Topical Collection "Sustainable Smart Cities and Villages"

A topical collection in Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This collection belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Miltiadis D. Lytras
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Effat College of Engineering, Effat University, Jeddah, P.O. Box 34689, Saudi Arabia
Interests: cognitive computing; artificial intelligence; data science; bioinformatics; innovation; big data research; data mining; emerging technologies; information systems; technology driven innovation; knowledge management; semantic web
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anna Visvizi
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
1. School of Business & Economics, Deree—The American College of Greece, 6 Gravias Street GR-153 42 Aghia Paraskevi Athens, Greece;
2. Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Interests: smart cities; migration; innovation networks; international business; political economy; economic integration; politics; EU, Central Europe, China
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Technological evolution is a continuous process creating new opportunities to implement significant, high impact, humanistic visions. However, there is great concern about the current mode of exploiting technologies towards this objective. Research on smart cities, on the other hand, provides an excellent context for the cultivation of a collaborative, synergetic, community-driven integration of human minds, cultural individual contributions, the launch of businesses, interoperability and even happiness. It is quite straightforward to realize that human happiness in urban settings is no longer a priority. We propose that the improvement of human happiness should be the highest objective of any smart city initiative, whether driven by technology or not.

The objective of this Special Issue is to disseminate the latest high quality, interdisciplinary research in the domain of urban computing and smart cities and to also introduce the concept of smart villages as a key response to the desertification of the countryside through the adoption of integrative strategies for human development and economic growth with the use of sophisticated technology.

This Special Issue seeks to uncover and present the latest developments in meeting the needs of modern smart cities and smart villages towards sustainable development, prosperity and happiness for humanity.

For this Special Issue, we welcome papers dealing with case studies, literature reviews, survey findings, analytical methods, and tools. Examples of topics of interest include:

  • Studies on sustainable smart cities research;
  • Elaborations of the concept of smart villages;
  • Smart urban applications for different domains of human activity including education, transportation, energy, accessibility, policy-making, governance, entertainment, collaboration, behavior, etc.;
  • Advanced information and communication technologies for smart cities research including data mining, analytics, cloud computing, open source technologies, virtual and augmented reality, collaborative platforms, content management systems, etc.;
  • Policy-making and sustainable government initiatives for smart social businesses and entrepreneurship in villages and rural areas;
  • Case studies, prototypes and project deliverables related to smart cities research;
  • Irregular migratory flows and smart villages initiatives;
  • Public consultation and open smart democracy.

Prof. Miltiadis D. Lytras
Prof. Anna Visvizi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Smart cities
  • Smart villages
  • Smart urban applications
  • Data mining
  • Analytics
  • Cloud computing and open source technologies
  • Sustainability
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Economic growth
  • Irregular migratory flows
  • Smart technologies
  • ICTs
  • Open democracy
  • Open government
  • Smart education
  • Smart innovation

Published Papers (18 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019

Article
Sustainable Smart City—Opening a Black Box
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020769 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Cities are becoming digital and are aiming to be sustainable. How they are combining the two is not always apparent from the outside. What we need is a look from inside. In recent years, cities have increasingly called themselves Smart City. This can [...] Read more.
