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Special Issue "Sustainability in Wood Science"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Engineering and Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018) | Viewed by 10374

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jimmy Johansson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, Sch Engn, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood, in all its forms, will have an unquestionable impact on the sustainability of future society. Around 1.6 billion people are stressed by the United Nations to depend on forests for their livelihood. These forests provide opportunities to create different goods and services that address many challenges in sustainable development. Wood science will play a great role in how these challenges are tackled and how wood is used in the future. This Special Issue on sustainability in wood science will include papers related to environmental, social and economic dimensions of wood and wood products. The papers discuss topics from different areas of the forest industrial system or on an overall system perspective, from forest to different transformation activities. Aspects on how wood is returned to nature after it use are also issues of interest. Wood as the ultimate renewable material is a competitive material due to its different biological, chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Wood, with all its beauty, smell, texture and tangibility, however, also creates feelings. Therefore, the belief is that the papers have a multi-disciplinary approach and examine, explore and critically engage with issues and advances in all wood sustainability areas.

Dr. Jimmy Johansson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Economical Sustainability
  • Social Sustainability
  • Forest products
  • Wood products
  • Circular economy
  • Closed loop
  • Life-cycle
  • Sustainable structures
  • Sustainable systems
  • Sustainable production
  • Sustainable engineering
  • Carbon sequestration

