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Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Education and Approaches".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 August 2023) | Viewed by 29284

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Department of Information and Learning Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan
Interests: affective computing; artificial intelligence; digital learning; educational technology; metaverse; digital arts
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Education provides the best channel of inheritance for mankind's sustainable cultivation of talents. In recent years, there have been many researches on educational technology. Coupled with the COVID-19 period, distance learning and e-Learning have become important trends, and various platforms, applications, autonomous learning, and guidance strategies have all become important topics. In addition, the application of artificial intelligence in education and learning has also received a lot of research manpower input, with the purpose of applying smart technology to improve learning effectiveness. Therefore, this Special Issues will be discussed in the following topics (not limited), and contributions are welcome:

  • E-Learning
  • Education Technology
  • Human Resources and Training
  • Distance Learning
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • AI in Education
  • Intelligence Tutoring System
  • Affective Computing and Analysis
  • Emotions in Learning
  • Self-paced Learning (Self-regulated and Self-directed Learning)

Prof. Hao-Chiang Koong Lin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • E-Learning
  • education technology
  • human resources and training
  • distance learning
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • AI in education
  • intelligence tutoring system
  • affective computing and analysis
  • emotions in learning
  • self-paced learning (self-regulated and self-directed learning)

Published Papers (14 papers)

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17 pages, 1812 KiB  
Article
Integrating the STEAM-6E Model with Virtual Reality Instruction: The Contribution to Motivation, Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Creativity of Learners with Diverse Cognitive Styles
Sustainability 2023, 15(7), 6269; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15076269 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1411
Abstract
In today’s digital age, where smartphones are ubiquitous among the younger generation, they can add to the cognitive load on the brain, even when not in use. This can affect students’ learning outcomes and creativity, leading to negative emotions or creativity blocks during [...] Read more.
In today’s digital age, where smartphones are ubiquitous among the younger generation, they can add to the cognitive load on the brain, even when not in use. This can affect students’ learning outcomes and creativity, leading to negative emotions or creativity blocks during the learning process. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between differences in students’ cognitive styles and their learning motivation, learning outcomes, creativity, and learning satisfaction. The primary objective is to use the STEAM-6E instructional model in virtual reality (VR) courses to understand how students with different cognitive styles can be stimulated to unleash their diverse and vibrant creativity based on their learning preferences during hands-on experiences. The study also aims to explore whether there are disparities in their learning motivation and learning outcomes, and whether there are differences in their overall learning satisfaction. The findings of the study indicate that for the two cognitive styles of holistic and sequential, the subjects showed significant differences in their learning motivation regarding intrinsic goals, extrinsic goals, task value, control beliefs, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Significant differences were also observed in their learning preferences, learning outcomes, and creative performance. However, the two groups had no significant differences in the effectiveness, efficiency, and overall satisfaction of the learning activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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22 pages, 4568 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Distance Education and Peer Self-Regulated Learning Mechanism on Learning Effectiveness, Motivation, Self-Efficacy, Reflective Ability, and Cognitive Load
Sustainability 2023, 15(5), 4501; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15054501 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
COVID-19 has resulted in the increased use of distance learning around the world. With the advancement of information technology, traditional classroom teaching has gradually integrated the Internet and distance learning methods. Students need to be able to learn on their own in a [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has resulted in the increased use of distance learning around the world. With the advancement of information technology, traditional classroom teaching has gradually integrated the Internet and distance learning methods. Students need to be able to learn on their own in a distance learning environment, so their ability to self-regulate their learning in a distance learning environment cannot be ignored. However, in previous studies on self-regulated learning, most learners learn alone. When they have academic doubts, they cannot obtain help and support from their studies, resulting in reduced learning outcomes. This study uses the peer self-disciplined learning mechanism to establish a distance teaching system that assists students and to improve their own learning status by meeting with peers at a distance. It can also help learners orient themselves by observing their peers’ learning status and goal considerations. The participants in this study were 112 college students in the department of information management. The control group used a general self-regulated teaching system for learning, and the experimental group used a distance learning system, incorporating peer self-regulated learning. The results of the study found that learners who used the distance peer learning mechanism were more effective than those who used the general distance self-regulated learning system; learners who used the distance peer-regulated learning mechanism had better motivation, self-efficacy, and reflection after the learning activity than those who used the general distance self-regulated learning system. In addition, with the aid of such mechanisms, learners’ cognitive load can be reduced, and learning effectiveness can be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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12 pages, 8220 KiB  
Article
Tracking Visual Programming Language-Based Learning Progress for Computational Thinking Education
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15031983 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Maker education that incorporates computational thinking streamlines learning and helps familiarize learners with recent advances in science and technology. Computational thinking (CT) is a vital core capability that anyone can learn. CT can be learned through programming, in particular, via visual programming languages. [...] Read more.