Cities are becoming digital and are aiming to be sustainable. How they are combining the two is not always apparent from the outside. What we need is a look from inside. In recent years, cities have increasingly called themselves Smart City. This can mean different things, but generally includes a look towards new digital technologies and claim that a Smart City has various advantages for its citizens, roughly in line with the demands of sustainable development. A city can be seen as smart in a narrow sense, technology wise, sustainable or smart and sustainable. Current city rankings, which often evaluate and classify cities in terms of the target dimensions “smart” and “sustainable”, certify that some cities are both. In its most established academic definitions, the Smart City also serves both to improve the quality of life of its citizens and to promote sustainable development. Some cities have obviously managed to combine the two. The question that arises is as follows: What are the underlying processes towards a sustainable Smart City and are cities really using smart tools to make themselves sustainable in the sense of the 2015 United Nations Sustainability Goal 11? This question is to be answered by a method that has not yet been applied in research on cities and smart cities: the innovation biography. Based on evolutionary economics, the innovation biography approaches the process towards a Smart City as an innovation process. It will highlight which actors are involved, how knowledge is shared among them, what form citizen participation processes take and whether the use of digital and smart services within a Smart City leads to a more sustainable city. Such a process-oriented method should show, among other things, to what extent and when sustainability-relevant motives play a role and which actors and citizens are involved in the process at all. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019

Article
Identification of Roof Surfaces from LiDAR Cloud Points by GIS Tools: A Case Study of Lučenec, Slovakia
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6847; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176847 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
The identification of roof surfaces is characterized by a sequence of several processing steps. The boundary detection of different types of roof is realized from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) cloud points and can confirm the real boundary of the roof. In the [...] Read more.
The identification of roof surfaces is characterized by a sequence of several processing steps. The boundary detection of different types of roof is realized from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) cloud points and can confirm the real boundary of the roof. In the process of processing LiDAR data, shortcomings have been found regarding the inappropriate classification of points (class 6 “buildings”) concerning the roofs (the points of the building facade were marked as outliers and reclassified). In cases of insufficient point density, there is a problem with not being able to capture either the roof boundary or small roof objects, along with the possible occurrence of gaps inside the roof areas. This study proposes a processing procedure in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that advocates the identification of roof surfaces based on the LiDAR point cloud. We created the contours of a roof surface boundary with a simplified regular shape. From 824 roofs in the studied area, six different types of roof were selected, which this study presents in detail. The expected result of the study is the generation of segments inside the roof boundary. The study also includes the visualization of the outcomes of the spatial analyses of the identified roof surfaces, which forms the basis for determining the potential of solar systems with respect to green roofs for the development of smart city buildings. Full article
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Article
Gender Gaps in the Use of Urban Space in Seoul: Analyzing Spatial Patterns of Temporary Populations Using Mobile Phone Data
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6481; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166481 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
This study aims to examine the gender gaps in the use of urban space in Seoul, Korea, to provide empirical evidence for urban planning for gender equality. We analyzed daily temporary populations that were estimated using mobile phone data. We used the total, [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the gender gaps in the use of urban space in Seoul, Korea, to provide empirical evidence for urban planning for gender equality. We analyzed daily temporary populations that were estimated using mobile phone data. We used the total, women’s, and men’s temporary populations as well as the subtraction of the temporary population of men from that of women (SMW) as dependent variables. We first conducted a visual analysis on temporary population density using kernel density estimation and then conducted a further analysis using spatial autocorrelation indicators and spatial regression models. The results demonstrate that: (1) Temporary population patterns for women and men showed similarities in that both were larger in business areas than in residential areas, which means that a large number of women were engaged in economic activities like men; (2) the pattern for SMW showed the opposite, that is, women were more active in residential areas and areas where neighborhood retail shops, cultural facilities, parks, and department stores were easily accessible; and (3) both women’s temporary population and SMW had spatial autocorrelation and thus showed clustering patterns that can be helpful in urban planning for gender equality in Korea. Full article
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Article
Community Involvement and Compensation Money Utilization in Ethiopia: Case Studies from Bahir Dar and Debre Markos Peri-Urban Areas
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4794; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114794 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
In this study the involvement of the community during expropriation and the utilization of the compensation money of the expropriated farmers are investigated taking Bahir Dar and Debre Markos peri-urban areas as case studies. Survey research methods were applied for data collection. The [...] Read more.
