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Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 74590

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Business IT & Logistics, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3053, Australia
Interests: sustainable transport; transport economics; transport policy; road safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, RMIT University, Carlton, VIC 3053, Australia
Interests: human factors in transport and logistics; adoption and deployment of connected and autonomous vehicles; passenger crowd dynamics and evacuation management; supply chain mangement and logistics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001, Australia
Interests: driving behavior modelling and analysis; transport infrastructure maintenance planning and management; road freight management; transport network modelling and simulation; traffic safety studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The safe movement of pedestrians and passengers is an important component of a sustainable multi-modal transportation system. Therefore, the planning, design, management and protection of facilities for efficient, comfortable and safe walking in the local areas, major transport hubs and other public places is a challenge to policy makers, transportation engineers and planners, law enforcement and security agencies seeking to promote sustainable travel behaviour and create a safe liveable community. Particularly, the safety of pedestrians is a major challenge as there have been numerous fatalities and serious injuries resulting from vehicle-pedestrian crashes around the world. Likewise, as the urban population increases and city centres become increasingly crowded, the protection and movement of a large number of people in pedestrian malls, major transport hubs and other public infrastructures following natural disasters, terrorist attacks or other causes will be an important safety challenge in encouraging walking as a sustainable mode of travel.

Dr. Richard Tay
Dr. Nirajan Shiwakoti
Dr. Sara Moridpour
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Pedestrian Safety
  • Vehicle-Pedestrian Crashes
  • Jaywalking and Distracted Walking
  • Impaired Pedestrians
  • Pedestrian Protection and Evacuation

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 17962 KiB  
Article
Effect of Intersecting Angle on Pedestrian Crowd Flow under Normal and Evacuation Conditions
by Kayvan Aghabayk, Kiarash Radmehr and Nirajan Shiwakoti
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041301 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Complex pedestrian or passenger crowd movements, such as intersecting movements, can create a bottleneck resulting in delays during emergency escape from public infrastructure such as major public transport hubs. Limited studies have examined the effect of different intersecting angles and walking speeds on [...] Read more.
Complex pedestrian or passenger crowd movements, such as intersecting movements, can create a bottleneck resulting in delays during emergency escape from public infrastructure such as major public transport hubs. Limited studies have examined the effect of different intersecting angles and walking speeds on pedestrian outflow. This study aims to systematically investigate the effect of different intersecting angles (30°, 90°, and 150°) and walking speeds (normal walking, faster walking) on pedestrian outflow at an intersecting path or junction through controlled laboratory experiments. Further, we consider both blocked vision and un-blocked vision in our experiments. The results from our experiments show that the acute angle of 30° has a higher flow rate and less evacuation time as compared to the other angles. The obtuse intersecting angle of 150° was the most undesirable intersecting angle in terms of outflow, evacuation time, and delays at the junction. Faster walking generally led to reduced evacuation time as compared to normal walking. It is also interesting to note that the results from both blocked vision and un-blocked vision were not statistically significant, suggesting that line of sight was not an important factor in regulating the flow at the junction. The results from our findings are a valuable resource to verify the mathematical model intended to simulate pedestrian or passenger crowd movements and behavior within major public infrastructure under both normal and evacuation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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16 pages, 4364 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Walking-Edge Effect in Train Station Evacuation Scenarios: A Sustainable Transportation Perspective
by Kefan Xie, Benbu Liang, Yu Song and Xueqin Dong
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247188 (registering DOI) - 15 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3308
Abstract
Due to the highly developed rail transit over the past decades, the phenomena of complex individual self-organized behaviors and mass crowd dynamics have become a great concern in the train station. In order to understand passengers’ walking-edge effect and analyze the relationship between [...] Read more.
