulting in millions of cases of debilitating and severe diseases and approximately 115,000 deaths. While approved vaccines are available for some of these viruses, the ongoing efficacy, safety and [...] Read more.
Vector-borne flaviviruses are responsible for nearly half a billion human infections worldwide each year, resulting in millions of cases of debilitating and severe diseases and approximately 115,000 deaths. While approved vaccines are available for some of these viruses, the ongoing efficacy, safety and supply of these vaccines are still a significant problem. New technologies that address these issues and ideally allow for the safe and economical manufacture of vaccines in resource-poor countries where flavivirus vaccines are in most demand are urgently required. Preferably a new vaccine platform would be broadly applicable to all flavivirus diseases and provide new candidate vaccines for those diseases not yet covered, as well as the flexibility to rapidly pivot to respond to newly emerged flavivirus diseases. Here, we review studies conducted on novel chimeric vaccines derived from insect-specific flaviviruses that provide a potentially safe and simple system to produce highly effective vaccines against a broad spectrum of flavivirus diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 314 KiB  
Review
A Review of Australian Tick Vaccine Research
by Ala E. Tabor
Vaccines 2021, 9(9), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9091030 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
Tick vaccine research in Australia has demonstrated leadership worldwide through the development of the first anti-tick vaccine in the 1990s. Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s (CSIRO) research led to the development of vaccines and/or precursors of vaccines (such as crude extracts) [...] Read more.
Tick vaccine research in Australia has demonstrated leadership worldwide through the development of the first anti-tick vaccine in the 1990s. Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s (CSIRO) research led to the development of vaccines and/or precursors of vaccines (such as crude extracts) for both the cattle tick and the paralysis tick. CSIRO commercialised the Bm86 vaccine in the early 1990s for Rhipicephalus australis; however, issues with dosing and lack of global conservation led to the market closure of Tick-GARD in Australia. New research programs arose both locally and globally. The Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus has perplexed research veterinarians since the 1920s; however, not until the 2000s did biotechnology exist to elucidate the neurotoxin—holocyclotoxin family of toxins leading to a proof of concept vaccine cocktail. This review revisits these discoveries and describes tributes to deceased tick vaccine protagonists in Australia, including Sir Clunies Ross, Dr Bernard Stone and Dr David Kemp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
19 pages, 329 KiB  
Review
Australia’s Role in Pneumococcal and Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Evaluation in Asia-Pacific
by Zheng Quan Toh, Chau Quang, Joseph A. Tooma, Suzanne M. Garland, Kim Mulholland and Paul V. Licciardi
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080921 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Australian researchers have made substantial contributions to the field of vaccinology over many decades. Two examples of this contribution relate to pneumococcal vaccines and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, with a focus on improving access to these vaccines in low- and lower-middle-income countries [...] Read more.
Australian researchers have made substantial contributions to the field of vaccinology over many decades. Two examples of this contribution relate to pneumococcal vaccines and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, with a focus on improving access to these vaccines in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Many LLMICs considering introducing one or both of these vaccines into their National Immunisation Programs face significant barriers such as cost, logistics associated with vaccine delivery. These countries also often lack the resources and expertise to undertake the necessary studies to evaluate vaccine performance. This review summarizes the role of Australia in the development and/or evaluation of pneumococcal vaccines and the HPV vaccine, including the use of alternative vaccine strategies among countries situated in the Asia-Pacific region. The outcomes of these research programs have had significant global health impacts, highlighting the importance of these vaccines in preventing pneumococcal disease as well as HPV-associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
14 pages, 310 KiB  
Review
The Search for a Schistosomiasis Vaccine: Australia’s Contribution
by Donald P. McManus
Vaccines 2021, 9(8), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9080872 - 6 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, results in considerable human morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, but also parts of the Middle East, South America, and Southeast Asia. The anti-schistosome drug praziquantel is efficacious and [...] Read more.
Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, results in considerable human morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, but also parts of the Middle East, South America, and Southeast Asia. The anti-schistosome drug praziquantel is efficacious and safe against the adult parasites of all Schistosoma species infecting humans; however, it does not prevent reinfection and the development of drug resistance is a constant concern. The need to develop an effective vaccine is of great importance if the health of many in the developing world is to be improved. Indeed, vaccination, in combination with other public health measures, can provide an invaluable tool to achieve lasting control, leading to schistosomiasis elimination. Australia has played a leading role in schistosomiasis vaccine research over many years and this review presents an overview of some of the significant contributions made by Australian scientists in this important area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
16 pages, 6325 KiB  
Review
Vaccine Candidates for the Control and Prevention of the Sexually Transmitted Disease Gonorrhea
by Ethan C. Haese, Van C. Thai and Charlene M. Kahler
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070804 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 9661
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) has placed N. gonorrhoeae on the global priority list of antimicrobial resistant pathogens and is urgently seeking the development of new intervention strategies. N. gonorrhoeae causes 86.9 million cases globally per annum. The effects of gonococcal disease are [...] Read more.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has placed N. gonorrhoeae on the global priority list of antimicrobial resistant pathogens and is urgently seeking the development of new intervention strategies. N. gonorrhoeae causes 86.9 million cases globally per annum. The effects of gonococcal disease are seen predominantly in women and children and especially in the Australian Indigenous community. While economic modelling suggests that this infection alone may directly cost the USA health care system USD 11.0–20.6 billion, indirect costs associated with adverse disease and pregnancy outcomes, disease prevention, and productivity loss, mean that the overall effect of the disease is far greater still. In this review, we summate the current progress towards the development of a gonorrhea vaccine and describe the clinical trials being undertaken in Australia to assess the efficacy of the current formulation of Bexsero® in controlling disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 13825 KiB  
Review
Lipid-Based Nanoparticles in the Clinic and Clinical Trials: From Cancer Nanomedicine to COVID-19 Vaccines
by Thai Thanh Hoang Thi, Estelle J. A. Suys, Jung Seok Lee, Dai Hai Nguyen, Ki Dong Park and Nghia P. Truong
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040359 - 8 Apr 2021
Cited by 247 | Viewed by 23833
Abstract
COVID-19 vaccines have been developed with unprecedented speed which would not have been possible without decades of fundamental research on delivery nanotechnology. Lipid-based nanoparticles have played a pivotal role in the successes of COVID-19 vaccines and many other nanomedicines, such as Doxil® [...] Read more.
COVID-19 vaccines have been developed with unprecedented speed which would not have been possible without decades of fundamental research on delivery nanotechnology. Lipid-based nanoparticles have played a pivotal role in the successes of COVID-19 vaccines and many other nanomedicines, such as Doxil® and Onpattro®, and have therefore been considered as the frontrunner in nanoscale drug delivery systems. In this review, we aim to highlight the progress in the development of these lipid nanoparticles for various applications, ranging from cancer nanomedicines to COVID-19 vaccines. The lipid-based nanoparticles discussed in this review are liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers. We particularly focus on the innovations that have obtained regulatory approval or that are in clinical trials. We also discuss the physicochemical properties required for specific applications, highlight the differences in requirements for the delivery of different cargos, and introduce current challenges that need further development. This review serves as a useful guideline for designing new lipid nanoparticles for both preventative and therapeutic vaccines including immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines Development in Australia)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop