Special Issue "Sustainable Tourism - Ways to Counteract the Negative Effects of Overtourism at Tourist Attractions and Destinations"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Tourism, Culture, and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Kruczek
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Al. Jana Pawla II 78, 31-571 Kraków, Poland
Interests: sustainable tourism; special interest tourism (mountain tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, sport tourism); tourism attractions, regional aspects of the geography of tourism, tourism promotion and information

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish current research and literature on overtourism and sustainable tourism as a way to eliminate or limit the effects of excessive tourism.
In particular, this Special Issue of the peer-reviewed international journal Sustainability aspires to expand the discussion and scholarship on a range of viewpoints, trends, approaches, cases, success factors, impacts, challenges, models and/or frameworks of relevance to tourism in regions and cities, as well as cultural and natural attractions threatened by the negative effects of overtourism.
In the tourism literature from the last two years, overtourism has been the most commonly discussed topic in both the media and by the scientific community. The excessive presence of tourists leads to congestion in attractive locations, over-advertising and aggressive commercialization, as well as a subsequent decrease in the level of aesthetic experiences for tourists. It also results in degradation of both natural and cultural resources. The effect of excessive tourism is an increase in the price of services, rental fees and real estate, and depopulation in districts exploited by tourism. In cities with a long history, it causes the gentrification of historical areas.
Overtourism results in the limits of socio-psychological capacity of residents being exceeded, resulting in the dissatisfaction of residents and protests against the further development of tourism. The residents’ dissatisfaction also affects the ‘local atmosphere’ experienced by tourists.
This Special Issue aims to explore further sustainable tourism practices, outcomes and success factors for areas affected by overtourism with an interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial approach. Potential areas of focus are cities, natural attractions (e.g. national parks), reserves, cultural objects (e.g. those on the World Heritage List), museums and other sensitive places. Topics may include, but not be limited to the following within the context of sustainable tourism:

  • challenges and opportunities in areas affected by the excessive tourist frequency regarding tourism development
  • overtourism in:
    • national parks and nature reserves
    • cities and resorts
    • cultural attractions (museums, theme parks, events, etc.)
  • coastal tourism and cruise tourism in the time of overtourism
  • overtourism and seasonality
  • climate change and overtourism
  • overtourism in world heritage areas
  • tourism gentrification of historic districts
  • tourism products and customer experiences in overtourism places and regions
  • historic aspects of tourism in sensitive areas
  • smart tourism and smart attractions
  • sustainable tourism monitoring towards identifying early symptoms of overtourism
  • destination governance and DMO’s responsibilities and decision-making schemes in destinations affected or threatened by overtourism,
  • methods and strategies to mitigate the effects of overtourism
  • overtourism-induced conflicts, relationships between visitors, inhabitants and tourism entrepreneurs
  • sharing economy, platform economy, and overtourism
  • impact of technology on tourism destinations
  • co-creation, experience economy and experiential travel in the area of overtourism
  • impact of overtourism on the housing market
  • SMEs and family firms in overtourism destinations
  • tourism policy towards overtourism: transnational, national, regional, and destination level
  • nighttime economy and overtourism
  • diagnostic indicators for measuring traffic overload,
  • ways to counteract excessive overload of tourist traffic in spa areas.