Due to the highly developed rail transit over the past decades, the phenomena of complex individual self-organized behaviors and mass crowd dynamics have become a great concern in the train station. In order to understand passengers’ walking-edge effect and analyze the relationship between the layout and sustainable service abilities of the train station, a heuristics-based social force model is proposed to elaborate the crowd dynamics. Several evacuation scenarios are implemented to describe the walking-edge effect in a train station with the evacuation efficiency, pedestrian flow, and crowd density map. The results show that decentralizing crowd flow can significantly increase the evacuation efficiency in different scenarios. When the exits are far away from the central axis of the railway station, the walking-edge effect has little influence on the evacuation efficiency. Obstacles can guide the movement of passengers by channelizing pedestrian flows. In addition, a wider side exit of the funnel-shaped corridors can promote walking-edge effect and decrease the pressure among a congested crowd. Besides providing a modified social force model with considering walking-edge effect, several suggestions are put forward for managers and architects of the train station in designing sustainable layouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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16 pages, 6838 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Pedestrians’ Safety on Urban Intersections: A Visibility Analysis
by Keila González-Gómez and María Castro
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6630; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236630 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5040
Abstract
Overall visibility plays a key role in the safety of pedestrians. Despite its importance, verifying the right provisioning of sufficient available sight distances among pedestrians and vulnerable road users (VRUs) is not a prevalent practice. On top of that, the pursuit for more [...] Read more.
Overall visibility plays a key role in the safety of pedestrians. Despite its importance, verifying the right provisioning of sufficient available sight distances among pedestrians and vulnerable road users (VRUs) is not a prevalent practice. On top of that, the pursuit for more sustainable modes of transportation has promoted the establishment of different shared mobility services which are prone to increase walking and, thus, the number of pedestrians and other VRUs in urban settings. With the intention of verifying how car-centered designs perform for non-motorized users, a 3D procedure that evaluates the visibility of pedestrians and other users is presented and applied to specific cases in Madrid, Spain. The proposed solution employs virtual trajectories of pedestrians with mobility impairments and without them, cyclists, and personal transportation device riders. Their visibility was assessed around the functional area of urban intersections, including zones where possible jaywalking practices might occur. The evaluation was performed three-dimensionally, making use of LiDAR data, GIS tools, and 3D objects. Results show the impact of street furniture location on visibility, the distinctive influence of vegetation on the lines of sight of each observer, and how design parameters that were intended to improve motorized traffic could affect VRU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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17 pages, 8435 KiB  
Article
Influence of Evacuation Walkway Design Parameters on Passenger Evacuation Time along Elevated Rail Transit Lines Using a Multi-Agent Simulation
by Zihua Pan, Qingchao Wei, Olav Torp and Albert Lau
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6049; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216049 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4003
Abstract
Passenger evacuation on elevated railway lines has always been an important issue for elevated rail transit safety management, because it is challenging to evacuate passengers efficiently in the event of man-made calamities and natural disasters. Therefore, an evacuation walkway has been designed as [...] Read more.
Passenger evacuation on elevated railway lines has always been an important issue for elevated rail transit safety management, because it is challenging to evacuate passengers efficiently in the event of man-made calamities and natural disasters. Therefore, an evacuation walkway has been designed as a primary solution to assist passenger evacuation during an emergency on elevated rail transit lines. However, investigations on how evacuation walkway designs influence passenger evacuation time are still limited. This study established two evacuation scenarios of interval evacuation on elevated rail transit lines and put forward a new evacuation time measurement method, based on the concept of ‘evacuation time for passengers leaving the evacuation walkway risk zone’. Then, the evacuation time for 90 combinations of entrance widths and walkway widths was simulated by a multi-agent evacuation simulator, Pathfinder, considering 1032 passengers being evacuated both unidirectionally and bidirectionally. The results show that the entrance width and walkway width have a combined effect on passenger evacuation time. An increase in the walkway width from 0.7 m to 1.5 m may potentially reduce the evacuation time by 54.5% in unidirectional evacuation, and 35.2% in bidirectional evacuation. An increase in the entrance width results in a noticeable evacuation time fluctuation when the walkway width is 0.7 and 0.8 m for both evacuation scenarios, while in a bidirectional evacuation, a noticeable fluctuation also can be observed when the walkway width is within the range of 1.4–1.5 m. According to the study, a potentially good design parameter combination for a newly built evacuation walkway is 1.3 m and 1.4 m for the walkway width and entrance width, respectively. The findings from this study may provide a useful reference in the optimization of the design of evacuation facilities and improvement of passenger evacuation safety in rail transit systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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19 pages, 1876 KiB  
Article
Road Users’ Behavior at Marked Crosswalks on Channelized Right-Turn Lanes at Intersections in the State of Qatar
by Deepti Muley, Mohamed Kharbeche, Lucy Downey, Wafaa Saleh and Mohammed Al-Salem
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5699; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205699 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3151
Abstract
At non-signalized marked crosswalks, pedestrian priority is neither well-defined nor well acknowledged by drivers. This paper presents the findings of an investigation on both driver and pedestrian behavior at non-signalized marked crosswalks located on channelized right-turn lanes at intersections in the State of [...] Read more.