Maker education that incorporates computational thinking streamlines learning and helps familiarize learners with recent advances in science and technology. Computational thinking (CT) is a vital core capability that anyone can learn. CT can be learned through programming, in particular, via visual programming languages. The conclusions of most studies were based on quantitative or system-based results, whereas we automatically assessed CT learning progress using the Scratch visual programming language as a CT teaching tool and an integrated learning tracking system. The study shows that Scratch helped teachers to diagnose students’ individual weaknesses and provide timely intervention. Our results demonstrate that learners could complete tasks and solve problems using the core CT steps. After accomplishing numerous tasks, learners became familiar with the core CT concepts. The study also shows that despite increased learning anxiety when solving problems, all learners were confident and interested in learning, and completed each task step by step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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14 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Students’ Perceptions of Online Learning in the Post-COVID Era: A Focused Case from the Universities of Applied Sciences in China
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15020946 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Currently, while most universities around the world have returned to offline teaching, most universities in China are still using online teaching. In the current educational context, Chinese universities switch between online and offline teaching modes at any time depending on the epidemic situation [...] Read more.
Currently, while most universities around the world have returned to offline teaching, most universities in China are still using online teaching. In the current educational context, Chinese universities switch between online and offline teaching modes at any time depending on the epidemic situation in their city. This paper discusses students’ perceptions of online learning in the post-COVID era in China. Based on the data collected from student questionnaires, the teaching and learning situation in the post-COVID era and student preferences for online learning are discussed. In addition to this, the statistics program JMP was used to perform the data analysis. The correlations among study characteristics, socio-economic factors, organisational and didactic design, and the acceptance and use of online learning are analysed. The results show that students spend more time in university courses in the post-COVID era than in previous academic years. Students prefer to study alone and at individual times that are set by themselves. Study characteristics and the socio-economic situation of the students are not related to the acceptance and usage behaviour of online learning. The organisational and didactic design of online learning is correlated with its acceptance. In the end, the reflection on opportunities for online learning in the post-COVID era is concluded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
14 pages, 1525 KiB  
Article
Online Learning Engagement Recognition Using Bidirectional Long-Term Recurrent Convolutional Networks
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010198 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Background: Online learning is currently adopted by educational institutions worldwide to provide students with ongoing education during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, online learning has seen students lose interest and become anxious, which affects learning performance and leads to dropout. Thus, measuring students’ engagement [...] Read more.
Background: Online learning is currently adopted by educational institutions worldwide to provide students with ongoing education during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, online learning has seen students lose interest and become anxious, which affects learning performance and leads to dropout. Thus, measuring students’ engagement in online learning has become imperative. It is challenging to recognize online learning engagement due to the lack of effective recognition methods and publicly accessible datasets. Methods: This study gathered a large number of online learning videos of students at a normal university. Engagement cues were used to annotate the dataset, which was constructed with three levels of engagement: low engagement, engagement, and high engagement. Then, we introduced a bi-directional long-term recurrent convolutional network (BiLRCN) for online learning engagement recognition in video. Result: An online learning engagement dataset has been constructed. We evaluated six methods using precision and recall, where BiLRCN obtained the best performance. Conclusions: Both category balance and category similarity of the data affect the performance of the results; it is more appropriate to consider learning engagement as a process-based evaluation; learning engagement can provide intervention strategies for teachers from a variety of perspectives and is associated with learning performance. Dataset construction and deep learning methods need to be improved, and learning data management also deserves attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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17 pages, 5918 KiB  
Article
Eye Movement Analysis and Usability Assessment on Affective Computing Combined with Intelligent Tutoring System
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16680; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416680 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Education is the key to achieving sustainable development goals in the future, and quality education is the basis for improving the quality of human life and achieving sustainable development. In addition to quality education, emotions are an important factor to knowledge acquisition and [...] Read more.
