Special Issue "Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Susana Viegas
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Guest Editor
Assistant Professor of Occupational and Environmental Health, NOVA National School of Public Health, Public Health Research Centre, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: environmental health; occupational toxicology; exposure and risk assessment; mixtures; biomonitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ricardo Assunção
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Guest Editor
Food and Nutrition Department, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016, Lisboa, Portugal CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: food toxicology; mycotoxins; chemical mixtures; risk assessment and risk–benefit assessment of foods; interaction between foods/diets and human health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural food contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment assumes particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure will allow to derive the associated risk and the potential to the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts can also imply exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could also be exposed to mycotoxins, through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans.

All these exposure scenarios constitute an overall internal body burden of mycotoxins in humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a quite new frontier for the establishment of the real human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Combined with toxicological and epidemiological data, human biomonitoring data relate to exposure and disease.

Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, there are still major gaps in data that allow to recognize that mycotoxins are the cause of diseases. Aside from aflatoxin B1, the most potent natural carcinogen known, and whose link with morbidity/mortality of both animals and humans has already been made, for other mycotoxins there are still several question marks. Moreover, the potential exposure to mycotoxin mixtures that may exhibit interactive activity and/or exert some biological function converging in the same molecular pathways still needs to be considered in the exposure and risk assessment and in the regulatory landscape.

We look forward to receiving your contributions for this Special Issue, in the form of original research or review papers which will shed light into the different perspectives of mycotoxin exposure and their implications for the establishment of a disease. No specific restrictions for particular mycotoxins are established.

Prof. Dr. Susana Viegas
Dr. Ricardo Assunção
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Risk assessment
  • Human biomonitoring
  • Mycotoxin mixtures
  • Food and feed
  • Occupational exposure
  • Health impact
  • Toxic effects

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030172 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in the diet of humans and animals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Food Consumption Data as a Tool to Estimate Exposure to Mycoestrogens
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020118 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Zearalenone and alternariol are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species, respectively, that present estrogenic activity and consequently are classified as endocrine disruptors. To estimate the exposure of the Portuguese population to these two mycotoxins at a national level, a modelling approach, based [...] Read more.
Zearalenone and alternariol are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species, respectively, that present estrogenic activity and consequently are classified as endocrine disruptors. To estimate the exposure of the Portuguese population to these two mycotoxins at a national level, a modelling approach, based on data from 94 Portuguese volunteers, was developed considering as inputs: i) the food consumption data generated within the National Food and Physical Activity Survey; and ii) the human biomonitoring data used to assess the exposure to the referred mycotoxins. Six models of association between mycoestrogens urinary levels (zearalenone, total zearalenone and alternariol) and food items (meat, cheese, and fresh-cheese, breakfast cereals, sweets) were established. Applying the obtained models to the consumption data (n = 5811) of the general population, the median estimates of the probable daily intake revealed that a fraction of the Portuguese population might exceed the tolerable daily intake defined for zearalenone. A reference intake value for alternariol is still lacking, thus the characterization of risk due to the exposure to this mycotoxin was not possible to perform. Although the unavoidable uncertainties, these results are important contributions to understand the exposure to endocrine disruptors in Portugal and the potential Public Health consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Evaluation of the Efficiency of Yeast Cell Wall Extract to Adsorb Ochratoxin A and Mitigate Accumulation of the Toxin in Broiler Chickens
Toxins 2020, 12(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010037 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a common mycotoxin contaminant in animal feed. When absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, OTA has a propensity for pathological effects on animal health and deposition in animal tissues. In this study, the potential of yeast cell wall extracts (YCWE) [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a common mycotoxin contaminant in animal feed. When absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, OTA has a propensity for pathological effects on animal health and deposition in animal tissues. In this study, the potential of yeast cell wall extracts (YCWE) to adsorb OTA was evaluated using an in vitro method in which consecutive animal digestion events were simulated. Low pH markedly increased OTA binding to YCWE, which was reversed with a pH increased to 6.5. Overall, in vitro analysis revealed that 30% of OTA was adsorbed to YCWE. Additional computational molecular modelling revealed that change in pH alters the OTA charge and modulates the interaction with the YCWE β-d-glucans. The effectiveness of YCWE was tested in a 14-day broiler chicken trial. Birds were subjected to five dietary treatments; with and without OTA, and OTA combined with YCWE at three dosages. At the end of the trial, liver OTA deposition was evaluated. Data showed a decrease of up to 30% in OTA deposits in the liver of broilers fed both OTA and YCWE. In the case of OTA, a tight correlation between the mitigation efficacy of YCWE between in vitro and in vivo model could be observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Cytotoxic Properties of HT-2 Toxin in Human Chondrocytes: Could T3 Inhibit Toxicity of HT-2?
