Topical Collection "Sustainable Transport Economics, Behaviour and Policy"

A topical collection in Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This collection belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Editors

Dr. Richard Tay
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Business IT & Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3053, Australia
Interests: sustainable transport; transport economics; transport policy; road safety
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Long T. Truong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
Interests: intelligent transport systems; road safety; transport modelling; travel behaviour
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Samuel Chng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore
Interests: sustainable transport; smart cites; behavioural science

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change and disruptive technologies have generated increasing pressure on transport professionals to focus on sustainable transport. Therefore, the planning, design, management and regulation of all transport services and infrastructures is a challenge to policy makers, transportation engineers, planners and behavioural scientists seeking to promote sustainable travel behaviours. This magnitude of this challenge will only increase as new technology and innovations such as connected, autonomous vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and Mobility-as-a-Service are introduced. Hence, this Special Issue focuses on research that aims to increase our understanding of sustainable travel behaviour, and the development, implementation and evaluation of measures to increase the efficiency, environmental friendliness, resilience and sustainability of existing and future transportation systems.

Dr. Richard Tay
Dr. Long Truong
Dr. Samuel Chng
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Demand and adoption of sustainable vehicles and fuel
  • Public transport ridership, cycling and walking
  • Improving safety of vulnerable road users
  • Improving comfort and accessibility of public transport
  • Sustainable cities and transport
  • Economic incentives, regulation and policies
  • Advanced travel demand management strategies
  • Sustainability education, social marketing and campaigns
  • Evaluation of techonologies in changing behaviours
  • Evaluation of technologies in reducing pollution
  • Cost–benefit analysis of green transport technologies
  • Shared mobilities such as carsharing, ridesharing, ride hailing, etc.

Published Papers (14 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Article
Decision-Making Process for Demand Response Public Transportation Service Design—A Case Study in Incheon, Korea
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5574; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105574 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Incheon is a major city comprising the metropolitan area around Seoul. However, it ranks the lowest in terms of road extension scale relative to population and number of vehicles. There is extreme traffic congestion and shortages of parking spaces in downtown Incheon, impacting [...] Read more.
Incheon is a major city comprising the metropolitan area around Seoul. However, it ranks the lowest in terms of road extension scale relative to population and number of vehicles. There is extreme traffic congestion and shortages of parking spaces in downtown Incheon, impacting traffic. Alternative policies of the municipal government to address these issues, including road extension and improving public transportation, have not shown results because of the low satisfaction level of the public transportation service and limited transportation mode transfer owing to travel within the metropolitan area. Therefore, to improve the public transportation service, conducting a comprehensive analysis on the current service and improving its quality were deemed necessary. Additionally, adopting a demand response public transportation service was considered. In conjunction, objective and easy-to-use data should be used, so that if anyone repeats the procedure, the same result should be obtained. For this, we propose the simplest process. Thus, to introduce the service, this study presents a decision-making process by establishing a regional prioritizing methodology based on the transportation environment satisfaction level, average access time to major facilities, public transportation competitiveness, personal vehicle demand, and existing public transit routes. To assess the methodology feasibility and conformity, user satisfaction was analyzed in Jung-gu, Incheon. The analysis showed 91% user satisfaction, verifying that the demand response public transportation service was effectively supplied. This analysis process will be useful when applying and expanding new transportation services. Full article
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Article
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Elderly Public Transport Mode Preference
Sustainability 2021, 13(9), 4752; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13094752 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The elderly population is increasing rapidly. Understanding travel behaviour for this group of commuters (in terms of the trip purpose and travel time) is necessary for future transport planning. Many researchers are working on travel’s spatial and temporal analysis to provide operational decision [...] Read more.
The elderly population is increasing rapidly. Understanding travel behaviour for this group of commuters (in terms of the trip purpose and travel time) is necessary for future transport planning. Many researchers are working on travel’s spatial and temporal analysis to provide operational decision making and transport network planning. This research study’s primary purpose is to identify the influence of trip duration (using public transport), time of the day (usage of public transport), and public transport (PT) accessibility over public transport mode preference by elderly (over 65 years of age) commuters. The methodology of this study is divided into two parts as spatial analysis and temporal analysis. The research identified the dependency of trip duration, time of the day, geographical areas, and PT access over transport mode preference of elderly. The temporal study shows that transport mode preference can vary depending on trip purposes. However, for specific trip durations and times of the day, the elderly sometimes choose PT as a mobility mode. For instance, on shopping trips between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m., the elderly have a greater possibility of choosing public transport over private vehicles. Moreover, the results show the public transport mode preference based on different times of the day and trip purposes. Urban and transport planner can use the results to modify/plan public transport schedule, which can be easily accessible by the elderly population. Full article
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Article
Propensity to Choose Electric Vehicles in Cross-Border Alpine Regions
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4583; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084583 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) are low-carbon innovations that decrease emissions in transportation. Understanding what drives individual propensity to choose EVs supports policymakers in shaping effective low-carbon mobility policies. Within the MOBSTER Interreg project, data were collected using a survey administered to residents in three [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are low-carbon innovations that decrease emissions in transportation. Understanding what drives individual propensity to choose EVs supports policymakers in shaping effective low-carbon mobility policies. Within the MOBSTER Interreg project, data were collected using a survey administered to residents in three Alpine cross-border regions—Canton Ticino (Switzerland), South Tyrol (Italy), and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola (Italy)—and were analyzed with a logistic regression. This study reports on the relevant drivers of EV uptake, showing (i) that some sociodemographic attributes positively impact the propensity to choose an EV (e.g., young age and teenage children), (ii) that the presence and visibility of charging infrastructures are important, and (iii) that the role of tourism is not a driver of EV uptake. This study confirms that policies should consider sociodemographics, social practices, and physical infrastructures as playing roles in EV uptake. Future research should address the issue of access to low-carbon innovations for all. Full article
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Article
Modeling a Distance-Based Preferential Fare Scheme for Park-and-Ride Services in a Multimodal Transport Network
Sustainability 2021, 13(5), 2644; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052644 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 370
Abstract
This paper investigates a distance-based preferential fare scheme for park-and-ride (P&R) services in a multimodal transport network. P&R is a sustainable commuting approach in large urban areas where the service coverage rate of conventional public transport modes (e.g., train and bus) is poor/low. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates a distance-based preferential fare scheme for park-and-ride (P&R) services in a multimodal transport network. P&R is a sustainable commuting approach in large urban areas where the service coverage rate of conventional public transport modes (e.g., train and bus) is poor/low. However, P&R services in many cities are less attractive compared to auto and other public transport modes, especially for P&R facilities sited far away from the city center. To address this issue, this paper proposes a distance-based preferential fare scheme for P&R services in which travelers who choose the P&R mode get a discount. The longer the distance they travel by train, the better the concessional price they get. A multimodal transport network equilibrium model with P&R services is developed to evaluate the impacts of the proposed distance-based fare scheme. The travelers’ mode choice behavior is modeled by the multinomial logit (MNL) discrete choice model, and their route choice behavior is depicted by the user equilibrium condition. A mathematical programming model is then built and subsequently solved by the outer approximation method. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed distance-based preferential fare scheme can effectively motivate travelers to use a P&R service and significantly enhance the transport network’s performance. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Transportation and Policy Development: A Study for Impact Analysis of Mobility Patterns and Neighborhood Assessment of Walking Behavior
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1871; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041871 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Since rapid growth and car-oriented patterns became a global threat and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) levels are advancing, strategies to redesign the built environment into healthier spaces have gained importance. Walkability plays a central role in this context. However, the literature is dominated by [...] Read more.
Since rapid growth and car-oriented patterns became a global threat and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) levels are advancing, strategies to redesign the built environment into healthier spaces have gained importance. Walkability plays a central role in this context. However, the literature is dominated by studies from western industrialized countries. In this paper, we employed structural equational modeling to analyze perceptual data collected from different neighborhoods of Muscat. We compared the responses regarding environmental attributes to the frequency of walking for transport. We found that land use mix combined with low residential density are the factors that have the highest impact on pedestrian activity. Conversely, the estimates of the pedestrian infrastructure were surprisingly low, suggesting that, in car dominant societies, walking perceptions are affected by drivers’ perspectives. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Article
The Regional Determinants of the New Venture Formation in China’s Car-Sharing Economy
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010074 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
New ventures play an important role in promoting regional economic growth, employment and innovative development. In China, the new business model centered on the sharing economy has grown rapidly in a short time, especially with regard to car-sharing, which has become one of [...] Read more.