Education is the key to achieving sustainable development goals in the future, and quality education is the basis for improving the quality of human life and achieving sustainable development. In addition to quality education, emotions are an important factor to knowledge acquisition and skill training. Affective computing makes computers more humane and intelligent, and good emotional performance can create successful learning. In this study, affective computing is combined with an intelligent tutoring system to achieve relevant and effective learning results through affective intelligent learning. The system aims to change negative emotions into positive ones of learning to improve students’ interest in learning. With a total of 30 participants, this study adopts quantitative research design to explore the learning situations. We adopt the System Usability Scale (SUS) to evaluate overall availability of the system and use the Scan Path to explore if the subject stays longer in learning the course. This study found that both availability and satisfaction of affective tutoring system are high. The emotional feedback mechanism of the system can help users in transforming negative emotions into positive ones. In addition, the system is able to increase the learning duration the user spends on learning the course as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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14 pages, 879 KiB  
Article
Learners’ Continuous Use Intention of Blended Learning: TAM-SET Model
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16428; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416428 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Blended learning (BL) combines online and face-to-face teaching and learning and is thought to be an effective means to cultivate learners’ sustainability literacy. The success of BL relies on learners who take the initiative to participate in the learning process. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Blended learning (BL) combines online and face-to-face teaching and learning and is thought to be an effective means to cultivate learners’ sustainability literacy. The success of BL relies on learners who take the initiative to participate in the learning process. Therefore, this study aims to examine learners’ acceptance of the BL system. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the self-efficacy theory are combined to construct a systematic model to determine the learners’ continuous intention to adopt BL. Seven constructs are identified, i.e., course quality (CQ), technical support (TS), perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), satisfaction (SE), self-efficacy (SE), and behavioral intentions (BI). A survey was conducted using a close-ended questionnaire, and 461 valid responses were collected from Huaqiao University’s undergraduate students. Covariance-based structural equation modelling was performed. The empirical findings show that except for the hypothesis regarding the connection between PU and PEOU, all the other hypotheses are verified. CQ stands out as having the greatest positive effect on PEOU, which highlights the importance of CQ for BL. The study also confirms that PU significantly impacts SA, SE, and BI, and both SA and SE significantly influence BI. Based on these results, some suggestions are provided for educators and administrators as to how to better design BL systems to strengthen sustainability education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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15 pages, 499 KiB  
Article
Students’ Academic Performance and Engagement Prediction in a Virtual Learning Environment Using Random Forest with Data Balancing
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 14795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214795 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
Virtual learning environment (VLE) is vital in the current age and is being extensively used around the world for knowledge sharing. VLE is helping the distance-learning process, however, it is a challenge to keep students engaged all the time as compared to face-to-face [...] Read more.
Virtual learning environment (VLE) is vital in the current age and is being extensively used around the world for knowledge sharing. VLE is helping the distance-learning process, however, it is a challenge to keep students engaged all the time as compared to face-to-face lectures. Students do not participate actively in academic activities, which affects their learning curves. This study proposes the solution of analyzing students’ engagement and predicting their academic performance using a random forest classifier in conjunction with the SMOTE data-balancing technique. The Open University Learning Analytics Dataset (OULAD) was used in the study to simulate the teaching–learning environment. Data from six different time periods was noted to create students’ profiles comprised of assessments scores and engagements. This helped to identify early weak points and preempted the students performance for improvement through profiling. The proposed methodology demonstrated 5% enhanced performance with SMOTE data balancing as opposed to without using it. Similarly, the AUC under the ROC curve is 0.96, which shows the significance of the proposed model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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19 pages, 2518 KiB  
Article
E-Learning Model to Identify the Learning Styles of Hearing-Impaired Students
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13280; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013280 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
Deaf students apparently experience hardship in conventional learning; however, despite their inability to hear, nothing can stop them from reading. Although they perform impressively in memorizing the information, their literacy and reading capability still appear to be weak since they lack the chance [...] Read more.