In this study the involvement of the community during expropriation and the utilization of the compensation money of the expropriated farmers are investigated taking Bahir Dar and Debre Markos peri-urban areas as case studies. Survey research methods were applied for data collection. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. According to the results, there is high land tenure transformation in both study areas. Even though the majority of the expropriated farmers got compensation payments, most farmers did not use their compensation money to found alternative income generating businesses. Just payment of compensation shall not be an end by itself. Technical and administrative supports for farmers are essential for the proper utilization of the compensation money. Communities affected by expropriation should participate effectively in the processes of expropriation and compensation in order to reduce the externalities of the process. For this to happen, the public authorities should prepare open public consultation meetings prior to expropriation and must exercise smart democracy during the whole period of the process. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020

Article
Mapping the Knowledge Domain of Smart-City Research: A Bibliometric and Scientometric Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6648; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236648 - 25 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
As urbanization continues to accelerate, the number of cities and their growing populations have created problems, such as the congestion and noise related to transportation, the pollution from industry, and the difficulty of disposing of garbage. An emerging urban strategy is to make [...] Read more.
As urbanization continues to accelerate, the number of cities and their growing populations have created problems, such as the congestion and noise related to transportation, the pollution from industry, and the difficulty of disposing of garbage. An emerging urban strategy is to make use of digital technologies and big data to help improve the quality of life of urban residents. In the past decade, more and more researchers have studied smart cities, and the number of literature in this field grows rapidly, making it “big data”. With the aim of better understanding the contexts of smart-city research, including the distribution of topics, knowledge bases, and the research frontiers in the field, this paper is based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) in the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection, and the method used is that of comprehensive scientometric analysis and knowledge mapping in terms of diversity, time slicing, and dynamics, using VOSviewer and CiteSpace to study the literature in the field. The main research topics can be divided into three areas—“the concepts and elements of the smart city”, “the smart city and the Internet of Things”, and “the smart city of the future”—through document co-citation analysis. There are four key directions—“research objectives and development-strategy research”, “technical-support research”, “data-processing and applied research”, and “management and applied research”—analyzed using keywords co-occurrence. Finally, the research frontiers are urban-development, sustainable cities, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, integration, undertaken through keyword co-occurrence analysis. Full article
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Article
A Novel Evaluation Model for Urban Smart Growth Based on Principal Component Regression and Radial Basis Function Neural Network
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6125; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216125 - 03 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Smart growth is widely adopted by urban planners as an innovative approach, which can guide a city to develop into an environmentally friendly modern city. Therefore, determining the degree of smart growth is quite significant. In this paper, sustainable degree (SD) is proposed [...] Read more.
Smart growth is widely adopted by urban planners as an innovative approach, which can guide a city to develop into an environmentally friendly modern city. Therefore, determining the degree of smart growth is quite significant. In this paper, sustainable degree (SD) is proposed to evaluate the level of urban smart growth, which is established by principal component regression (PCR) and the radial basis function (RBF) neural network. In the case study of Yumen and Otago, the SD values of Yumen and Otago are 0.04482 and 0.04591, respectively, and both plans are moderately successful. Yumen should give more attention to environmental development while Otago should concentrate on economic development. In order to make a reliable future plan, a self-organizing map (SOM) is conducted to classify all indicators and the RBF neural network-trained indicators are separate under different classifications to output new plans. Finally, the reliability of the plan is confirmed by cellular automata (CA). Through simulation of the trend of urban development, it is found that the development speed of Yumen and Otago would increase slowly in the long term. This paper provides a powerful reference for cities pursuing smart growth. Full article
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Article
Urban Ecological Efficiency and Its Influencing Factors—A Case Study in Henan Province, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 5048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11185048 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
The urban ecological civilization construction relates to welfare of the people and the national future. It is an important field of the high-quality economic development to improve the urban ecological efficiency level. The purpose of this research is to provide a new perspective [...] Read more.