New ventures play an important role in promoting regional economic growth, employment and innovative development. In China, the new business model centered on the sharing economy has grown rapidly in a short time, especially with regard to car-sharing, which has become one of the new governmental strategies to promote economic development in China. New car-sharing ventures have been recognized as the leading sector in sustainable development for the circular economy and resource reuse. This paper explores the regional determinants of new firm formation in the nascent car-sharing industry in China. We used panel data from 449 car-sharing new ventures established in 257 cities in China from 2011 to 2019 to conduct an empirical analysis. The findings show that the urbanization economy, human capital and venture capital in the region have a positive impact on the establishment of new ventures. At the same time, the regional population density, localization economy, innovation capacity and competitive environment have no significant relationships with the establishment of new car-sharing firms. This paper provides insights for startups entering the field of car-sharing and a theoretical basis for the subsequent research on startups in the sharing economy industry. Full article
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Article
Does Car-Sharing Reduce Car-Use? An Impact Evaluation of Car-Sharing in Flanders, Belgium
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8155; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198155 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Private car-use is a major contributor of greenhouse gases. Car-sharing is often hypothesised as a potential solution to reduce car-ownership, which can lead to car-sharing users reducing their car-use. However, there is a risk that car-sharing may also increase car-use amongst some users. [...] Read more.
Private car-use is a major contributor of greenhouse gases. Car-sharing is often hypothesised as a potential solution to reduce car-ownership, which can lead to car-sharing users reducing their car-use. However, there is a risk that car-sharing may also increase car-use amongst some users. Existing studies on the impacts of car-sharing on car-use are often based on estimates of the users’ own judgement of the effects; few studies make use of quasi-experimental methods. In this paper, the impact of car-sharing on car-ownership and car-use in Flanders, Belgium is estimated using survey data from both sharers and non-sharers. The impact on car-use is estimated using zero-inflated negative binomial regression, applied to matched samples of car-sharing users and non-users. The results show that the car-sharing may reduce car-use, but only if a significant number of users reduce their car-ownership. Policy intervention may therefore be required to ensure car-sharing leads to a reduction in car-use by, for example, discouraging car-ownership. Further research using quasi-experimental methods is required to illuminate whether the promise of car-sharing is reflected in reality. Full article
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Article
The Influence of the Air Cargo Network on the Regional Economy under the Impact of High-Speed Rail in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 8120; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198120 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
There is little research on the impact of air cargo networks on regional economic development, which is especially notable considering that Chinese airlines gradually adjusted their networks after the introduction of high-speed rail (HSR). This empirical study aims to fill this research gap. [...] Read more.
There is little research on the impact of air cargo networks on regional economic development, which is especially notable considering that Chinese airlines gradually adjusted their networks after the introduction of high-speed rail (HSR). This empirical study aims to fill this research gap. Firstly, we used the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method to study the effect of the air cargo network on the regional economy. The results show that, in eastern and central China, the higher the clustering coefficient of the domestic air cargo network, the more significant their promotion effect becomes on the GDP per capita, with cities in eastern China benefitting the most from this effect. However, for super-scale cities, the clustering coefficient of the domestic air cargo network has a significant negative effect on the GDP per capita, which is likely because both the air and HSR passenger services crowd out the development opportunities for air cargo. Secondly, we applied the Difference-in-Difference (DID) method in order to measure the impact on the regional economy caused by air cargo under the impact of HSR. The results show that the aviation network adjusted for the impact of HSR produces heterogeneous effects on cities for different regions and scales, and that the international aviation network has greater impacts on cities than the domestic network. In eastern China, HSR and air cargo (both international and domestic networks) promote economic growth simultaneously; in central China, only domestic air cargo has a positive effect on the regional economy; in western China, neither HSR nor air cargo has an obvious effect on the regional economy. Policy implications—such as encouraging the cooperation of HSR and civil aviation—are discussed, and could help bring the functions of the air cargo network in regional economic development into full play. Full article
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Article
Sustainability of Transport System of Large Russian City in the Period of COVID-19: Methods and Results of Assessment
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7644; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187644 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
In spring 2020 the whole world went through the “black swan”—COVID-19 pandemic. The healthcare systems of all countries and the world economy, in general, became very stressed. The extraordinary decline of activity in all spheres, except healthcare, led to a drop in the [...] Read more.