At non-signalized marked crosswalks, pedestrian priority is neither well-defined nor well acknowledged by drivers. This paper presents the findings of an investigation on both driver and pedestrian behavior at non-signalized marked crosswalks located on channelized right-turn lanes at intersections in the State of Qatar. Five crosswalks in Doha city were video recorded from discrete locations on a typical working day. The results from the data analysis of 1620 pedestrians’ behavior indicated that waiting behavior, gap acceptance, and crossing speed are complex phenomena and depend upon both pedestrians’ characteristics as well as their crossing characteristics. The drivers’ yielding behavior was mainly linked to pedestrians’ gender and adjacent land use. Low driver yielding rates indicated that significant improvements are required to enhance pedestrian safety. Among pedestrian attributes, gender had the most significant effect on crossing behavior followed by distractions, crossing in a group or alone, and dressing style. Findings of this research will be useful for planners when designing crosswalks at new intersections and during simulations of pedestrian and driver behavior at marked crosswalks on exclusive right-turn lanes. The results of this study will also be directly applicable to the Arabian Gulf countries as they exhibit similar conditions as the State of Qatar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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13 pages, 1231 KiB  
Article
Pedestrians and E-Scooters: An Initial Look at E-Scooter Parking and Perceptions by Riders and Non-Riders
by Owain James, J I Swiderski, John Hicks, Denis Teoman and Ralph Buehler
Sustainability 2019, 11(20), 5591; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11205591 - 11 Oct 2019
Cited by 146 | Viewed by 14137
Abstract
Since 2018, pedestrians in many U.S. cities have been sharing sidewalk space with dockless shared e-scooters. The introduction of e-scooters has received pushback from pedestrians. Complaints reported in the media include e-scooters blocking walkways and sidewalks when parked illegally as well as safety [...] Read more.
Since 2018, pedestrians in many U.S. cities have been sharing sidewalk space with dockless shared e-scooters. The introduction of e-scooters has received pushback from pedestrians. Complaints reported in the media include e-scooters blocking walkways and sidewalks when parked illegally as well as safety concerns from pedestrians who do not feel safe around moving e-scooters. However, little is known beyond a few initial studies on e-scooter parking and anecdotes about pedestrian perceptions of e-scooter safety. Our case study from Rosslyn, Virginia, helps shed light on these two issues. First, we conducted a survey of 181 e-scooter riders and non-riders asking about their perceived safety around riders of e-scooters and experiences of sidewalks blocked by e-scooters. We found highly divergent responses about safety and sidewalk blocking perceptions from riders and non-riders. Second, we conducted an observational study of 606 parked e-scooters along three mixed-use corridors in Rosslyn to investigate the relationship between the built environment and e-scooter parking. We found that 16% of 606 observed e-scooters were not parked properly and 6% (36 e-scooters) were blocking pedestrian right-of-way. Moreover, our survey showed that e-scooter trips in Rosslyn replaced trips otherwise taken by Uber, Lyft, or a taxi (39%), foot (33%), bicycle (12%), bus (7%), or car (7%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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15 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Movement Planning Around Corners
by Charitha Dias, Muhammad Abdullah, Majid Sarvi, Ruggiero Lovreglio and Wael Alhajyaseen
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5501; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195501 - 4 Oct 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3676
Abstract
Owing to the complexity of behavioral dynamics and mechanisms associated with turning maneuvers, capturing pedestrian movements around corners in a mathematical model is a challenging task. In this study, minimum jerk and one-thirds power law concepts, which have been initially applied in neurosciences [...] Read more.