The urban ecological civilization construction relates to welfare of the people and the national future. It is an important field of the high-quality economic development to improve the urban ecological efficiency level. The purpose of this research is to provide a new perspective and method for the quantitative study of the urban sustainable development, and also to provide some decision-making references for the improvement of the urban ecological efficiency in Henan province. This paper uses the slacks-based measure-data envelopment analysis (SBM-DEA) model containing the undesirable output and the Malmquist index model to fully evaluate the urban ecological efficiency level in Henan province during the period of 2005–2016, via both the static and dynamic analysis. Based on this, the bootstrap regression model is applied in analyzing the influencing factors of the urban ecological efficiency. The research shows three findings. First, according to the static efficiency analysis, the urban ecological efficiency in Henan province is low as a whole and has a big promotion space. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the urban ecological efficiency level among the five regions because of the different geographical locations and social and economic development situations of the cities. Second, according to the dynamic efficiency analysis, in the last 12 years, the urban ecological efficiency in Henan province has shown an overall growth trend, and the technological progress has played a major role in promoting the urban ecological efficiency in Henan province. Third, according to the influencing factor analysis, the governmental financial support hinders the improvement of the urban ecological efficiency in Henan province, while the level of opening to the outside world, the urban population density, and the urban greening level promote it. Full article
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Article
Path Dependence and Social Network Analysis on Evolutionary Dynamics of Tourism in Coastal Rural Communities
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4854; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184854 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
The studies on the evolution of tourist destinations are not a new issue, however, most of them have been focused on consolidated destinations, whereas only a minimum has been done on tourism transformation in rural areas. The objective of this work is to [...] Read more.
The studies on the evolution of tourist destinations are not a new issue, however, most of them have been focused on consolidated destinations, whereas only a minimum has been done on tourism transformation in rural areas. The objective of this work is to diagnose the evolutionary process of tourism in Coastal Rural Communities (CRCs). To do this, we propose a model which combines two research approaches, Path Dependence and Social Network Analysis. The methodological approach is divided into three parts: design, application and validation, and it is based on collecting in situ and identifying key informants. In the first part, the stages of a Path Dependence for a CRC are conceptualized and bipartite graphs are constructed to show the relationships between: (1) the identified establishments built in a period of time and (2) positive and negative lock-ins with a greater degree of influence on the evolutionary process. On this basis, the resulting graphs are associated with the stages of the Path Dependence. In the second part, the model theoretically raised is applied as an empirical case at the CRC of Playa Ventura, Guerrero, in the Southern Pacific of Mexico. Finally, we validated the model based on the results obtained, which indicate that the model is suitable for the generation of knowledge about the evolutionary process of tourism in CRC’s, and therefore, it opens the possibility of being replicated in other communities with the same characteristics. Full article
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Article
The Upper Limit of Distributed Solar PV Capacity in Riyadh: A GIS-Assisted Study
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4301; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164301 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
Rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, commonly referred to as distributed generation (DG) solar systems, are deemed important contenders in future sustainable cities. Because deploying DG systems is associated with technical, financial, policy, and market implications that impact utilities, governments, and businesses, quantifying the [...] Read more.
Rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, commonly referred to as distributed generation (DG) solar systems, are deemed important contenders in future sustainable cities. Because deploying DG systems is associated with technical, financial, policy, and market implications that impact utilities, governments, and businesses, quantifying the potential of DG systems that could be deployed in a certain jurisdiction ex ante helps inform the decision-making process for all stakeholders. To that end, the upper limit of rooftop PV systems that could be deployed in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, was assessed with the aid of geographic information systems (GIS). By relying on urban land lot data for different categories, i.e., zones, and the maximum allowable area that could be built within a certain lot using prevailing building codes and regulations, the rooftop area suitable for PV deployment within Riyadh Metro was quantified. The analysis was restricted to rooftops in residential, mosque, shopping mall, and health care buildings only. Following the quantification of the rooftop area, the upper limit of rooftop solar PV capacity that can be deployed in the city of Riyadh was found to be 4.34 GW. This capacity represents nearly 22% of the peak load and can satisfy approximately 9% of the energy requirement in the central region, the region in which Riyadh resides. Full article
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Article
Is Smart Housing a Good Deal? An Answer Based on Monte Carlo Net Present Value Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(15), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11154193 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The smart cities are considered to be an engine of economic and social growth. Most countries started to convert their existing cities into smart cities or construct new smart cities in order to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants. However, the [...] Read more.
