Special Issue "Sustainable Tourism - Ways to Counteract the Negative Effects of Overtourism at Tourist Attractions and Destinations"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainability of Culture and Heritage".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Kruczek
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Al. Jana Pawla II 78, 31-571 Kraków, Poland
Interests: sustainable tourism; special interest tourism (mountain tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, sport tourism); tourism attractions, regional aspects of the geography of tourism, tourism promotion and information

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish current research and literature on overtourism and sustainable tourism as a way to eliminate or limit the effects of excessive tourism.
In particular, this Special Issue of the peer-reviewed international journal Sustainability aspires to expand the discussion and scholarship on a range of viewpoints, trends, approaches, cases, success factors, impacts, challenges, models and/or frameworks of relevance to tourism in regions and cities, as well as cultural and natural attractions threatened by the negative effects of overtourism.
In the tourism literature from the last two years, overtourism has been the most commonly discussed topic in both the media and by the scientific community. The excessive presence of tourists leads to congestion in attractive locations, over-advertising and aggressive commercialization, as well as a subsequent decrease in the level of aesthetic experiences for tourists. It also results in degradation of both natural and cultural resources. The effect of excessive tourism is an increase in the price of services, rental fees and real estate, and depopulation in districts exploited by tourism. In cities with a long history, it causes the gentrification of historical areas.
Overtourism results in the limits of socio-psychological capacity of residents being exceeded, resulting in the dissatisfaction of residents and protests against the further development of tourism. The residents’ dissatisfaction also affects the ‘local atmosphere’ experienced by tourists.
This Special Issue aims to explore further sustainable tourism practices, outcomes and success factors for areas affected by overtourism with an interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial approach. Potential areas of focus are cities, natural attractions (e.g. national parks), reserves, cultural objects (e.g. those on the World Heritage List), museums and other sensitive places. Topics may include, but not be limited to the following within the context of sustainable tourism:

  • challenges and opportunities in areas affected by the excessive tourist frequency regarding tourism development
  • overtourism in:
    • national parks and nature reserves
    • cities and resorts
    • cultural attractions (museums, theme parks, events, etc.)
  • coastal tourism and cruise tourism in the time of overtourism
  • overtourism and seasonality
  • climate change and overtourism
  • overtourism in world heritage areas
  • tourism gentrification of historic districts
  • tourism products and customer experiences in overtourism places and regions
  • historic aspects of tourism in sensitive areas
  • smart tourism and smart attractions
  • sustainable tourism monitoring towards identifying early symptoms of overtourism
  • destination governance and DMO’s responsibilities and decision-making schemes in destinations affected or threatened by overtourism,
  • methods and strategies to mitigate the effects of overtourism
  • overtourism-induced conflicts, relationships between visitors, inhabitants and tourism entrepreneurs
  • sharing economy, platform economy, and overtourism
  • impact of technology on tourism destinations
  • co-creation, experience economy and experiential travel in the area of overtourism
  • impact of overtourism on the housing market
  • SMEs and family firms in overtourism destinations
  • tourism policy towards overtourism: transnational, national, regional, and destination level
  • nighttime economy and overtourism
  • diagnostic indicators for measuring traffic overload,
  • ways to counteract excessive overload of tourist traffic in spa areas.

Regional and international case studies, original research with quantitative investigation, theoretical frameworks and models and other relevant illustrations of the significance of sustainable tourism in overtourism destinations will be considered for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Zygmunt Kruczek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Overtourism
  • threats
  • sustainable tourism
  • city tourism
  • gentrification
  • coastal tourism and cruising
  • national parks
  • nature reserves
  • tourist attractions
  • customer experiences
  • development and planning
  • strategies
  • smart tourism
  • smart attractions
  • nighttime economy
  • sharing economy
  • co-creation
  • experiential travel
  • diagnostic indicators
  • spa area

