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Special Issue "Mycotoxins Exposure and Related Disease"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Susana Viegas

Director of Environmental Health Programme, Lisbon School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, 1990-096 Lisboa, Portugal. Researcher in Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública (CISP/PHRC), Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Website | E-Mail
Interests: occupational toxicology; exposure and risk assessment; mixtures; biomonitoring
Guest Editor
Dr. Ricardo Assunção

Food and Nutrition Department, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016, Lisboa, Portugal
CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food toxicology; mycotoxins; chemical mixtures; risk assessment and risk–benefit assessment of foods; interaction between foods/diets and human health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment assumes particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure will allow to derive the associated risk and the potential to the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts can also imply exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could also be exposed to mycotoxins, through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans.

All these exposure scenarios constitute an overall internal body burden of mycotoxins in humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a quite new frontier for the establishment of the real human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Combined with toxicological and epidemiological data, human biomonitoring data relate to exposure and disease.

Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, there are still major gaps in data that allow to recognize that mycotoxins are the cause of diseases. Aside from aflatoxin B1, the most potent natural carcinogen known, and whose link with morbidity/mortality of both animals and humans has already been made, for other mycotoxins there are still several question marks. Moreover, the potential exposure to mycotoxin mixtures that may exhibit interactive activity and/or exert some biological function converging in the same molecular pathways still needs to be considered in the exposure and risk assessment and in the regulatory landscape.

We look forward to receiving your contributions for this Special Issue, in the form of original research or review papers which will shed light into the different perspectives of mycotoxin exposure and their implications for the establishment of a disease. No specific restrictions for particular mycotoxins are established.

Prof. Dr. Susana Viegas
Dr. Ricardo Assunção
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Risk assessment
  • Human biomonitoring
  • Mycotoxin mixtures
  • Food and feed
  • Occupational exposure
  • Health impact
  • Toxic effects

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins in Swine Production: Environmental and Biological Monitoring Approaches
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Swine production workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Portuguese swine production farms has already been reported. However, besides AFB1, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could [...] Read more.
Swine production workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Portuguese swine production farms has already been reported. However, besides AFB1, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected in this setting. The present study aimed to characterize the occupational exposure to multiple mycotoxins of swine production workers. To provide a broad view on the burden of contamination by mycotoxins and the workers’ exposure, biological (urine) samples from workers (n = 25) and 38 environmental samples (air samples, n = 23; litter samples, n = 5; feed samples, n = 10) were collected. The mycotoxins biomarkers detected in the urine samples of the workers group were the deoxynivalenol-glucuronic acid conjugate (60%), aflatoxin M1 (16%), enniatin B (4%), citrinin (8%), dihydrocitrinone (12%) and ochratoxin A (80%). Results of the control group followed the same pattern, but in general with a lower number of quantifiable results (<LOQ). Besides air samples, all the other environmental samples collected presented high and diverse contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON), like in the biomonitoring results, was the most prominent mycotoxin. The results demonstrate that the occupational environment is adding and contributing to the workers’ total exposure to mycotoxins, particularly in the case of DON. This was confirmed by the biomonitoring data and the high contamination found in feed and litter samples. Furthermore, he followed multi-biomarker approach allowed to conclude that workers and general population are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously. Moreover, occupational exposure is probably described as being intermittent and with very high concentrations for short durations. This should be reflected in the risk assessment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Exposure and Related Disease)
Open AccessArticle Differential Transcriptome Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in the Cecal Tonsil of Susceptible and Resistant Turkeys
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The nearly-ubiquitous food and feed-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is carcinogenic and mutagenic, posing a food safety threat to humans and animals. One of the most susceptible animal species known and thus a good model for characterizing toxicological pathways, is [...] Read more.
The nearly-ubiquitous food and feed-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is carcinogenic and mutagenic, posing a food safety threat to humans and animals. One of the most susceptible animal species known and thus a good model for characterizing toxicological pathways, is the domesticated turkey (DT), a condition likely due, at least in part, to deficient hepatic AFB1-detoxifying alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs). Conversely, wild turkeys (Eastern wild, EW) are relatively resistant to the hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects of AFB1 owing to functional gene expression and presence of functional hepatic GSTAs. This study was designed to compare the responses in gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract between DT (susceptible phenotype) and EW (resistant phenotype) following dietary AFB1 challenge (320 ppb for 14 days); specifically in cecal tonsil which functions in both nutrient absorption and gut immunity. RNAseq and gene expression analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in AFB1-treated animals compared to control-fed domestic and wild birds and in within-treatment comparisons between bird types. Significantly upregulated expression of the primary hepatic AFB1-activating P450 (CYP1A5) as well as transcriptional changes in tight junction proteins were observed in AFB1-treated birds. Numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β and EGF were significantly down regulated by AFB1 treatment in DT birds and pathway analysis suggested suppression of enteroendocrine cells. Conversely, AFB1 treatment modified significantly fewer unique genes in EW birds; among these were genes involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism and immune response. This is the first investigation of the effects of AFB1 on the turkey gastro-intestinal tract. Results suggest that in addition to the hepatic transcriptome, animal resistance to this mycotoxin occurs in organ systems outside the liver, specifically as a refractory gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Exposure and Related Disease)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Gut Microbiota Profiling of Aflatoxin B1-Induced Rats Treated with Lactobacillus casei Shirota
Received: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a ubiquitous carcinogenic food contaminant. Gut microbiota is of vital importance for the host’s health, regrettably, limited studies have reported the effects of xenobiotic toxins towards gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the interactions between AFB1 [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a ubiquitous carcinogenic food contaminant. Gut microbiota is of vital importance for the host’s health, regrettably, limited studies have reported the effects of xenobiotic toxins towards gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the interactions between AFB1 and the gut microbiota. Besides, an AFB1-binding microorganism, Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) was tested on its ability to ameliorate the changes on gut microbiota induced by AFB1. The fecal contents of three groups of rats included an untreated control group, an AFB1 group, as well as an Lcs + AFB1 group, were analyzed. Using the MiSeq platform, the PCR products of 16S rDNA gene extracted from the feces were subjected to next-generation sequencing. The alpha diversity index (Shannon) showed that the richness of communities increased significantly in the Lcs + AFB1 group compared to the control and AFB1 groups. Meanwhile, beta diversity indices demonstrated that AFB1 group significantly deviated from the control and Lcs + AFB1 groups. AFB1-exposed rats were especially high in Alloprevotella spp. abundance. Such alteration in the bacterial composition might give an insight on the interactions of AFB1 towards gut microbiota and how Lcs plays its role in detoxification of AFB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Exposure and Related Disease)
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