Regional and international case studies, original research with quantitative investigation, theoretical frameworks and models and other relevant illustrations of the significance of sustainable tourism in overtourism destinations will be considered for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Kruczek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Overtourism
  • threats
  • sustainable tourism
  • city tourism
  • gentrification
  • coastal tourism and cruising
  • national parks
  • nature reserves
  • tourist attractions
  • customer experiences
  • development and planning
  • strategies
  • smart tourism
  • smart attractions
  • nighttime economy
  • sharing economy
  • co-creation
  • experiential travel
  • diagnostic indicators
  • spa area

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Overtourism and Medium Scale Sporting Events Organisations—the Perception of Negative Externalities by Host Residents
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2827; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072827 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of non-mega sporting events on the perception of negative externalities of host residents. The detailed aim of the study was to examine whether the inhabitants of the city feel the negative effects [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of non-mega sporting events on the perception of negative externalities of host residents. The detailed aim of the study was to examine whether the inhabitants of the city feel the negative effects of organizing sporting events (communication problems or inappropriate behavior of supporters) and do they believe that these events increase the level of crime in the city or, despite these inconveniences, they are satisfied with the organization of sporting events in their place of residence. The case study is the city of Poznan and two, well-known events in this agglomeration. The first one is the Poznan Half Marathon—medium scale mass event, the second one is Cavaliada—elite international equestrian event. The theoretical part of this article presents the meaning of sporting events organization for tourism industry and indicates the positive and negative effects this kind of tourism brings to host cities. The whole refers to the theoretical foundations of the term of “overtourism”. The second part of the manuscript presents empirical research results, between 774 active and passive participants, which was conducted by the method of diagnostic survey. The results of this research show that both athletes as well as fans of the Half Marathon said that the Poznan Half Marathon event causes bothersome communication problems in the city and some other social problems. The inhabitants only experience minor inconveniences that felt as a result of organizing sporting events in the city. The negative impact of Cavaliada was very low. For checking the differences between the two examined groups of respondents: Half Marathon fans and Cavaliada fans, Chi-square test and U Mann Whitney’s test was used. The participants feel bothersome communication problems that cause the Half Marathon and have an average level of dissatisfaction higher than the average level of dissatisfaction of Cavaliada participants. Moreover, the participants in the Half Marathon have an average level of satisfaction with the organization of sports events in Poznan significantly lower than the average level of satisfaction of Cavaliada participants. Therefore, an elite equestrian sporting event is less burdensome for its residents and gives them more satisfaction. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Sharing Economy and Sustainability of Urban Destinations in the (Over)tourism Context: The Social Capital Theory Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062310 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1340
Abstract
This article contributes to the discussion on the sustainability of the sharing economy by adopting the Social Capital Theory to expand explanations of the sharing economy’s role and scope of relations with local communities in the context of overtourism. As mutual relationships have [...] Read more.
This article contributes to the discussion on the sustainability of the sharing economy by adopting the Social Capital Theory to expand explanations of the sharing economy’s role and scope of relations with local communities in the context of overtourism. As mutual relationships have not been fully recognized through a theoretical perspective, the article aims to examine the sustainability of the process of the sharing economy impacting urban tourism communities in light of Robert Putnam’s approach to Social Capital Theory. On the basis of a selective systematic review, the article discusses the sustainability of the sharing economy through the lens of bridging and bonding social capital. We argue that a new configuration of social capital, i.e., a sharing platform-modified social capital, arises from the unsustainable and disruptive power of the sharing economy implemented by virtual platforms, thereby contributing to an overtourism syndrome. However, from a medium- and long-term perspective, the sharing economy also impacts the bridging nature of social capital, which should lead to a more sustainable balance in its structure. This initial framework for understanding the impact of the sharing economy on sustainability of local communities provides an alternative approach to studying residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards tourism in the areas affected by overtourism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Distribution as a Solution for Over-Tourism in Night Tourism: The Case of Suwon Hwaseong in South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062182 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
As the demands of tourism become increasingly bigger, there are side effects of rapid quantitative growth, representatively, over-tourism. As efforts at minimizing over-tourism, the possibilities of temporal and seasonal distribution were explored. For the experiment, an offline survey was conducted targeting the visitors [...] Read more.
As the demands of tourism become increasingly bigger, there are side effects of rapid quantitative growth, representatively, over-tourism. As efforts at minimizing over-tourism, the possibilities of temporal and seasonal distribution were explored. For the experiment, an offline survey was conducted targeting the visitors who visited Suwon Hwaseong, the UNESCO World Heritage in South Korea during the nighttime. Group classification was conducted based on visitors’ preferred times and seasons and estimated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for night tourism activities by these classifications. To compare the MWTP of the groups and examine differences in attributes between the groups, a choice experiment (CE) was used. The results from the CE revealed that the MWTP for attributes was different in those groups. Based on MWTP of each group and their characteristics, it was confirmed that temporal and seasonal distribution can be one solution of over-tourism. These results may be useful for night tourism management and development at a UNESCO World Heritage site, such as providing strategies for minimizing over-tourism, which is distributed by peak and non-peak times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Overtourism Phenomenon Risk in Tunisia in Relation to the Tourism Area Life Cycle Concept
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052004 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Tunisia is a destination where organised mass tourism has prevailed since 1985. This trend is still being observed, despite the unstable geopolitical situation in North Africa. Current reports from booking portals indicate that this country will be one of the most popular tourist [...] Read more.