Owing to the complexity of behavioral dynamics and mechanisms associated with turning maneuvers, capturing pedestrian movements around corners in a mathematical model is a challenging task. In this study, minimum jerk and one-thirds power law concepts, which have been initially applied in neurosciences and brain research domains, were utilized in combination to model pedestrian movement planning around bends. Simulation outputs explained that the proposed model could realistically represent the behavioral characteristics of pedestrians walking through bends. Comparison of modeled trajectories with empirical data demonstrated that the accuracy of the model could further be improved by using appropriate parameters in the one-thirds power law equation. Sensitivity analysis explained that, although the paths were not sensitive to the boundary conditions, speed and acceleration profiles could be remarkably varied depending on boundary conditions. Further, the applicability of the proposed model to estimate trajectories of pedestrians negotiating bends under different entry, intermediate, and exit conditions was also identified. The proposed model can be applied in microscopic simulation platforms, virtual reality, and driving simulator applications to provide realistic and accurate maneuvers around corners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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27 pages, 3794 KiB  
Article
A Critical Review of Policies on Pedestrian Safety and a Case Study of New Zealand
by Ajjima Soathong, Douglas Wilson, Prakash Ranjitkar and Subeh Chowdhury
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5274; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195274 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5413
Abstract
Vulnerable road users contribute to nearly half of road deaths globally. In New Zealand, this group accounts for 26% of road deaths, which includes 8% of pedestrian crashes. This paper provides a critical review of the road safety policies from the pedestrian’s viewpoint [...] Read more.
Vulnerable road users contribute to nearly half of road deaths globally. In New Zealand, this group accounts for 26% of road deaths, which includes 8% of pedestrian crashes. This paper provides a critical review of the road safety policies from the pedestrian’s viewpoint for some of the best performing countries and discusses their effectiveness for the future. A case study is conducted for New Zealand to identify factors contributing to the pedestrian crashes and investigate the impact of the road safety policies on pedestrian crash trends. The policies are predominantly well informed by evidence-based approaches contributing to an overall reduction in the number of road crashes. However, little attention has been paid on pedestrian behaviour related to crashes. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for improving pedestrian safety to enable better safety outcomes that are closer to vision zero. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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18 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Risk Factors Associated with the Severity of the Pedestrians Injured on Spanish Crosstown Roads
by Natalia Casado-Sanz, Begoña Guirao, Antonio Lara Galera and Maria Attard
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5194; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195194 - 22 Sep 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
According to the Spanish General Traffic Accident Directorate, in 2017 a total of 351 pedestrians were killed, and 14,322 pedestrians were injured in motor vehicle crashes in Spain. However, very few studies have been conducted in order to analyse the main factors that [...] Read more.
According to the Spanish General Traffic Accident Directorate, in 2017 a total of 351 pedestrians were killed, and 14,322 pedestrians were injured in motor vehicle crashes in Spain. However, very few studies have been conducted in order to analyse the main factors that contribute to pedestrian injury severity. This study analyses the accidents that involve a single vehicle and a single pedestrian on Spanish crosstown roads from 2006 to 2016 (1535 crashes). The factors that explain these accidents include infractions committed by the pedestrian and the driver, crash profiles, and infrastructure characteristics. As a preliminary tool for the segmentation of 1535 pedestrian crashes, a k-means cluster analysis was applied. In addition, multinomial logit (MNL) models were used for analysing crash data, where possible outcomes were fatalities and severe and minor injured pedestrians. According to the results of these models, the risk factors associated with pedestrian injury severity are as follows: visibility restricted by weather conditions or glare, infractions committed by the pedestrian (such as not using crossings, crossing unlawfully, or walking on the road), infractions committed by the driver (such as distracted driving and not respecting a light or a crossing), and finally, speed infractions committed by drivers (such as inadequate speed). This study proposes the specific safety countermeasures that in turn will improve overall road safety in this particular type of road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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8 pages, 747 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Pedestrian Crossing Flags on Driver Yielding Behavior in Las Vegas, NV
by Sheila Clark, Courtney Coughenour, Kelly Bumgarner, Hanns de la Fuente-Mella, Chantel Reynolds and James Abelar
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4741; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174741 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3801
Abstract
Walking is the most affordable, accessible, and environmentally friendly method of transportation. However, the risk of pedestrian injury or death from motor vehicle crashes is significant, particularly in sprawling metropolitan areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pedestrian [...] Read more.
