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Special Issue "Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Uremic Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 October 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. R. Vanholder

Nephrology Section, 0K12, Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
E-Mail
Phone: ++32475612751
Interests: uremia, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, adequacy of dialysis, acute kidney injury

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the scientific areas where, over the last few years, the greatest advances have been made in medical research is that of uremic toxicity. Recent progress in molecular biology, analytical approaches, and kinetic modeling, and the advent of “omics” approaches has obviously helped in better understanding the endogenous intoxication resulting from solute retention in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The first steps are now taken in developing new techniques for decreasing the concentration and toxicity of these compounds. These advancements are urgently needed, not only from a medical therapeutic viewpoint, but also from a health-economic perspective. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins will be on the novel uremic toxins, either newly detected molecules, or well known solutes with newly detected biologic effects. Focus can be as well on identification, biologic effects, generation, and removal as on other approaches to decrease their concentration.

Prof. Raymond Vanholder
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Uremia
  • Uremic toxins
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
  • Identification
  • Biology
  • Generation
  • Removal

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
Introduction to the Toxins Special Issue on “Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity”
Toxins 2018, 10(10), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100388
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Macrophage IL-1β Production by Activating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/NF-κ/MAPK Cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome Was Not Activated
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. One of the hallmarks of kidney disease-related cardiovascular disease is intravascular macrophage inflammation, but the mechanism of the reaction with these toxins is not completely understood. [...] Read more.
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. One of the hallmarks of kidney disease-related cardiovascular disease is intravascular macrophage inflammation, but the mechanism of the reaction with these toxins is not completely understood. Macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells were exposed to indoxyl sulfate (IS), a representative uremic toxin, and changes in inflammatory cytokine production and intracellular signaling molecules including interleukin (IL)-1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear factor (NF)-κ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome were quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IS induced macrophage pro-IL-1β mRNA expression, although mature IL-1 was only slightly increased. IS increased AhR and the AhR-related mRNA expression; this change was suppressed by administration of proteasome inhibitor. IS promoted phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and MAPK enzymes; the reaction and IL-1 expression were inhibited by BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB. In contrast, IS decreased NLRP3 and did not change ASC, pro-caspase 1, or caspase-1 activation. IS-inducing inflammation in macrophages results from accelerating AhR-NF-κB/MAPK cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome was not activated. These reactions may restrict mature IL-1β production, which may explain sustained chronic inflammation in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
The Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulfate Accelerates Thrombotic Response after Vascular Injury in Animal Models
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (8662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at high risk for thrombotic events. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the most potent uremic toxins that accumulates during CKD. Even though IS is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, its impact on thrombotic [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at high risk for thrombotic events. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the most potent uremic toxins that accumulates during CKD. Even though IS is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, its impact on thrombotic events still remains not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the direct effect of IS on thrombotic process. We examined the impact of acute exposure to IS on thrombus development induced by electric current in Wistar rats, intravital thrombus formation after laser-induced injury in the mice endothelium, coagulation profile, clot formation dynamics, platelet aggregations, and erythrocyte osmotic resistance. IS doses: 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) increased weight of thrombus induced by electric current in dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). Furthermore, two highest IS doses increased laser-induced thrombus formation observed via confocal system (increase in fluorescence intensity and total thrombus area (p < 0.01)). Only the highest IS dose decreased clotting time (p < 0.01) and increased maximum clot firmness (p < 0.05). IS did not affect blood morphology parameters and erythrocyte osmotic resistance, but augmented collagen-induced aggregation. Obtained data indicate that IS creates prothrombotic state and contributes to more stable thrombus formation. Thus, we concluded that IS may be one of crucial uremic factors promoting thrombotic events in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
Advanced Oxidation Protein Products-Modified Albumin Induces Differentiation of RAW264.7 Macrophages into Dendritic-Like Cells Which Is Modulated by Cell Surface Thiols
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Local accumulation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) induces pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes in kidneys and is an independent predictor of renal fibrosis and of rapid decline of eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to kidney damage, circulating AOPP [...] Read more.