Tunisia is a destination where organised mass tourism has prevailed since 1985. This trend is still being observed, despite the unstable geopolitical situation in North Africa. Current reports from booking portals indicate that this country will be one of the most popular tourist destinations in 2020. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the prospects for sustainable development in Tunisia in 2020–2025 as means to prevent the negative effects of overtourism. The research was conducted in three stages: (1) analysis of the phases of tourism development in Tunisia from 1960 to 2019 in relation to the Tourism Area Life Cycle concept, (2) identification of the destination’s evolution in 2015–2019 with the method of trend function exploration, and (3) an attempt to assess the risk of overtourism in Tunisia in light of Tourism Carrying Capacity on the basis of the Tourism Intensity Index and Tourism Density index. The study results revealed three phases of development in Tunisia, i.e. exploration, involvement, and development. The verification of the trend function indicated that Tunisia would enter the consolidation phase in 2020. The highest risk of overtourism is estimated for three governorates—Tunis, Sousse, and Monastir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship of Subjective Well-Being in Residents’ Perceptions of the Impacts of Overtourism in the City of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051957 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Tourism is an expanding sector, and it is one of the priorities of individuals seeking leisure. While the activity is developing rapidly, the increase in the flow of tourists in localities has interfered with the residents’ subjective well-being, generating a feeling of “excess [...] Read more.
Tourism is an expanding sector, and it is one of the priorities of individuals seeking leisure. While the activity is developing rapidly, the increase in the flow of tourists in localities has interfered with the residents’ subjective well-being, generating a feeling of “excess of tourism.” Overtourism is associated with destinations that suffer from the tension of tourism when the maximum number of people who can visit a tourist destination at the same time is exceeded. Therefore, this study aims to correlate the relationship between the subjective well-being of the residents of Blumenau and the perceptions of excessive tourism in their territory of residence. To this end, a survey was carried out, with a quantitative approach with 400 residents of Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The survey results demonstrate that the subjective well-being of the autochthonous population correlates with tolerance to overtourism. Thus, the research has practical and managerial implications for tourist destinations. Managers must develop means for the subjective well-being of the population to be high, thus contributing to the decrease in the feeling of overtourism. Full article
Open AccessArticle
How Overtourism Threatens Large Urban Areas: A Case Study of the City of Wrocław, Poland
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051783 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Excessive tourist traffic concentration in cities of high tourist attractiveness often leads to overtourism, manifested, among others, by overcrowding in appealing areas and means of transport, rising prices, or degradation of natural and cultural resources. The effects of an excessive number of tourists [...] Read more.
Excessive tourist traffic concentration in cities of high tourist attractiveness often leads to overtourism, manifested, among others, by overcrowding in appealing areas and means of transport, rising prices, or degradation of natural and cultural resources. The effects of an excessive number of tourists include an unfavourable change in the local community’s attitude towards tourists. The paper determines the extent and forms of overtourism symptoms in Wrocław, Poland. The research allowed for the identification of negative and positive effects of tourist traffic in Wrocław as perceived by three groups of respondents: experts, Wrocław residents: key experts from the scientific, administrative, planning, and business communities; people directly involved in tourist services; and students of tourism. The crucial part was direct research, conducted in November 2019 with a questionnaire technique. The results confirm symptoms of overtourism in Wrocław, but the threat is not significant. The article shows specific potential overtourism threat factors; the respondents’ opinions did not significantly differ between the groups. The presented findings and conclusions may be useful in developing the tourism policy of this and other cities, especially regarding sustainable development of tourism and the potential threat imposed by overtourism. The methodology may be used in similar comparative studies in other cities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reasons and Consequences of Overtourism in Contemporary Cities—Knowledge Gaps and Future Research
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051729 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
Even though overtourism became the object of extensive scientific research only three years ago, different definitions and approaches to the issue can be seen. However, it is still in the initial phase of research, and there are numerous gaps in our knowledge of [...] Read more.
Even though overtourism became the object of extensive scientific research only three years ago, different definitions and approaches to the issue can be seen. However, it is still in the initial phase of research, and there are numerous gaps in our knowledge of the reasons and solutions to this issue. The main aim of the paper is to summarize different approaches and points of view on the overtourism issue. This includes searching for reasons of tension between tourists and visitors in particular destinations. They are presented partially in tourism literature but also in the literature dealing with urban studies, sustainable development and other areas. This aim was achieved through a literature review and the deduction method. The paper identifies several different factors that stimulate overtourism. Some of them are acknowledged in most publications. They are a growing number of tourists, new solutions in the information technologies (IT) business and the availability of cheap flights. Other factors such as management mistakes in particular destinations are underlined from time to time. Finally, some factors are expressed very rarely. They are the growing popularity of city tourism and the shift from 3S (sea, sun and sand) to 3E (education, experience, entertainment) tourism. Identification and general overview of those factors is intended to be an important contribution to the contemporary scientific knowledge on overtourism. The analysis of the factors recognized allowed to point out significant weaknesses of our contemporary knowledge on overtourism. A radical shift of the approach to the governance of cities as tourism destinations, as well as filling theoretical gaps and creating effective tools to manage tourism development in cities are postulated. Several directions of the future research are presented in the conclusions of the paper. Some practical recommendations for decision-makers in particular cities are also included. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Deconstructing the Overtourism-Related Social Conflicts
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041695 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
The debate on overtourism still lacks conceptual precision in its delineation of the constituent elements and processes. In particular, conflict theory is rarely adopted, even though the social conflict is inscribed into the nature of this phenomenon. This article aims to frame the [...] Read more.