Walking is the most affordable, accessible, and environmentally friendly method of transportation. However, the risk of pedestrian injury or death from motor vehicle crashes is significant, particularly in sprawling metropolitan areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pedestrian crossing flags (PCFs) on driver yielding behaviors. Participants crossed a marked, midblock crosswalk on a multilane road in Las Vegas, Nevada, with and without PCFs, to determine if there were differences in driver yielding behaviors (n = 160 crossings). Trained observers recorded (1) the number of vehicles that passed in the nearest lane without yielding while the pedestrian waited at the curb and (2) the number of vehicles that passed through the crosswalk while the pedestrian was in the same half of the roadway. ANOVA revealed that drivers were significantly less likely to pass through the crosswalk with the pedestrian in the roadway when they were carrying a PCF (M = 0.20; M = 0.06); drivers were more likely to yield to the pedestrian waiting to enter the roadway when they were carrying a PCF (M = 1.38; M = 0.95). Pedestrian crossing flags are a low-tech, low-cost intervention that may improve pedestrian safety at marked mid-block crosswalks. Future research should examine driver fade-out effects and more advanced pedestrian safety alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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22 pages, 7234 KiB  
Article
A Surrogate Video-Based Safety Methodology for Diagnosis and Evaluation of Low-Cost Pedestrian-Safety Countermeasures: The Case of Cochabamba, Bolivia
by Lynn Scholl, Mohamed Elagaty, Bismarck Ledezma-Navarro, Edgar Zamora and Luis Miranda-Moreno
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4737; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174737 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5340
Abstract
Due to a lack of reliable data collection systems, traffic fatalities and injuries are often under-reported in developing countries. Recent developments in surrogate road safety methods and video analytics tools offer an alternative approach that can be both lower cost and more time [...] Read more.
Due to a lack of reliable data collection systems, traffic fatalities and injuries are often under-reported in developing countries. Recent developments in surrogate road safety methods and video analytics tools offer an alternative approach that can be both lower cost and more time efficient when crash data is incomplete or missing. However, very few studies investigating pedestrian road safety in developing countries using these approaches exist. This research uses an automated video analytics tool to develop and analyze surrogate traffic safety measures and to evaluate the effectiveness of temporary low-cost countermeasures at selected pedestrian crossings at risky intersections in the city of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Specialized computer vision software is used to process hundreds of hours of video data and generate data on road users’ speed and trajectories. We find that motorcycles, turning movements, and roundabouts, are among the key factors related to pedestrian crash risk, and that the implemented treatments were effective at four-legged intersections but not at traditional-design roundabouts. This study demonstrates the applicability of the surrogate methodology based on automated video analytics in the Latin American context, where traditional methods are challenging to implement. The methodology could serve as a tool to rapidly evaluate temporary treatments before they are permanently implemented and replicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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17 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Injury Severity of Bus–Pedestrian Crashes in South Korea Considering the Effects of Regional and Company Factors
by Ho-Chul Park, Yang-Jun Joo, Seung-Young Kho, Dong-Kyu Kim and Byung-Jung Park
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3169; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113169 - 5 Jun 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2757
Abstract
Bus–pedestrian crashes typically result in more severe injuries and deaths than any other type of bus crash. Thus, it is important to screen and improve the risk factors that affect bus–pedestrian crashes. However, bus–pedestrian crashes that are affected by a company’s and regional [...] Read more.
Bus–pedestrian crashes typically result in more severe injuries and deaths than any other type of bus crash. Thus, it is important to screen and improve the risk factors that affect bus–pedestrian crashes. However, bus–pedestrian crashes that are affected by a company’s and regional characteristics have a cross-classified hierarchical structure, which is difficult to address properly using a single-level model or even a two-level multi-level model. In this study, we used a cross-classified, multi-level model to consider simultaneously the unobserved heterogeneities at these two distinct levels. Using bus–pedestrian crash data in South Korea from 2011 through to 2015, in this study, we investigated the factors related to the injury severity of the crashes, including crash level, regional and company level factors. The results indicate that the company and regional effects are 16.8% and 5.1%, respectively, which justified the use of a multi-level model. We confirm that type I errors may arise when the effects of upper-level groups are ignored. We also identified the factors that are statistically significant, including three regional-level factors, i.e., the elderly ratio, the ratio of the transportation infrastructure budget, and the number of doctors, and 13 crash-level factors. This study provides useful insights concerning bus–pedestrian crashes, and a safety policy is suggested to enhance bus–pedestrian safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
15 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
Passengers’ Perceptions of Security Check in Metro Stations
by Xiaomeng Shi, Zhirui Ye, Nirajan Shiwakoti and Huaxin Li
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102930 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5130
Abstract
A safer and securer public transport provides a wide range of sustainability benefits to a community. This paper explores passengers’ perception of security checks (SCs) in metro stations, with a focus on the safety and mobility of passenger flows. We used 27 scaling [...] Read more.