Local accumulation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) induces pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic processes in kidneys and is an independent predictor of renal fibrosis and of rapid decline of eGFR in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In addition to kidney damage, circulating AOPP may be regarded as mediators of systemic oxidative stress and, in this capacity, they might play a role in the progression of atherosclerotic damage of arterial walls. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves activation of innate and adaptive immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key cells in this process, due to their role in antigen presentation, inflammation resolution and T cell activation. AOPP consist in oxidative modifications of proteins (such as albumin and fibrinogen) that mainly occur through myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorite (HOCl). HOCl modified proteins have been found in atherosclerotic lesions. The oxidizing environment and the shifts in cellular redox equilibrium trigger inflammation, activate immune cells and induce immune responses. Thus, surface thiol groups contribute to the regulation of immune functions. The aims of this work are: (1) to evaluate whether AOPP-proteins induce activation and differentiation of mature macrophages into dendritic cells in vitro; and (2) to define the role of cell surface thiol groups and of free radicals in this process. AOPP-proteins were prepared by in vitro incubation of human serum albumin (HSA) with HOCl. Mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 were treated with various concentrations of AOPP-HSA with or without the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Following 48 h of HSA-AOPP treatment, RAW264.7 morphological changes were evaluated by microscopic observation, while markers of dendritic lineage and activation (CD40, CD86, and MHC class II) and allogeneic T cell proliferation were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell surface thiols were measured by AlexaFluor-maleimide binding, and ROS production was assessed as DCF fluorescence by flow cytometry. HSA-AOPP induced the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into a dendritic-like phenotype, as shown by morphological changes, by increased CD40, CD86 and MHC class II surface expression and by induction of T cell proliferation. The cell surface thiols dose dependently decreased following HSA-AOPP treatment, while ROS production increased. NAC pre-treatment enhanced the amount of cell surface thiols and prevented their reduction due to treatment with AOPP. Both ROS production and RAW264.7 differentiation into DC-like cells induced by HSA-AOPP were reduced by NAC. Our results highlight that oxidized plasma proteins modulate specific immune responses of macrophages through a process involving changes in the thiol redox equilibrium. We suggest that this mechanism may play a role in determining the rapid progression of the atherosclerotic process observed in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessArticle
High Uric Acid Ameliorates Indoxyl Sulfate-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction and Is Associated with Lower Mortality among Hemodialysis Patients
Received: 9 November 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 January 2017 / Published: 6 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
High uric acid (UA) can act as a pro-oxidant in normal physiological conditions; however, emerging evidence is still debatable with regard to the association between high UA and poor outcomes among chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the present study, 27,229 stable prevalent HD [...] Read more.
High uric acid (UA) can act as a pro-oxidant in normal physiological conditions; however, emerging evidence is still debatable with regard to the association between high UA and poor outcomes among chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In the present study, 27,229 stable prevalent HD patients were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the quartiles of baseline UA concentration, and 5737 died during a median follow-up of 38 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a UA level of <6.1 mg/dL was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with a UA level of >8.1 mg/dL [HR, 1.20, 95% CI (1.10–1.31)] adjusting for baseline demographic and biochemical parameters. Moreover, a UA level of <6.1 mg/dL was associated with greater risks of cardiovascular mortality [HR, 1.26, 95% CI (1.13–1.41)] and stroke-related mortality [HR, 1.59, 95% CI (1.12–2.25)], respectively. In vitro experiments further showed an increase in oxidative stress and an inhibition nitric oxide synthesis by indoxyl sulfate (IS) in human aortic endothelial cells, which were significantly attenuated by UA in a dose-dependent manner. We concluded that higher UA in serum was associated with lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among HD patients probably through its antioxidant property in ameliorating the IS-related vascular toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biochemical and Clinical Impact of Organic Uremic Retention Solutes: A Comprehensive Update
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this narrative review, the biological/biochemical impact (toxicity) of a large array of known individual uremic retention solutes and groups of solutes is summarized. We classified these compounds along their physico-chemical characteristics as small water-soluble compounds or groups, protein bound compounds and middle [...] Read more.