The debate on overtourism still lacks conceptual precision in its delineation of the constituent elements and processes. In particular, conflict theory is rarely adopted, even though the social conflict is inscribed into the nature of this phenomenon. This article aims to frame the discussion about (over)tourism within the perspective of social conflict theory by adopting the conflict deconstructing methods in order to diagnose the constructs and intensity of disputes associated with overtourism. In pursuit of this aim, the study addresses the following two research questions: (1) To what extent has the heuristic power of the conflict theory been used in overtourism discourse? and (2) How can overtourism be measured by the nature of the social conflicts referring to urban tourism development? The systematic literature review was conducted to analyze research developments on social conflicts within the overtourism discourse. In the empirical section (the case studies of the Polish cities, Krakow and Poznan), we deconstruct the social conflicts into five functional causes (i.e., values, relationship, data, structural, and interests) to diagnose the nature of the conflicts with respect to urban tourism development. This study shows that value conflicts impact most intensively on the nature and dynamics of the conflicts related to overtourism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experiencing Nature: Physical Activity, Beauty and Tension in Tatra National Park—Analysis of TripAdvisor Reviews
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020601 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
The aim of this article is to analyse the experiences gained by tourists visiting one of the most visited protected areas in Poland—the Tatra National Park (TNP). The authors focused on the following question: does the natural heritage of the national park affect [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to analyse the experiences gained by tourists visiting one of the most visited protected areas in Poland—the Tatra National Park (TNP). The authors focused on the following question: does the natural heritage of the national park affect visitors’ unique experiences or is environmentally valuable area not important for their experiences? This article uses mixed quantitative (Text Mining, co-occurrence network analysis) and qualitative (narratives research) methods. Data for analysis—revives posted by users between April 2011 and September 2019—were downloaded from TripAdvisor.co.uk. Reviews on TripAdvisor indicate that the most important for visiting tourists were the experiences of physical activity. This confirms the trend of maintaining health and the desire to regenerate physical strength. The group of reviews related to connection to nature experiences is extremely small, which indicates that tourists probably did not come to TNP as a result of a preference for experiences related to ecological awareness. Some tourists felt tension, which indicates that the carrying capacity was exceeded. There is a doubt as to whether tourists who want to engage in physical activity must necessarily visit the area with the highest degree of nature protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Visitors on the Properties of Vegetation of Calcareous Grasslands in the Context of Width and Distances from Tourist Trails
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020454 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Over the last decades, valuable natural areas considered as zones of silence and rest have been increasingly struggling with the problem of mass tourism. In this study, an investigation of the effect of visitors on the properties of vegetation of calcareous grasslands in [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, valuable natural areas considered as zones of silence and rest have been increasingly struggling with the problem of mass tourism. In this study, an investigation of the effect of visitors on the properties of vegetation of calcareous grasslands in the context of width and distances from tourist trails is performed. The study was conducted in seven localities in Cracow (southern Poland) involving calcareous grasslands impacted by tourist trails. The results show that the lower height of plants, the greater number of species and the greater percentage of plant cover damaged by trampling in plots located close to the edge of tourist trails, as well as lower total plant cover and greater mean cover-abundance degree per species along narrow pathways. The dominance of meadow and grassland species, as well as the prevalence of native species, suggests that the composition of the examined vegetation has not been drastically changed. In the majority of the study plots, the dominance of hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes, inconsiderable share of phanerophytes and therophytes, as well as the low share of geophytes, were observed. The infrequent occurrence of species presenting Bidens dispersal type along narrow pathways, as well as in plots located close to the edge of tourist trails, suggests low external transport of epizoochorous seeds by passing people, while the prevalence of species presenting Cornus type in plots located away from the edge of tourist trails might be the effect of dung deposition by animals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Attitude of Tourist Destination Residents towards the Effects of Overtourism—Kraków Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010228 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Scientific research into the effect of tourist traffic in a tourist area have shown that the excessive concentration of tourist traffic leads to overcrowding in attractive locations, over-advertising, and aggressive commercialization, which lower the aesthetic quality of tourists’ experiences and result in the [...] Read more.