In spring 2020 the whole world went through the “black swan”—COVID-19 pandemic. The healthcare systems of all countries and the world economy, in general, became very stressed. The extraordinary decline of activity in all spheres, except healthcare, led to a drop in the demand for transport services, including city public transport. It was important for city management to support the sustainability of the local transport system. The article presents fundamental approaches to assessing the sustainability of a transport service, particularly city passenger public transport (CPPT), for the example of the large Russian city Tyumen (size of population—nearly 807 thousand people). Methods of analysis of the sustainability of the transport process in conditions of negative environmental impact (COVID-19 pandemic) are considered. During the period from 30.03.2020 to 31.05.2020 (nine weeks—the acute phase of COVID-19 pandemic) structural sustainability of the CPPT system in Tyumen kept a high level. By changing the parameters of the planned characteristics of the CPPT system state, an attempt to adapt the transport service supply to a sharp decrease in transport demand was made. In the period of “self-isolation”, the demand for the CPPT transport service reduced more than the transport service supply. Sustainability of CPPT functioning was evaluated by calculating the elasticity of the transport supply (number of trips) in relation to the actual demand (actual volume of transportations). Calculation of the elasticity index of the CPPT system of Tyumen during nine weeks of April–May 2020 (duration of “self-isolation“) is provided. A conclusion was made from the results of the research. In particular, it was found that the foreground target function of city management was the maintenance of a high level of transportation processes to the detriment of the transportations’ effectiveness. Such a policy led to contradictory results—the additional financial expenses at the rate of 135–150 million rubles and quite a high level of contentment of the Tyumen population with the quality of the CPPT work (sociological research established that 80–85% of respondents were satisfied with the quality of the transport service in April–May 2020). Full article
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Review
Elderly Sustainable Mobility: Scientific Paper Review
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7319; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187319 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The number of elderly people as a proportion of the world’s population is growing significantly. Special attention to the accessibility and mobility requirements of this group is needed. The contribution of this paper is a review of travel patterns, mode preferences, infrastructure solutions, [...] Read more.
The number of elderly people as a proportion of the world’s population is growing significantly. Special attention to the accessibility and mobility requirements of this group is needed. The contribution of this paper is a review of travel patterns, mode preferences, infrastructure solutions, accessibility indices, mode choice models and datasets as they relate to elderly mobility. Key findings highlight the role of residential location characteristics in shaping elderly travel patterns, helping to explain why research on elderly travel has largely relied on case studies to date. The review also summarizes a range of indices that have been developed to measure public transport and walking accessibility among the elderly, including distance and time-based methods. Future research should consider the dominance of private transport in facilitating elderly mobility and its implications for cities experiencing an aging population. Full article
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Article
Influence of Community Design and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Teleworking
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5781; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145781 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The traffic on the roads in many countries has been increasing in recent decades, and the increases in congestion and carbon emission are contributing significantly to climate change. To minimize these adverse effects, the use of more sustainable travel modes, such as public [...] Read more.
The traffic on the roads in many countries has been increasing in recent decades, and the increases in congestion and carbon emission are contributing significantly to climate change. To minimize these adverse effects, the use of more sustainable travel modes, such as public transit, walking, bicycling, carpool and ridesharing, has been widely promoted. Apart from these travel modes, alternatives, such as teleworking, which reduces commute trips, should also be promoted. The objective of this study is to identify different neighborhood design and social characteristics that are associated with teleworking. In this case study, a multiple regression model is applied to 2011 census data and road infrastructure data of 185 communities from the city of Calgary in Canada. In addition, a random intercept model is estimated to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that different street patterns, geographical size, land use, mass rapid transit, and road types have a significant effect on teleworking or working-at-home and should be considered when designing new communities. We also find several significant sociodemographic characteristics, including family size, marital status, children, housing type and language. Policy implications based on this research are then provided. Full article
Article
The Depth-First Optimal Strategy Path Generation Algorithm for Passengers in a Metro Network
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5365; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135365 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
Passenger behavior analysis is a key issue in passenger assignment research, in which the path choice is a fundamental component. A highly complex transit network offers multiple paths for each origin–destination (OD) pair and thus resulting in more flexible choices for each passenger. [...] Read more.