A safer and securer public transport provides a wide range of sustainability benefits to a community. This paper explores passengers’ perception of security checks (SCs) in metro stations, with a focus on the safety and mobility of passenger flows. We used 27 scaling items categorized into five variables: efficiency, comfort, safety, privacy and willingness-to-pay. A questionnaire survey of 880 metro passengers in China showed that respondents are generally homogenous in their perceptions of metro SCs in terms of their agreement on mandatory SC policy and the priority of safety. Most passengers are willing to trade-off their trip efficiency and privacy in exchange for safety improvement, while a small proportion of people are inclined to trade-off their trip efficiency for a more comfortable waiting and riding experiences. Demographic differences such as gender and age group effects are observed. For example, females tend to be more concerned with trip comfort while older passengers are more likely to compromise their privacy with enhancement in safety features. Findings from this study can be a valuable resource to railway authorities in designing and developing a SC system at major railway hubs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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14 pages, 956 KiB  
Article
Built Environment Features and Pedestrian Accidents: An Italian Retrospective Study
by Tanja Congiu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Paolo Castiglia, Antonio Azara, Andrea Piana, Laura Saderi and Marco Dettori
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041064 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 5206
Abstract
Daily walking is a recommended physical activity. It can be an all-age suitable, environment-friendly transport option. However, traffic crashes are a widely recognized risk factor, associated with drivers’ errors or a combination of several environmental factors, including physical characteristics of the road space. [...] Read more.
Daily walking is a recommended physical activity. It can be an all-age suitable, environment-friendly transport option. However, traffic crashes are a widely recognized risk factor, associated with drivers’ errors or a combination of several environmental factors, including physical characteristics of the road space. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of built environments on pedestrian safety. Data on road accidents that had occurred between 2005 and 2015, in Alghero, Italy, were retrieved and matched with spatial and functional street qualities. On-street parking was found to increase the risk of pedestrian accidents by about two times, whereas, narrow travel lanes and intersections reduced the incidence of crashes and their public relevance. These field results could inform urban health and spatial planning policies with the final goal of improving health and providing more sustainable models of urban organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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Review

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24 pages, 626 KiB  
Review
Negotiation and Decision-Making for a Pedestrian Roadway Crossing: A Literature Review
by Roja Ezzati Amini, Christos Katrakazas and Constantinos Antoniou
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6713; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236713 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 6210
Abstract
The interaction among pedestrians and human drivers is a complicated process, in which road users have to communicate their intentions, as well as understand and anticipate the actions of users in their vicinity. However, road users still ought to have a proper interpretation [...] Read more.
The interaction among pedestrians and human drivers is a complicated process, in which road users have to communicate their intentions, as well as understand and anticipate the actions of users in their vicinity. However, road users still ought to have a proper interpretation of each others’ behaviors, when approaching and crossing the road. Pedestrians, as one of the interactive agents, demonstrate different behaviors at road crossings, which do not follow a consistent pattern and may vary from one situation to another. The presented inconsistency and unpredictability of pedestrian road crossing behaviors may thus become a challenge for the design of emerging technologies in the near future, such as automated driving system (ADS). As a result, the current paper aims at understanding the effectual communication techniques, as well as the factors influencing pedestrian negotiation and decision-making process. After reviewing the state-of-the-art and identifying research gaps with regards to vehicle–pedestrian crossing encounters, a holistic approach for road crossing interaction modeling is presented and discussed. It is envisioned that the presented holistic approach will result in enhanced safety, sustainability, and effectiveness of pedestrian road crossings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pedestrian Safety and Sustainable Transportation)
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