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110667 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role in coordinated endochondral ossification and hypertrophic differentiation of the growth plate, while aberrant thyroid hormone function appears to be related to skeletal malformations, osteoarthritis, and Kashin-Beck disease. The T-2 toxin, present extensively in [...] Read more.
Thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role in coordinated endochondral ossification and hypertrophic differentiation of the growth plate, while aberrant thyroid hormone function appears to be related to skeletal malformations, osteoarthritis, and Kashin-Beck disease. The T-2 toxin, present extensively in cereal grains, and one of its main metabolites, HT-2 toxin, are hypothesized to be potential factors associated with hypertrophic chondrocyte-related osteochondropathy, known as the Kashin-Beck disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of T3 and HT-2 toxin on human chondrocytes. The immortalized human chondrocyte cell line, C-28/I2, was cultured in four different groups: controls, and cultures with T3, T3 plus HT-2 and HT-2 alone. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT assay after 24-h-exposure. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect gene expression levels of collagen types II and X, aggrecan and runx2, and the differences in runx2 were confirmed with immunoblot analysis. T3 was only slightly cytotoxic, in contrast to the significant, dose-dependent cytotoxicity of HT-2 alone at concentrations ≥ 50 nM. T3, together with HT-2, significantly rescued the cytotoxic effect of HT-2. HT-2 induced significant increases in aggrecan and runx2 gene expression, while the hypertrophic differentiation marker, type X collagen, remained unchanged. Thus, T3 protected against HT-2 induced cytotoxicity, and HT-2 was an inducer of the pre-hypertrophic state of the chondrocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Porcine Hepatic Response to Fumonisin B1 in a Short Exposure Period: Fatty Acid Profile and Clinical Investigations
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110655 - 10 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Scarce studies have investigated the impact of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the hepatic tissue fatty acid (FA) profile, and no study is available on piglets. A 10-day in vivo experiment was performed on seven piglets/group: control and FB1-fed [...] Read more.
Scarce studies have investigated the impact of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on the hepatic tissue fatty acid (FA) profile, and no study is available on piglets. A 10-day in vivo experiment was performed on seven piglets/group: control and FB1-fed animals (diet was contaminated with fungal culture: 20 mg FB1/kg diet). Independent sample t-test was carried out at p < 0.05 as the significance level. Neither growth, nor feed efficiency, was affected. The hepatic phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) were more susceptible for FB1, while triglyceride (TG) was less responsive. The impact of FB1 on hepatic PL polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was more pronounced than on saturated fatty acids. Among all PUFAs, predominant ones in response were docosapentaenoicacid (DPA) (↓), docosahexaenoic DHA (↓) and arachidonic acids (↑). This led to a higher omega-6:omega-3 ratio, whereas a similar finding was noted in TGs. Neither total saturation (SFA) nor total monousaturation (MUFA) were affected by the FB1 administration. The liver showed an increase in malondialdehyde, as well as antioxidant capacity (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase). The plasma enzymatic assessment revealed an increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), while alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were not influenced. The microscopic sections provided evidence of vacuolar degeneration of the hepatocytes’ cytoplasm, but it was not severe. Furthermore, the lung edema was developed, while the kidney was not affected. In conclusion, regarding FB1-mediated hepatotoxicity in piglets, the potential effect of slight hepatotoxicity did not compromise growth performance, at least at the dose and exposure period applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Total Dietary Intake and Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A and Fuminisins of Children in Lao Cai Province, Vietnam
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110638 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The health burden of foodborne mycotoxins is considerable, but particularly for children due to their lower detoxification capacity, rapid growth and high intake of food in proportion to their weight. Through a Total Dietary Study approach, the objective was to estimate the dietary [...] Read more.