Passenger behavior analysis is a key issue in passenger assignment research, in which the path choice is a fundamental component. A highly complex transit network offers multiple paths for each origin–destination (OD) pair and thus resulting in more flexible choices for each passenger. To reflect a passenger’s flexible choice for the transit network, the optimal strategy was proposed by other researchers to determine passenger choice behavior. However, only strategy links have been searched in the optimal strategy algorithm and these links cannot complete the whole path. To determine the paths for each OD pair, this study proposes the depth-first path generation algorithm, in which a strategy node concept is newly defined. The proposed algorithm was applied to the Beijing metro network. The results show that, in comparison to the shortest path and the K-shortest path analysis, the proposed depth-first optimal strategy path generation algorithm better represents the passenger behavior more reliably and flexibly. Full article
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Article
Urban Congestion Charging Acceptability: An International Comparative Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5044; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125044 - 20 Jun 2020
Viewed by 714
Abstract
The congestion charging scheme is regarded as a successful measure to reduce traffic-related problems. However, low general acceptability of the public for implementing such a scheme is a barrier against its success. In this research, an online pre-designed survey was conducted in five [...] Read more.
The congestion charging scheme is regarded as a successful measure to reduce traffic-related problems. However, low general acceptability of the public for implementing such a scheme is a barrier against its success. In this research, an online pre-designed survey was conducted in five capitals (Budapest, Tunis, Amman, Ulaanbaatar, and Damascus) to define the factors that affect congestion charging acceptability the most. The results of relationships between the studied factors like travel behavior and acceptance of the congestion charging scheme show an irregular pattern in each city. It indicates that the identity of each city and its general policy implications determine which factors significantly affect the public acceptability of congestion charging scheme. In Amman and Budapest, most of the predictors have no statistical effect on the schemes’ public acceptability. Consistent with previous researches, on the other hand, the results demonstrate that the schemes’ effectiveness is crucial and affects the acceptability significantly in all cities. At the same time, it shows that the “prior scheme knowledge” factor has a significant direct effect on the acceptability level in three cities (Damascus, Tunis, and Ulaanbaatar). Full article
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Article
An Integrated Model of Park-And-Ride Facilities for Sustainable Urban Mobility
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4631; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114631 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
The Park and Ride (P&R) System is part of a set of parking policies provided by Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) that have been used in developing efficient, safe and environmentally friendly solutions to reduce the undesirable effects of private vehicles in Central [...] Read more.
The Park and Ride (P&R) System is part of a set of parking policies provided by Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) that have been used in developing efficient, safe and environmentally friendly solutions to reduce the undesirable effects of private vehicles in Central Business District (CBD). In fact, the P&Rs are allocated near public transportation stations to ease transfer from a private vehicle to a public transportation mode. Therefore, the P&R system is considered as an alternative transport mode in which the location and potential demand of each facility are fundamental components to be evaluated within sustainable urban planning. The paper proposes an integrated model of P&R facilities based on estimate the potential demand through a mathematical model of the seven park-and-ride (P&R) facilities (designated A to G) in Cuenca city, Ecuador. The developed integrated model includes two cost functions: one is the P&R mode, and the second is the private car mode. Additionally, a SUMP is integrated into the model as a data collection source in order to find the required parameters for the cost functions and origin–destination (O-D) matrix of private vehicles. The results showed that three out of the seven P&R facilities (P&R C, P&R G, and P&R A) had the highest demand (70% of the overall demand). Consequently, these three P&R facilities were studied separately using the same developed model, and the demand proved to be the highest for P&R facility “C” (39% out of 70%). In conclusion, SUMPs, as a methodology for data collection and a mathematical model, proved to be an effective integrated method for evaluating the most attractive P&R location based on the potential demand. Full article
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