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Impact of Sycamore Maple Thermal Treatment on a Granulometric Composition of Chips Obtained due to Processing on a CNC Machining Mentre
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030718 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1225
Abstract
This article deals with a granulometric composition of chips from the milling process of native and thermal treatment maple cuttings on a 5-axial Computer numerical control (CNC) machining center SCM Tech Z5. The aim of this article was to determine the changes in [...] Read more.
This article deals with a granulometric composition of chips from the milling process of native and thermal treatment maple cuttings on a 5-axial Computer numerical control (CNC) machining center SCM Tech Z5. The aim of this article was to determine the changes in the granulometric composition of chips due to the thermal treatment of wood and to assess the potential risk of the creation of harmful dust fractions. Cuttings were milled with a shank cutter with exchangeable razor blades at feed speed vf = 1 ÷ 5 m·min−1 and material removal e = 3 mm. The thermal treatment in order to modify the color of the maple wood was done with water vapour at temperatures of tI = 112.5 ± 2.5 °C for a period of τ = 5.5 h (Mode I), tII = 127.5 ± 2.5 °C for a period of τ = 6.5 h (Mode II), and tIII = 137.5 ± 2.5 °C for a period of τ = 7.5 h (Mode III). The granulometric composition of the chips was detected by sifting. A granulometric analysis of the chips provided that more than 2/3 of the produced chips are a coarse fraction consisting of flat chips with dimensions over 1 mm. Dust fractions smaller than 500 μm form isometric grains, i.e., chips having approximately the same size in all three dimensions. Inhalable dust particles, smaller than 125 μm, do not exceed a 2.5% share. The granulometric analysis of chips shows that the thermal treatment of maple wood does not create respirable fractions, and therefore, the thermal treatment of the wood does not have a negative impact on the living and working environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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Article
Color Characteristics of Red False Heartwood and Mature Wood of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Determining by Different Chromacity Coordinates
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030690 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Structure of wood can affect intensity of color change in remarkable ways. This article was focused on the analysis of the color changes red false heartwood and mature wood by different methods such as ΔE* (Total color difference), h* (Hue angle), C* [...] Read more.
Structure of wood can affect intensity of color change in remarkable ways. This article was focused on the analysis of the color changes red false heartwood and mature wood by different methods such as ΔE* (Total color difference), h* (Hue angle), C*ab (Color saturation) and Sab (Saturation). The aim of this study was to evaluate the color properties of red false heartwood and mature wood by using different chromacity coordinates. Our observations suggested that the density in the absolute dry state was equal between the red false heartwood and mature wood. The biggest difference was in the area of the free water domain, thus from an initial MC value to the fiber saturation point (FSP). The shorter drying time of the red false heartwood samples was caused by their lower initial MC. Due to the different MC, the temperature created a different color intensity of the compared samples. Mature wood samples achieved more saturated color in the drying process than did the samples of red false heartwood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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Article
Analysis to Improve the Strength of Beds Due to the Excess Weight of Users in Slovakia
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030624 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Good quality sleep is a prerequisite for regenerating the human body, hence, beds should be optimized for specific group of users, taking into consideration their size or age. Current research studies show similar trends in adult populations around the world, where increases in [...] Read more.
Good quality sleep is a prerequisite for regenerating the human body, hence, beds should be optimized for specific group of users, taking into consideration their size or age. Current research studies show similar trends in adult populations around the world, where increases in height as well as in weight can be observed. Not only the ergonomics but also the safety of beds, which is determined by the quality and dimensions of structural elements, must be taken into account in bed design. Designing the structural elements for users with a high body weight is presented in the paper. The properties of a bed’s structural elements, which ensure comfort as well as the safety of a bed are affected by the excess weight of users. New requirements for cross sections, suitable materials and construction of structural elements were set in accordance with the standard EN 1725:1998. Also, an analysis of stresses was done using the finite element method (FEM) and the calculation of allowable stresses related to a user weighing 150 kg. The results of our research provide complete standards and regulations associated with the safety requirements of bedroom furniture for users with a weight more than 110 kg to ensure that the manusfacture of quality products in Slovakia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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Article
The Effect of Firewood Moisture Content on the Atmospheric Thermal Load by Flue Gases Emitted by a Boiler
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010284 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
In this paper, we present an analysis on the effect of the moisture content of firewood on the atmospheric thermal load created by the heating of flue gases with temperatures of tfg = 120–200 °C, emitted by a boiler when wood with [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present an analysis on the effect of the moisture content of firewood on the atmospheric thermal load created by the heating of flue gases with temperatures of tfg = 120–200 °C, emitted by a boiler when wood with moisture content of W = 10%–60% is combusted. The load of the atmosphere created by the heat of the flue gases with temperatures of ts = 120 °C from the boiler, where dried wood with the moisture content of W = 10% is combusted, is Q = 9.2 MJ·GJ−1. The atmospheric thermal load caused by flue gases with the temperature of ts = 200 °C, resulting from the combustion process of wet firewood with a moisture content of W = 60%, is 3.8 times higher compared with the above-mentioned conditions. The heating of water vapor from the evaporated water occurring in combusted wood, as well as the heat of the heated nitrogen and unoxidized oxygen in the combustion air delivered to the furnace of a firewood boiler, are considered to be reasons for the increasing atmospheric thermal load caused by the heating of flue gases, resulting from the combustion of wood with higher moisture content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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Article
Methodology of Temperature Monitoring in the Process of CNC Machining of Solid Wood
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010095 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
The issue of the change in tool temperature as a result of the machining process is presented in this paper. The aim of the paper is to put forward a proposal and subsequently to verify the methodology of temperature monitoring in the process [...] Read more.
The issue of the change in tool temperature as a result of the machining process is presented in this paper. The aim of the paper is to put forward a proposal and subsequently to verify the methodology of temperature monitoring in the process of computer numerical control (CNC) machining in real time. Subsequently, the data can be used in the process of adaptive machine-tool control. Experiments were used to determine whether the research method is appropriate. Oak, beech and spruce wood turning blanks with the thickness of 20 mm were machined using a 5-axis CNC machining centre. A temperature change observation resulting from the changes in parameters of the removed layer was used to test whether the research method is relevant. Parameters of the removed layer were affected by the changes in feed rate in the range from 1 ÷ 5 m·min−1 in the removed layer (1–5 mm) or in wood species used in the experiment. As emerges from the proposed methodology, it is possible to monitor the changes in tool temperature responding to minimal changes in technological parameters on a relatively small size of a milled surface quite accurately. Sensitivity to given changes in technological parameters as well as the importance of the methodology was proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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Article
Positive Secular Trend in Slovak Population Urges on Updates of Functional Dimensions of Furniture
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103474 - 28 Sep 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The presented study is focused on the evaluation of the changes in weight and height of the adult population in Slovakia to provide updated information on the secular growth trend. The main objective was to identify and quantify the pace of gradual changes [...] Read more.
The presented study is focused on the evaluation of the changes in weight and height of the adult population in Slovakia to provide updated information on the secular growth trend. The main objective was to identify and quantify the pace of gradual changes in the dimensions of the Slovak adult population, which is key ergonomic information for multiple disciplines. The measurements of weights, heights and body mass indices of the current adult population of Slovakia ranging from 26 to 94 years of age that were obtained in period 1993–2017 were compared with a sample of students studying at four Slovak universities during the same years (aged 18 to 25). The increase of mean heights was app. 0.104–0.203 cm per one year (or app. 1–2 cm per decade) for males and app. 0.031–0.178 cm per one year (or app. 0.3–1.8 cm per decade) for females was statistically confirmed at different age classes covering the age structure of the whole adult population. The positive secular height trends were manifested in weight and BMI increases too. The changes in means and variation of distributions of selected variables also cause changes in quantile values. For example, the 95% quantiles of heights derived for the period 1993–2003 only cover 92–93% of the heights in the current population. This fact could have a major impact on proposals for optimal and safe arrangement of work, residential and non-residential space, including the furniture production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Wood Science)
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