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AFM1 Detection in Milk by Fab’ Functionalized Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometric Biosensors

1
Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Trento, 38123 Trento, Italy
2
LaBSSAH, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38123 Trento, Italy
3
CNR-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biofisica, 38123 Trento, Italy
4
LioniX International BV, 7521 AN Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: B-PHOT Brussels Photonics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
§
Current address: Indivenire s.r.l., 38123 Trento, Italy.
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070409
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases)
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Abstract

Aflatoxins (AF) are naturally occurring mycotoxins, produced by many species of Aspergillus. Among aflatoxins, Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is one of the most frequent and dangerous for human health. The acceptable maximum level of AFM1 in milk according to EU regulation is 50 ppt, equivalent to 152 pM, and 25 ppt, equivalent to 76 pM, for adults and infants, respectively. Here, we study a photonic biosensor based on Si 3 N 4 asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometers (aMZI) functionalized with Fab’ for AFM1 detection in milk samples (eluates). The minimum concentration of AFM1 detected by our aMZI sensors is 48 pM (16.8 pg/mL) in purified and concentrated milk samples. Moreover, the real-time detection of the ligand-analyte binding enables the study of the kinetics of the reaction. We measured the kinetic rate constants of the Fab’-AFM1 interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: lab-on-chip; optical biosensors; Fab’; Aflatoxin M1; asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer; limit of detection; affinity lab-on-chip; optical biosensors; Fab’; Aflatoxin M1; asymmetric Mach–Zehnder interferometer; limit of detection; affinity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chalyan, T.; Potrich, C.; Schreuder, E.; Falke, F.; Pasquardini, L.; Pederzolli, C.; Heideman, R.; Pavesi, L. AFM1 Detection in Milk by Fab’ Functionalized Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometric Biosensors. Toxins 2019, 11, 409.

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