In this narrative review, the biological/biochemical impact (toxicity) of a large array of known individual uremic retention solutes and groups of solutes is summarized. We classified these compounds along their physico-chemical characteristics as small water-soluble compounds or groups, protein bound compounds and middle molecules. All but one solute (glomerulopressin) affected at least one mechanism with the potential to contribute to the uremic syndrome. In general, several mechanisms were influenced for each individual solute or group of solutes, with some impacting up to 7 different biological systems of the 11 considered. The inflammatory, cardio-vascular and fibrogenic systems were those most frequently affected and they are one by one major actors in the high morbidity and mortality of CKD but also the mechanisms that have most frequently been studied. A scoring system was built with the intention to classify the reviewed compounds according to the experimental evidence of their toxicity (number of systems affected) and overall experimental and clinical evidence. Among the highest globally scoring solutes were 3 small water-soluble compounds [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA); trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO); uric acid], 6 protein bound compounds or groups of protein bound compounds [advanced glycation end products (AGEs); p-cresyl sulfate; indoxyl sulfate; indole acetic acid; the kynurenines; phenyl acetic acid;] and 3 middle molecules [β2-microglobulin; ghrelin; parathyroid hormone). In general, more experimental data were provided for the protein bound molecules but for almost half of them clinical evidence was missing in spite of robust experimental data. The picture emanating is one of a complex disorder, where multiple factors contribute to a multisystem complication profile, so that it seems of not much use to pursue a decrease of concentration of a single compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Inflammatory Cytokines as Uremic Toxins: “Ni Son Todos Los Que Estan, Ni Estan Todos Los Que Son”
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease is among the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. An increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death is thought to depend on the accumulation of uremic toxins when glomerular filtration rate falls. In addition, the circulating levels of several markers [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease is among the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. An increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death is thought to depend on the accumulation of uremic toxins when glomerular filtration rate falls. In addition, the circulating levels of several markers of inflammation predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Indeed, a number of cytokines are listed in databases of uremic toxins and uremic retention solutes. They include inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα), chemokines (IL-8), and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10). We now critically review the cytokines that may be considered uremic toxins. We discuss the rationale to consider them uremic toxins (mechanisms underlying the increased serum levels and evidence supporting their contribution to CKD manifestations), identify gaps in knowledge, discuss potential therapeutic implications to be tested in clinical trials in order to make this knowledge useful for the practicing physician, and identify additional cytokines, cytokine receptors and chemokines that may fulfill the criteria to be considered uremic toxins, such as sIL-6R, sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-2, CXCL12, CX3CL1 and others. In addition, we suggest that IL-10, leptin, adiponectin and resistin should not be considered uremic toxins toxins based on insufficient or contradictory evidence of an association with adverse outcomes in humans or preclinical data not consistent with a causal association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
p-Cresyl Sulfate
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological [...] Read more.
If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
The Sulfur Metabolite Lanthionine: Evidence for a Role as a Novel Uremic Toxin
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid, composed of two alanine residues that are crosslinked on their β-carbon atoms by a thioether linkage. It is biosynthesized from the condensation of two cysteine molecules, while the related compound homolanthionine is formed from the condensation of [...] Read more.
Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid, composed of two alanine residues that are crosslinked on their β-carbon atoms by a thioether linkage. It is biosynthesized from the condensation of two cysteine molecules, while the related compound homolanthionine is formed from the condensation of two homocysteine molecules. The reactions can be carried out by either cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) or cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) independently, in the alternate reactions of the transsulfuration pathway devoted to hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis. Low plasma total hydrogen sulfide levels, probably due to reduced CSE expression, are present in uremia, while homolanthionine and lanthionine accumulate in blood, the latter several fold. Uremic patients display a derangement of sulfur amino acid metabolism with a high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia. Uremia is associated with a high cardiovascular mortality, the causes of which are still not completely explained, but are related to uremic toxicity, due to the accumulation of retention products. Lanthionine inhibits hydrogen sulfide production in hepatoma cells, possibly through CBS inhibition, thus providing some basis for the biochemical mechanism, which may significantly contribute to alterations of metabolism sulfur compounds in these subjects (e.g., high homocysteine and low hydrogen sulfide). We therefore suggest that lanthionine is a novel uremic toxin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Indoxyl Sulfate on Progenitor Cell-Related Neovascularization of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Post-Angioplasty Thrombosis of Dialysis Vascular Access
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 7 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular disease, which is associated with considerable health care costs. Vascular disease in CKD differs clinically and pathobiologically from that in patients with normal renal function. Besides the traditional risk factors, retention [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of vascular disease, which is associated with considerable health care costs. Vascular disease in CKD differs clinically and pathobiologically from that in patients with normal renal function. Besides the traditional risk factors, retention of uremic toxins contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in patients with CKD. Indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic toxin and is inefficiently removed by conventional dialysis. Accumulating evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is a vascular toxin involved in atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, vascular calcification and vascular repair. Clinically, indoxyl sulfate is associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD. Recent studies have indicated that in addition to coronary and cerebral arteries, indoxyl sulfate plays a role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) and dialysis graft thrombosis. Emerging evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate is implicated via novel mechanisms, including progenitor cell-related neovascularization and tissue factor-related hypercoagulability. These findings raise the possibility that strategies targeting serum indoxyl sulfate may have the potential to improve the outcomes of PAD and dialysis vascular access in patients with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Modified Lipids and Lipoproteins in Chronic Kidney Disease: A New Class of Uremic Toxins
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8120376
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and deep modifications in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. First, many oxidized lipids accumulate in CKD and were shown to exert toxic effects on cells and tissues. These lipids are known to interfere [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and deep modifications in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. First, many oxidized lipids accumulate in CKD and were shown to exert toxic effects on cells and tissues. These lipids are known to interfere with many cell functions and to be pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory, especially in the cardiovascular system. Some, like F2-isoprostanes, are directly correlated with CKD progression. Their accumulation, added to their noxious effects, rendered their nomination as uremic toxins credible. Similarly, lipoproteins are deeply altered by CKD modifications, either in their metabolism or composition. These impairments lead to impaired effects of HDL on their normal effectors and may strongly participate in accelerated atherosclerosis and failure of statins in end-stage renal disease patients. This review describes the impact of oxidized lipids and other modifications in the natural history of CKD and its complications. Moreover, this review focuses on the modifications of lipoproteins and their impact on the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in CKD as well as the appropriateness of considering them as actual mediators of uremic toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23—A Potential Uremic Toxin
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8120369
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a circulating member of the FGF family produced mainly by the osteocytes and osteoblasts that can act as a hormone. The main action of FGF23 is to lower phosphatemia via the reduction of urinary phosphate reabsorption and the [...] Read more.
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a circulating member of the FGF family produced mainly by the osteocytes and osteoblasts that can act as a hormone. The main action of FGF23 is to lower phosphatemia via the reduction of urinary phosphate reabsorption and the decrease of 1,25(OH)2-D generation in the kidney. In the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), plasma FGF23 concentration rises early, most probably to compensate the inability of the deteriorating kidneys to excrete an adequate amount of phosphate. However, this comes at the cost of FGF23-related target organ toxicity. Results of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma FGF23 concentration is independently associated with the increased risk of CKD progression, occurrence of cardio-vascular complications, and mortality in different stages of CKD. FGF23 also contributes to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction. The impact of FGF23 on heart muscle is not dependent on Klotho, but rather on the PLCγ–calcineurin–NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) pathway. Among the factors increasing plasma FGF23 concentration, active vitamin D analogues play a significant role. Additionally, inflammation and iron deficiency can contribute to the increase of plasma FGF23. Among the factors decreasing plasma FGF23, dietary phosphate restriction, some intestinal phosphate binders, cinacalcet (and other calcimimetics), and nicotinamide can be enumerated. Anti-FGF23 antibodies have also recently been developed to inhibit the action of FGF23 in target organs. Still, the best way to normalize plasma FGF23 in maintenance hemodialysis patients is restoring kidney function by successful kidney transplantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies
Toxins 2016, 8(12), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8120358
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoxyl sulfate is an extensively studied uremic solute. It is a small molecule that is more than 90% bound to plasma proteins. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the breakdown of tryptophan by colon microbes. The kidneys achieve high clearances of indoxyl sulfate by [...] Read more.