The health burden of foodborne mycotoxins is considerable, but particularly for children due to their lower detoxification capacity, rapid growth and high intake of food in proportion to their weight. Through a Total Dietary Study approach, the objective was to estimate the dietary exposure and health risk caused by mycotoxins for children under 5 years living in the Lao Cai province in northern Vietnam. A total of 40 composite food samples representing 1008 individual food samples were processed and analyzed by ELISA for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fumonisins. Results showed that dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and total fumonisins were 118.7 ng/kgbw/day, 52.6 ng/kg bw/day and 1250.0 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. Using a prevalence of hepatitis of 1%, the risk of liver cancer related to exposure of aflatoxin B1 was 12.1 cases/100,000 individual/year. Age-adjusted margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer associated with ochratoxin A was 127, while MOE of liver cancer associated with fumonisins was 542. Antropometric data show that 50.4% (60/119) of children were stunted, i.e. height/length for age z-scores (HAZ) below –2, and 3.4% (4/119) of children were classified as wasted, i.e. weight for height z-scores (WHZ) below –2. A significant negative relationship between dietary exposure to individual or mixture of mycotoxins and growth of children was observed indicating that the high mycotoxin intake contributed to stunning in the children studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
AFM1 Detection in Milk by Fab’ Functionalized Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometric Biosensors
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070409 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aflatoxins (AF) are naturally occurring mycotoxins, produced by many species of Aspergillus. Among aflatoxins, Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is one of the most frequent and dangerous for human health. The acceptable maximum level of AFM1 in milk according to EU regulation is 50 ppt, [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AF) are naturally occurring mycotoxins, produced by many species of Aspergillus. Among aflatoxins, Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is one of the most frequent and dangerous for human health. The acceptable maximum level of AFM1 in milk according to EU regulation is 50 ppt, equivalent to 152 pM, and 25 ppt, equivalent to 76 pM, for adults and infants, respectively. Here, we study a photonic biosensor based on Si 3 N 4 asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometers (aMZI) functionalized with Fab’ for AFM1 detection in milk samples (eluates). The minimum concentration of AFM1 detected by our aMZI sensors is 48 pM (16.8 pg/mL) in purified and concentrated milk samples. Moreover, the real-time detection of the ligand-analyte binding enables the study of the kinetics of the reaction. We measured the kinetic rate constants of the Fab’-AFM1 interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Mycotoxins at the Start of the Food Chain in Costa Rica: Analysis of Six Fusarium Toxins and Ochratoxin A between 2013 and 2017 in Animal Feed and Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060312 - 31 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites, produced by fungi of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium (among others), which produce adverse health effects on humans and animals (carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive). In addition, mycotoxins negatively affect the productive parameters of livestock (e.g., weight, food consumption, [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites, produced by fungi of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium (among others), which produce adverse health effects on humans and animals (carcinogenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive). In addition, mycotoxins negatively affect the productive parameters of livestock (e.g., weight, food consumption, and food conversion). Epidemiological studies are considered necessary to assist stakeholders with the process of decision-making regarding the control of mycotoxins in processing environments. This study addressed the prevalence in feed ingredients and compound feed of eight different types of toxins, including metabolites produced by Fusarium spp. (Deoxynivalenol/3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, T-2/HT-2 toxins, zearalenone and fumonisins) and two additional toxins (i.e., ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)) from different fungal species, for over a period of five years. On the subject of Fusarium toxins, higher prevalences were observed for fumonisins (n = 80/113, 70.8%) and DON (n = 212/363, 58.4%), whereas, for OTA, a prevalence of 40.56% was found (n = 146/360). In the case of raw material, mycotoxin contamination exceeding recommended values were observed in cornmeal for HT-2 toxin (n = 3/24, 12.5%), T-2 toxin (n = 3/61, 4.9%), and ZEA (n = 2/45, 4.4%). In contrast, many compound feed samples exceeded recommended values; in dairy cattle feed toxins such as DON (n = 5/147, 3.4%), ZEA (n = 6/150, 4.0%), T-2 toxin (n = 10/171, 5.9%), and HT-2 toxin (n = 13/132, 9.8%) were observed in high amounts. OTA was the most common compound accompanying Fusarium toxins (i.e., 16.67% of co-occurrence with ZEA). This study also provided epidemiological data for AFM1 in liquid milk. The outcomes unveiled a high prevalence of contamination (i.e., 29.6–71.1%) and several samples exceeding the regulatory threshold. Statistical analysis exposed no significant climate effect connected to the prevalence of diverse types of mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Time-Dependent Changes in the Intestinal Microbiome of Gilts Exposed to Low Zearalenone Doses
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050296 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Zearalenone is a frequent contaminant of cereals and their by-products in regions with a temperate climate. This toxic molecule is produced naturally by Fusarium fungi in crops. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of low zearalenone doses (LOAEL, NOAEL [...] Read more.