Deaf students apparently experience hardship in conventional learning; however, despite their inability to hear, nothing can stop them from reading. Although they perform impressively in memorizing the information, their literacy and reading capability still appear to be weak since they lack the chance to revise by listening and practicing repetitively. Currently, the teaching media for deaf students are quite rare and inadequate, forcing them to face difficulties in integrating new knowledge, even though most of the contents are in a form of written, printed, downloaded, or even accessible via an e-learning platform. However, it is crucial to bear in mind that each learner is different. There is evidence showing that some learners prefer particular methods of learning, also known as learning preferences or learning styles. Thus, the present study reports the sequence of learning styles obtained by using a modified VRK + TSL model that categorized students based on their learning styles. We also propose four different ways of teaching using content-adaptive learning styles, namely visual, reading/writing, kinesthetic, and Thai sign language. Based on personal preferences and the principle of universal design under synthesized learning, an e-learning model was developed to identify deaf learners’ learning styles. The objective is to provide e-learning to identify the learning styles of hearing-impaired students and to respond with up-to-date e-learning materials that can be used anywhere and at any time. These materials must support the education of deaf students. As a result, learners have increased efficiency and increased learning outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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17 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Systematic Characteristics of Online Learning Systems to Enhance the Continuance Intention of Chinese College Students
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811774 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Different from systems that directly provide online shared courses such as MOOC, online learning systems such as Tencent Classroom simulate a real classroom environment for students and teachers to realize online face-to-face teaching, utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, due to the limitation [...] Read more.
Different from systems that directly provide online shared courses such as MOOC, online learning systems such as Tencent Classroom simulate a real classroom environment for students and teachers to realize online face-to-face teaching, utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, due to the limitation of physical distance, the intelligent design of online learning systems is necessary to provide students with a good learning experience. This study notes that an unexpected optimization effect is the impact of system characteristics on the flow experience of online learning systems, which has not been studied, but plays a vital role in the effectiveness of online learning systems. In the study, a questionnaire was created and multi-stage sampling was used to investigate 623 college students. Based on the DeLone and McLean model of IS success and flow theory, a model for optimizing system characteristics and flow experience was constructed and its effectiveness was tested. The results reveal that system characteristics have a positive impact on continuance intention and flow experience. Additionally, flow experience and learning effect have a positive impact on continuance intention. Furthermore, flow experience has a positive impact on the learning effect. This study emphasizes the flow experience of online learning systems and reveals the optimization direction of online virtual face-to-face classrooms to provide references for the Ministry of Education, schools, and enterprises providing education systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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41 pages, 11721 KiB  
Article
Construction of a Tangible VR-Based Interactive System for Intergenerational Learning
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6067; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106067 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2019
Abstract
The recent years have witnessed striking global demographic shifts. Retired elderly people often stay home, seldom communicate with their grandchildren, and fail to acquire new knowledge or pass on their experiences. In this study, digital technologies based on virtual reality (VR) with tangible [...] Read more.
The recent years have witnessed striking global demographic shifts. Retired elderly people often stay home, seldom communicate with their grandchildren, and fail to acquire new knowledge or pass on their experiences. In this study, digital technologies based on virtual reality (VR) with tangible user interfaces (TUIs) were introduced into the design of a novel interactive system for intergenerational learning, aimed at promoting the elderly people’s interactions with younger generations. Initially, the literature was reviewed and experts were interviewed to derive the relevant design principles. The system was constructed accordingly using gesture detection, sound sensing, and VR techniques, and was used to play animation games that simulated traditional puppetry. The system was evaluated statistically by SPSS and AMOS according to the scales of global perceptions of intergenerational communication and the elderly’s attitude via questionnaire surveys, as well as interviews with participants who had experienced the system. Based on the evaluation results and some discussions on the participants’ comments, the following conclusions about the system effectiveness were drawn: (1) intergenerational learning activities based on digital technology can attract younger generations; (2) selecting game topics familiar to the elderly in the learning process encourages them to experience technology; and (3) both generations are more likely to understand each other as a result of joint learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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26 pages, 4150 KiB  
Article
Sustainable and Security Focused Multimodal Models for Distance Learning
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063414 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1964
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced much education to move into a distance learning (DL) model. The problem addressed in the paper is related to the increased necessity for the capacity of data, secure infrastructure, Wi-Fi possibilities, and equipment, learning resources which are needed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced much education to move into a distance learning (DL) model. The problem addressed in the paper is related to the increased necessity for the capacity of data, secure infrastructure, Wi-Fi possibilities, and equipment, learning resources which are needed when students connect to systems managed by institutional, national, and international organizations. Meanwhile, there have been cases when learners were not able to use technology in a secure manner, since they were requested to connect to external learning objects or systems. The research aims to develop a sustainable strategy based on a security concept model that consists of three main components: (1) security assurance; (2) users, including administration, teachers, and learners; and (3) DL organizational processes. The security concept model can be implemented at different levels of security. We modelled all the possible levels of security. To implement the security concept model, we introduce a framework that consists of the following activities: plan, implement, review, and improve. These activities were performed in a never-ending loop. We provided the technical measures required to implement the appropriate security level of DL infrastructure. The technical measures were provided at the level of a system administrator. We enriched the framework by joining technical measures into appropriate activities within the framework. The models were validated by 10 experts from different higher education institutions. The feasibility of the data collection instrument was determined by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient that was above 0.9. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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24 pages, 61144 KiB  
Article
Effect of Adding Emotion Recognition to Film Teaching—Impact of Emotion Feedback on Learning through Puzzle Films
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 11107; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131911107 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1643
Abstract
In this study, the scientific puzzle film, “Story of the Comet”, is taken as a case to implement scientific teaching to guide students to find correct answers, through which it can train their learning and judging abilities. The students in the experimental group [...] Read more.