Indoxyl sulfate is an extensively studied uremic solute. It is a small molecule that is more than 90% bound to plasma proteins. Indoxyl sulfate is derived from the breakdown of tryptophan by colon microbes. The kidneys achieve high clearances of indoxyl sulfate by tubular secretion, a function not replicated by hemodialysis. Clearance by hemodialysis is limited by protein binding since only the free, unbound solute can diffuse across the membrane. Since the dialytic clearance is much lower than the kidney clearance, indoxyl sulfate accumulates to relatively high plasma levels in hemodialysis patients. Indoxyl sulfate has been most frequently implicated as a contributor to renal disease progression and vascular disease. Studies have suggested that indoxyl sulfate also has adverse effects on bones and the central nervous system. The majority of studies have assessed toxicity in cultured cells and animal models. The toxicity in humans has not yet been proven, as most data have been from association studies. Such toxicity data, albeit inconclusive, have prompted efforts to lower the plasma levels of indoxyl sulfate through dialytic and non-dialytic means. The largest randomized trial showed no benefit in renal disease progression with AST-120. No trials have yet tested cardiovascular or mortality benefit. Without such trials, the toxicity of indoxyl sulfate cannot be firmly established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
Open AccessReview
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY)—Major Metabolite of Nicotinamide: An Update on an Old Uremic Toxin
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110339
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, a major metabolite of nicotinamide, NAM) was recently identified as a uremic toxin. Recent interventional trials using NAM to treat high levels of phosphorus in end-stage renal disease have highlighted new potential uremic toxicities of 2PY. In the context of [...] Read more.
N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, a major metabolite of nicotinamide, NAM) was recently identified as a uremic toxin. Recent interventional trials using NAM to treat high levels of phosphorus in end-stage renal disease have highlighted new potential uremic toxicities of 2PY. In the context of uremia, the accumulation of 2PY could be harmful—perhaps by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity. Here, we review recently published data on 2PY’s metabolism and toxicological profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Open AccessReview
Trimethylamine N-Oxide: The Good, the Bad and the Unknown
Toxins 2016, 8(11), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8110326
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO [...] Read more.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported. The atherogenic effect of TMAO is attributed to alterations in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, activation of inflammatory pathways and promotion foam cell formation. TMAO levels increase with decreasing levels of kidney function and is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. A number of therapeutic strategies are being explored to reduce TMAO levels, including use of oral broad spectrum antibiotics, promoting the growth of bacteria that utilize TMAO as substrate and the development of target-specific molecules with varying level of success. Despite the accumulating evidence, it is questioned whether TMAO is the mediator of a bystander in the disease process. Thus, it is important to undertake studies examining the cellular signaling in physiology and pathological states in order to establish the role of TMAO in health and disease in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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Other

Open AccessComment
Comment on Indoxyl Sulfate—Review of Toxicity and Therapeutic Strategies. Toxins 2016, 8, 358
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 19 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, the clinical and experimental evidences that support the toxic effects of indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, has been discussed. In this panorama, the authors described several in vitro and in vivo studies, suggesting that indoxyl [...] Read more.
Recently, the clinical and experimental evidences that support the toxic effects of indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, has been discussed. In this panorama, the authors described several in vitro and in vivo studies, suggesting that indoxyl sulfate may play a part in the pathogenesis of low turnover bone disease. However, the discussion claims the need for relevant clinical studies in CKD patients whose bone turnover biomarkers and bone histomorphometry were assessed in order to demonstrate the association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and bone turnover. We would like to underline the availability of this clinical data to support the concept that indoxyl sulfate may play a part in the pathogenesis of low turnover bone disease in CKD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Issues in Uremic Toxicity)
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