The smart cities are considered to be an engine of economic and social growth. Most countries started to convert their existing cities into smart cities or construct new smart cities in order to improve the quality of life of their inhabitants. However, the problem that facing those countries while applying the concept of smart cities is the costs, especially for the residential sector. Despite the high initial and even operation costs for adopting different technologies in smart housing; the benefits could exceed those costs within the lifespan of the project. This article is shedding the light on the economics of smart housing. This study aims to evaluate the net present value (NPV) of a smart economic housing model to check the viability and feasibility of such projects. The calculation of the NPV based on Monte Carlo simulation provides an interesting methodological framework to evaluate the robustness of the results as well as providing a simple way to test for statistical significance of the results. This analysis helps to evaluate the potential profitability of smart housing solutions. The research ends up by proving the feasibility of this type of project. Full article
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Case Report
Towards Sustainable Urban Logistics: Creating Sustainable Urban Freight Transport on the Example of a Limited Accessibility Zone in Gdansk
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3879; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143879 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
The purpose of the article is to identify the conditions for the implementation of deliveries in the Limited Accessibility Zone (LAZ) in Gdansk, based on interviews conducted among suppliers in October 2018. Another goal is to identify guidelines for the need to create [...] Read more.
The purpose of the article is to identify the conditions for the implementation of deliveries in the Limited Accessibility Zone (LAZ) in Gdansk, based on interviews conducted among suppliers in October 2018. Another goal is to identify guidelines for the need to create a new transport policy for cities, which will be in line with sustainable urban logistics. The presented analysis is not an economic or technical analysis of an executive nature. It focuses on indicating the nature of the impact of factors conditioning further actions related to the discussed area. To define a sustainable urban logistics plan road map, the desk research method was used. It involved analyzing, verifying and merging existing data and information from the results of European projects. The paper can be used as a road map to proceed with planning urban logistics in the city and to create a document of Sustainable Urban Logistics Plan (SULP). This is the first study carried out in the LAZ of Gdansk since its introduction in 2014, therefore conclusions can be used by scientists and the creators of urban transport policy to create limited accessibility zones. Full article
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Article
Improving Municipal Solid Waste Collection Services in Developing Countries: A Case of Bharatpur Metropolitan City, Nepal
Sustainability 2019, 11(11), 3010; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113010 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2889
Abstract
Municipal solid waste management is one of the major challenges that cities in developing countries are facing. Although waste collection services are critical to build a smart city, the focus of both scholarship and action/activism has been more on the utilization of waste [...] Read more.
Municipal solid waste management is one of the major challenges that cities in developing countries are facing. Although waste collection services are critical to build a smart city, the focus of both scholarship and action/activism has been more on the utilization of waste than on collection. We devised a choice experiment to elicit the preferences of municipal residents with regard to the various attributes of solid waste collection services in the Bharatpur Metropolitan City of Nepal. The study showed that households identify waste collection frequency, timing of door-to-door waste collection services, and cleanliness of the streets as the critical elements of municipal waste collection that affect their welfare and willingness to pay. While almost all households (95%) were participating in the waste collection service in the study area, more than half (53%) expressed dissatisfaction with the existing service. Women were the main actors engaged in waste collection and disposal at household level. The results of the choice analysis suggest that households prefer a designated waste collection time with waste collection bins placed at regular intervals on the streets for use by pedestrians who often throw garbage on the streets in the absence of bins. For these improvements, households were willing to pay an additional service fee of 10–28% on top of what they were already paying. The study also finds that municipal waste collection can be improved through the involvement of Tole Lane Committees in designing the timing and frequency of the service and by introducing a system of progressive tariffs based on the number of storeys per house. Full article
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Article
Combined Impact of Socioeconomic Forces and Policy Implications: Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of the Ecosystem Services Value in Yangtze River Delta, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092622 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Water can carry or overturn a boat. Natural resources form the foundation of human survival and development. However, land use change caused by human urban civilization has damaged the natural environment and in turn threatened the continuation of human civilization. Accordingly, it is [...] Read more.