Scientific research into the effect of tourist traffic in a tourist area have shown that the excessive concentration of tourist traffic leads to overcrowding in attractive locations, over-advertising, and aggressive commercialization, which lower the aesthetic quality of tourists’ experiences and result in the degradation of natural and cultural resources. The effect of excessive tourist numbers is an increase in the price of services, rental fees, and real estate. In historical cities, it causes the gentrification of historical districts. One of the social effects of an increase in tourist numbers is a change in attitude amongst residents towards tourists. This change is dependent on how residents perceive the positive and negative effects of tourism. The appearance of a negative attitude among residents towards tourists is a result of exceeding the social carrying capacity limits, that is, the ability to accept changes as they take place. This article assesses the attitudes of residents and tourist service providers in Kraków with regard to increasing tourist traffic and the ongoing process of change in the cityscape leading to the gentrification of districts most often visited by tourists. On the basis of a study of 518 respondents, including 371 city residents and 147 representatives of the tourist industry (hotel owners, restaurateurs, and tourist service providers), an assessment is made of their attitudes towards the specific problems of tourism development in Kraków. The research results indicate a variety of attitudes among interested parties, thus confirming the research hypothesis that actors display varied approaches with regard to the further development of tourism in Kraków. The conclusions drawn could prove useful in shaping the city’s policy on tourism according to the idea of sustainable development, by taking into consideration the current and future needs of all interested parties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tourism Investment Gaps in Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226188 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Against a rapid and frequently unsustainable development of tourism in Poland, this article aims to recognize the investment attractiveness for tourism in Poland and its spatial diversity in the context of relieving the effects of overtourism. In the first stage, a multi-dimensional indicator [...] Read more.
Against a rapid and frequently unsustainable development of tourism in Poland, this article aims to recognize the investment attractiveness for tourism in Poland and its spatial diversity in the context of relieving the effects of overtourism. In the first stage, a multi-dimensional indicator model was developed, and then it was used to assess the attractiveness level of cities and rural, urban and urban-rural municipalities in Poland. The results of the study were the basis of the analysis of the attractiveness of cities in relation to their size, location in the tourist region and various forms of tourism. From a theoretical standpoint, the study shows that there is a clear-cut need to redirect tourism investments from the centres to more distinct locations in order to achieve more sustainable development of tourism. Furthermore, it was found, that the main factors that determine the tourism attractiveness of cities are market potential, cultural values, social infrastructure, and in some cases, natural values. The tourist potential of cities and rural areas allows for spatial dispersion of investments and counteracting the concentration of phenomena related to overtourism. The analysis was carried out for 2478 municipalities in Poland. The sums of zero unitarization method was used to assess the level of investment attractiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Business Model in Spa Tourism Enterprises: Case Study from Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102880 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
This article expands on knowledge about modeling tourism business. The basic scientific problem of the conducted research was the need to modernize the way of doing business in spa tourism enterprises by popularizing the business model and to provide an indication of the [...] Read more.
This article expands on knowledge about modeling tourism business. The basic scientific problem of the conducted research was the need to modernize the way of doing business in spa tourism enterprises by popularizing the business model and to provide an indication of the elements of the business model that should be grounded in the principles of sustainable spa development. The aim of the article is to present the results of our own research carried out in Polish spa enterprises in 2018. The key scientific issue was to examine the range of use of the business model templates in the management of tourism-treatment activities carried out in spas. Discussing the research results was preceded by a review of the literature on business models and the characteristics of activities carried out by spa tourism enterprises. The conducted research used qualitative methods, especially in-depth interviews, conducted with managers of the largest enterprises of spa tourism in Poland. Quantitative research was also conducted to examine the needs of tourists and patients. Our own scientific research has shown that spa enterprises in Poland very rarely and only within the scope limited to some elements of their activity, use the business model, and are not always aware of the wide range of its applications. As a result of the applications received, a business model dedicated to spa enterprises was developed. The article refers to the overtourism phenomenon in spas and indicates the need to put in business models, which are activities that protect spa areas against excessive pressure on tourism and the exploitation of natural resources. Full article
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