Zearalenone is a frequent contaminant of cereals and their by-products in regions with a temperate climate. This toxic molecule is produced naturally by Fusarium fungi in crops. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of low zearalenone doses (LOAEL, NOAEL and MABEL) on the intestinal microbiome of gilts on different days of exposure (days 7, 21 and 42). Intestinal contents were sampled from the duodenal cap, the third part of the duodenum, jejunum, caecum and the descending colon. The experiment was performed on 60 clinically healthy gilts with average BW of 14.5 ± 2 kg, divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Group ZEN5 animals were orally administered ZEN at 5 μg /kg BW, group ZEN10—10 μg ZEN/kg BW and group ZEN15—15 µg ZEN/kg BW. Five gilts from every group were euthanized on analytical dates 1, 2 and 3. Differences in the log values of microbial counts, mainly Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, were observed between the proximal and distal segments of the intestinal tract on different analytical dates as well as in the entire intestinal tract. Zearalenone affected the colony counts of intestinal microbiota rather than microbiome diversity, and its effect was greatest in groups ZEN10 and ZEN15. Microbial colony counts were similar in groups ZEN5 and C. In the analysed mycobiome, ZEN exerted a stimulatory effect on the log values of yeast and mould counts in all intestinal segments, in particular in the colon, and the greatest increase was noted on the first analytical date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Modified Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) Adsorbent Can Effectively Reduce T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Biochemistry, and Small Intestinal Morphology in Chicks
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040199 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce the toxicity of T-2 toxin in broilers. Ninety-six one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated into four experimental groups with four replicates of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a modified hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to reduce the toxicity of T-2 toxin in broilers. Ninety-six one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated into four experimental groups with four replicates of six birds each. The four groups, 1–4, received a basal diet (BD), a BD plus 6.0 mg/kg T-2 toxin, a BD plus 6.0 mg/kg T-2 toxin with 0.05% modified HSCAS adsorbent, and a BD plus 0.05% modified HSCAS adsorbent, respectively, for two weeks. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemistry, and small intestinal histopathology were analyzed. Compared to the control group, dietary supplementation of T-2 toxin decreased (p < 0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and the feed conversion ratio by 11.4–31.8% during the whole experiment. It also decreased (p < 0.05) the apparent metabolic rates of crude protein, calcium, and total phosphorus by 14.9–16.1%. The alterations induced by T-2 toxin were mitigated (p < 0.05) by the supplementation of the modified HSCAS adsorbent. Meanwhile, dietary modified HSCAS adsorbent supplementation prevented (p < 0.05) increased serum aspartate aminotransferase by T-2 toxin at d 14. It also prevented (p < 0.05) T-2 toxin-induced morphological changes and damage in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers. However, dietary supplementation of the modified HSCAS adsorbent alone did not affect (p > 0.05) any of these variables. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the modified HSCAS adsorbent could be used against T-2 toxin-induced toxicity in growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and hepatic and small intestinal injuries in chicks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxins in Swine Production: Environmental and Biological Monitoring Approaches
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020078 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
Swine production workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Portuguese swine production farms has already been reported. However, besides AFB1, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could [...] Read more.