In this study, the scientific puzzle film, “Story of the Comet”, is taken as a case to implement scientific teaching to guide students to find correct answers, through which it can train their learning and judging abilities. The students in the experimental group received the scientific teaching guiding system of the puzzle film “Story of the Comet” with a facial emotion recognition system to recognize the emotional reaction of the subjects at the moment. According to their facial expressions of “disgust”, “sadness”, or “joy” appearing in the moment, the system presented differently captioned positive encouragement cards particularly designed for four different levels, for when the subjects answered the questions incorrectly at different levels and their emotions were detected at the same time. Furthermore, the positive encouragement cards encouraged the subjects to complete the puzzle film learning process. The subjects were students in the higher grades of Grade 5 and Grade 6 in elementary school. A total of 130 students participated in this experiment and were randomly divided into two groups. Both the control group (i.e., the group without emotion recognition) and the experiment group (i.e., the group with emotion recognition) received a before-watching test of learning effectiveness. After implementing the scientific teaching of the puzzle film “Story of the Comet”, both the control group and the experimental group also received an after-watching test of learning effectiveness. Finally, the subjects filled out a “learning satisfaction” questionnaire, “system availability” questionnaire, and “system satisfaction” questionnaire. The analysis of the results of the two groups’ tests and questionnaires: a comparative analysis of learning effectiveness indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the choice answers of the two groups after the interactive teaching; for the experimental group, the average correct answers in the after-watching test was 5.86, which is 2.48 more than the before-watching test; that of the control group was 4.74, which is 1.47 more than the before -watching test. For comparative analysis of questionnaires for “learning satisfaction” and “system satisfaction”, the statistical data analysis indicates that the experimental group was more satisfied than the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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22 pages, 6485 KiB  
Case Report
Educational Applications of Non-Fungible Token (NFT)
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010007 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3656
Abstract
With the emergence of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in blockchain technology, educational institutions have been able to use NFTs to reward students. This is done by automatically processing transaction information and the buying and selling process using smart contract technology. The technology enables the [...] Read more.
With the emergence of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in blockchain technology, educational institutions have been able to use NFTs to reward students. This is done by automatically processing transaction information and the buying and selling process using smart contract technology. The technology enables the establishment of recognition levels and incentivizes students to receive NFT recognition rewards. According to the Taxonomy Learning Pyramid, learning through hands-on experiences plays a crucial role in attracting students’ interest. In this study, we analyzed the potential for using NFTs in education and the current applications of NFTs in society. We conducted a case study and performed a preliminary investigation of the types of NFT applications in the education industry. We then analyzed different education industries using individual analysis combined with SWOT analysis to understand the impact, value, and challenges of NFT applications. The results revealed 10 educational applications of NFT: textbooks; micro-certificates; transcripts and records; scholarships and rights; master classes and content creation; learning experiences; registration and data collection; patents, innovation, and research; art; payment; and deposit. Finally, ways to reduce the negative impact of education NFTs on the sustainable environment are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable E-learning and Education with Intelligence)
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