Water can carry or overturn a boat. Natural resources form the foundation of human survival and development. However, land use change caused by human urban civilization has damaged the natural environment and in turn threatened the continuation of human civilization. Accordingly, it is crucial to analyze the impacts of human activities on land use change and consequent dynamics of ecosystem service value (ESV). For the sustainable development of human beings, an investigation should be conducted to explore what type of land use behavior will be considerably beneficial to improve our relationship with the natural environment. This study analyzes the spatial–temporal dynamics of ESV of 148 counties in the Yangtze River Delta in China over three five-year periods (2000–2015) and examines the influence of socioeconomic forces and policy implications. Exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial regression were applied to facilitate the analysis. Results show that the averages of the ESV change ratios of the 148 counties in each of the aforementioned periods are −0.667%, −2.690%, and −4.668%, respectively. The number of counties that showed an ESV loss trend in the three periods are 72 (48.6%), 125 (84.4%), and 139 (93.9%), respectively. In terms of spatial pattern, ESV change demonstrates the spatial distribution characteristic of “high loss spreading from the northeast to the middle and west” with a tendency to strengthen spatial agglomeration. Results of the spatial regression analysis determine the overwhelming importance of population growth and economic advancement. The results also indicate that the development mode characterized by industrial structure, capital input, and technology upgrades can exert considerable influence on socioeconomic development, thereby affecting the change of ESV. Moreover, the constraints of policy substantially affect the changes of ESV from 2010 to 2015. Policy makers should consider the relationship between land use patterns and the ESV variation in different development stages to formulate appropriate measures, thereby reducing or preventing the loss of ecological service value and promoting sustainable development. Full article
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Article
Assessing the Heat Vulnerability of Different Local Climate Zones in the Old Areas of a Chinese Megacity
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11072032 - 05 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Frequent and extreme heat waves have strongly influenced the sustainable development of cities and resulted in a higher level of mortality in residents. Using the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification scheme, combined with the factors of land surface temperature (LST), building age (BA), [...] Read more.
Frequent and extreme heat waves have strongly influenced the sustainable development of cities and resulted in a higher level of mortality in residents. Using the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) classification scheme, combined with the factors of land surface temperature (LST), building age (BA), and housing price (HP), and the normalized values of which represent heat exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability, respectively, this paper investigates a practical method for assessing the heat vulnerability of different LCZ classes in the old areas of a Chinese megacity, taking the Yuzhong district of Chongqing city as a case study. The results reveal that the distribution of LCZ classes in this study area exhibits a typical circle-layer distribution pattern from the city center to the suburbs. Heavy industry areas are the most vulnerable, with the highest exposure to heat waves, the oldest building age and the lowest housing price. Compact class areas (compact high-rise, compact mid-rise and compact low-rise) are usually more vulnerable than open class areas (open high-rise, open mid-rise, and open low-rise) and low-rise buildings are always more susceptible to heat waves than mid-rise and high-rise buildings. The methods and findings can help us to better understand the comprehensive and space–time action rules of heat vulnerability, thereby inspiring scientific and rational urban planning strategies to mitigate or adapt to urban heat weaves towards the sustainable development of cities and society. Full article
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Review
Data Mining and Machine Learning to Promote Smart Cities: A Systematic Review from 2000 to 2018
Sustainability 2019, 11(4), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11041077 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3522
Abstract
Smart cities (SC) promote economic development, improve the welfare of their citizens, and help in the ability of people to use technologies to build sustainable services. However, computational methods are necessary to assist in the process of creating smart cities because they are [...] Read more.