Swine production workers are exposed simultaneously to multiple contaminants. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Portuguese swine production farms has already been reported. However, besides AFB1, data regarding fungal contamination showed that exposure to other mycotoxins could be expected in this setting. The present study aimed to characterize the occupational exposure to multiple mycotoxins of swine production workers. To provide a broad view on the burden of contamination by mycotoxins and the workers’ exposure, biological (urine) samples from workers (n = 25) and 38 environmental samples (air samples, n = 23; litter samples, n = 5; feed samples, n = 10) were collected. The mycotoxins biomarkers detected in the urine samples of the workers group were the deoxynivalenol-glucuronic acid conjugate (60%), aflatoxin M1 (16%), enniatin B (4%), citrinin (8%), dihydrocitrinone (12%) and ochratoxin A (80%). Results of the control group followed the same pattern, but in general with a lower number of quantifiable results (<LOQ). Besides air samples, all the other environmental samples collected presented high and diverse contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON), like in the biomonitoring results, was the most prominent mycotoxin. The results demonstrate that the occupational environment is adding and contributing to the workers’ total exposure to mycotoxins, particularly in the case of DON. This was confirmed by the biomonitoring data and the high contamination found in feed and litter samples. Furthermore, he followed multi-biomarker approach allowed to conclude that workers and general population are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously. Moreover, occupational exposure is probably described as being intermittent and with very high concentrations for short durations. This should be reflected in the risk assessment process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Differential Transcriptome Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in the Cecal Tonsil of Susceptible and Resistant Turkeys
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010055 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The nearly-ubiquitous food and feed-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is carcinogenic and mutagenic, posing a food safety threat to humans and animals. One of the most susceptible animal species known and thus a good model for characterizing toxicological pathways, is [...] Read more.
The nearly-ubiquitous food and feed-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is carcinogenic and mutagenic, posing a food safety threat to humans and animals. One of the most susceptible animal species known and thus a good model for characterizing toxicological pathways, is the domesticated turkey (DT), a condition likely due, at least in part, to deficient hepatic AFB1-detoxifying alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs). Conversely, wild turkeys (Eastern wild, EW) are relatively resistant to the hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects of AFB1 owing to functional gene expression and presence of functional hepatic GSTAs. This study was designed to compare the responses in gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract between DT (susceptible phenotype) and EW (resistant phenotype) following dietary AFB1 challenge (320 ppb for 14 days); specifically in cecal tonsil which functions in both nutrient absorption and gut immunity. RNAseq and gene expression analysis revealed significant differential gene expression in AFB1-treated animals compared to control-fed domestic and wild birds and in within-treatment comparisons between bird types. Significantly upregulated expression of the primary hepatic AFB1-activating P450 (CYP1A5) as well as transcriptional changes in tight junction proteins were observed in AFB1-treated birds. Numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β and EGF were significantly down regulated by AFB1 treatment in DT birds and pathway analysis suggested suppression of enteroendocrine cells. Conversely, AFB1 treatment modified significantly fewer unique genes in EW birds; among these were genes involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism and immune response. This is the first investigation of the effects of AFB1 on the turkey gastro-intestinal tract. Results suggest that in addition to the hepatic transcriptome, animal resistance to this mycotoxin occurs in organ systems outside the liver, specifically as a refractory gastrointestinal tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Gut Microbiota Profiling of Aflatoxin B1-Induced Rats Treated with Lactobacillus casei Shirota
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010049 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a ubiquitous carcinogenic food contaminant. Gut microbiota is of vital importance for the host’s health, regrettably, limited studies have reported the effects of xenobiotic toxins towards gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the interactions between AFB1 [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a ubiquitous carcinogenic food contaminant. Gut microbiota is of vital importance for the host’s health, regrettably, limited studies have reported the effects of xenobiotic toxins towards gut microbiota. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the interactions between AFB1 and the gut microbiota. Besides, an AFB1-binding microorganism, Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Lcs) was tested on its ability to ameliorate the changes on gut microbiota induced by AFB1. The fecal contents of three groups of rats included an untreated control group, an AFB1 group, as well as an Lcs + AFB1 group, were analyzed. Using the MiSeq platform, the PCR products of 16S rDNA gene extracted from the feces were subjected to next-generation sequencing. The alpha diversity index (Shannon) showed that the richness of communities increased significantly in the Lcs + AFB1 group compared to the control and AFB1 groups. Meanwhile, beta diversity indices demonstrated that AFB1 group significantly deviated from the control and Lcs + AFB1 groups. AFB1-exposed rats were especially high in Alloprevotella spp. abundance. Such alteration in the bacterial composition might give an insight on the interactions of AFB1 towards gut microbiota and how Lcs plays its role in detoxification of AFB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases) Printed Edition available
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