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Experiencing Nature: Physical Activity, Beauty and Tension in Tatra National Park—Analysis of TripAdvisor Reviews
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020601 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
The aim of this article is to analyse the experiences gained by tourists visiting one of the most visited protected areas in Poland—the Tatra National Park (TNP). The authors focused on the following question: does the natural heritage of the national park affect [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to analyse the experiences gained by tourists visiting one of the most visited protected areas in Poland—the Tatra National Park (TNP). The authors focused on the following question: does the natural heritage of the national park affect visitors’ unique experiences or is environmentally valuable area not important for their experiences? This article uses mixed quantitative (Text Mining, co-occurrence network analysis) and qualitative (narratives research) methods. Data for analysis—revives posted by users between April 2011 and September 2019—were downloaded from TripAdvisor.co.uk. Reviews on TripAdvisor indicate that the most important for visiting tourists were the experiences of physical activity. This confirms the trend of maintaining health and the desire to regenerate physical strength. The group of reviews related to connection to nature experiences is extremely small, which indicates that tourists probably did not come to TNP as a result of a preference for experiences related to ecological awareness. Some tourists felt tension, which indicates that the carrying capacity was exceeded. There is a doubt as to whether tourists who want to engage in physical activity must necessarily visit the area with the highest degree of nature protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Attitude of Tourist Destination Residents towards the Effects of Overtourism—Kraków Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010228 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Scientific research into the effect of tourist traffic in a tourist area have shown that the excessive concentration of tourist traffic leads to overcrowding in attractive locations, over-advertising, and aggressive commercialization, which lower the aesthetic quality of tourists’ experiences and result in the [...] Read more.
Scientific research into the effect of tourist traffic in a tourist area have shown that the excessive concentration of tourist traffic leads to overcrowding in attractive locations, over-advertising, and aggressive commercialization, which lower the aesthetic quality of tourists’ experiences and result in the degradation of natural and cultural resources. The effect of excessive tourist numbers is an increase in the price of services, rental fees, and real estate. In historical cities, it causes the gentrification of historical districts. One of the social effects of an increase in tourist numbers is a change in attitude amongst residents towards tourists. This change is dependent on how residents perceive the positive and negative effects of tourism. The appearance of a negative attitude among residents towards tourists is a result of exceeding the social carrying capacity limits, that is, the ability to accept changes as they take place. This article assesses the attitudes of residents and tourist service providers in Kraków with regard to increasing tourist traffic and the ongoing process of change in the cityscape leading to the gentrification of districts most often visited by tourists. On the basis of a study of 518 respondents, including 371 city residents and 147 representatives of the tourist industry (hotel owners, restaurateurs, and tourist service providers), an assessment is made of their attitudes towards the specific problems of tourism development in Kraków. The research results indicate a variety of attitudes among interested parties, thus confirming the research hypothesis that actors display varied approaches with regard to the further development of tourism in Kraków. The conclusions drawn could prove useful in shaping the city’s policy on tourism according to the idea of sustainable development, by taking into consideration the current and future needs of all interested parties. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tourism Investment Gaps in Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226188 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Against a rapid and frequently unsustainable development of tourism in Poland, this article aims to recognize the investment attractiveness for tourism in Poland and its spatial diversity in the context of relieving the effects of overtourism. In the first stage, a multi-dimensional indicator [...] Read more.
Against a rapid and frequently unsustainable development of tourism in Poland, this article aims to recognize the investment attractiveness for tourism in Poland and its spatial diversity in the context of relieving the effects of overtourism. In the first stage, a multi-dimensional indicator model was developed, and then it was used to assess the attractiveness level of cities and rural, urban and urban-rural municipalities in Poland. The results of the study were the basis of the analysis of the attractiveness of cities in relation to their size, location in the tourist region and various forms of tourism. From a theoretical standpoint, the study shows that there is a clear-cut need to redirect tourism investments from the centres to more distinct locations in order to achieve more sustainable development of tourism. Furthermore, it was found, that the main factors that determine the tourism attractiveness of cities are market potential, cultural values, social infrastructure, and in some cases, natural values. The tourist potential of cities and rural areas allows for spatial dispersion of investments and counteracting the concentration of phenomena related to overtourism. The analysis was carried out for 2478 municipalities in Poland. The sums of zero unitarization method was used to assess the level of investment attractiveness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Business Model in Spa Tourism Enterprises: Case Study from Poland
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2880; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102880 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This article expands on knowledge about modeling tourism business. The basic scientific problem of the conducted research was the need to modernize the way of doing business in spa tourism enterprises by popularizing the business model and to provide an indication of the [...] Read more.
This article expands on knowledge about modeling tourism business. The basic scientific problem of the conducted research was the need to modernize the way of doing business in spa tourism enterprises by popularizing the business model and to provide an indication of the elements of the business model that should be grounded in the principles of sustainable spa development. The aim of the article is to present the results of our own research carried out in Polish spa enterprises in 2018. The key scientific issue was to examine the range of use of the business model templates in the management of tourism-treatment activities carried out in spas. Discussing the research results was preceded by a review of the literature on business models and the characteristics of activities carried out by spa tourism enterprises. The conducted research used qualitative methods, especially in-depth interviews, conducted with managers of the largest enterprises of spa tourism in Poland. Quantitative research was also conducted to examine the needs of tourists and patients. Our own scientific research has shown that spa enterprises in Poland very rarely and only within the scope limited to some elements of their activity, use the business model, and are not always aware of the wide range of its applications. As a result of the applications received, a business model dedicated to spa enterprises was developed. The article refers to the overtourism phenomenon in spas and indicates the need to put in business models, which are activities that protect spa areas against excessive pressure on tourism and the exploitation of natural resources. Full article
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