Smart cities (SC) promote economic development, improve the welfare of their citizens, and help in the ability of people to use technologies to build sustainable services. However, computational methods are necessary to assist in the process of creating smart cities because they are fundamental to the decision-making process, assist in policy making, and offer improved services to citizens. As such, the aim of this research is to present a systematic review regarding data mining (DM) and machine learning (ML) approaches adopted in the promotion of smart cities. The Methodi Ordinatio was used to find relevant articles and the VOSviewer software was performed for a network analysis. Thirty-nine significant articles were identified for analysis from the Web of Science and Scopus databases, in which we analyzed the DM and ML techniques used, as well as the areas that are most engaged in promoting smart cities. Predictive analytics was the most common technique and the studies focused primarily on the areas of smart mobility and smart environment. This study seeks to encourage approaches that can be used by governmental agencies and companies to develop smart cities, being essential to assist in the Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
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Article
The Spatiotemporal Coupling Characteristics of Regional Urbanization and Its Influencing Factors: Taking the Yangtze River Delta as an Example
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030822 - 05 Feb 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The research on the coupling coordination of regional urbanization is of great significance for achieving sustainable urbanization. Based on the theories of coordinated development, this paper constructs an index system for comprehensive evaluation of the three sub-systems of urbanization (population, economy and land [...] Read more.
The research on the coupling coordination of regional urbanization is of great significance for achieving sustainable urbanization. Based on the theories of coordinated development, this paper constructs an index system for comprehensive evaluation of the three sub-systems of urbanization (population, economy and land urbanization). Then, the entropy method, coupling coordination degree model and spatial autocorrelation analysis are used to explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of overall and pairwise coordination among population, land and economy urbanization. Finally, the geographic detector model is used to analyze the influencing factors in the urbanization process. The results show that: (1) the levels of population, land and economy urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta have been improved from 2001 to 2016. The overall and pairwise coupling coordination degrees among them also continue to improve and the stage characteristics are presented. (2) The spatial distribution of low-level and high-level coupling coordination cities shows a certain spatial dependence and a Z-shaped pattern, respectively. The spatiotemporal characteristics of pairwise coupling coordination indicate regional imbalance of the urbanization. (3) The overall coupling coordination degree of urbanization has an apparent spatial autocorrelation, with its local spatial correlation patterns dominated by the High–High and Low–Low type agglomeration. Significant differences in local spatial correlation patterns of the pairwise coupling coordination suggest that regional synergy should not be neglected. (4) The economic development level is the main factor influencing the spatiotemporal differentiation of the coupling coordination of urbanization. Location traffic conditions and population agglomeration effect are the second most influencing factors. The evolution mechanisms of coupling coordination of urbanization are affected by factors in change. The findings highlight the importance of dealing with the relationship among population, land and economy in the process of regional urbanization and have implications for promoting the integration of urban agglomerations. Full article
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Article
The Formation of Government-Oriented Creative Community and Its Driving Mechanisms: A Case Study of the 39° Space Art Creative Community in Foshan, China
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030625 - 24 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
With the arrival of the era of the creative economy, the “creative community”, a joint product of the regional/community revival movement and the localization of cultural and creative industries, has become a new goal of sustainable urban development. Creative communities can be government-oriented [...] Read more.
With the arrival of the era of the creative economy, the “creative community”, a joint product of the regional/community revival movement and the localization of cultural and creative industries, has become a new goal of sustainable urban development. Creative communities can be government-oriented (top-down), or they can involve a sequence of autogenic developments (bottom-up) depending on the initial motivating force behind their formation. This paper provides a case study of the government-oriented Foshan 39° Space Art Creative Community (hereinafter, the 39° Community), though questionnaires, interviews, field observations, and other methods, to obtain a better understanding of how government-oriented creative communities formed. The paper discusses the mechanisms driving such communities in Chinese cities by constructing a driving mechanism model. The results show that policy decisions, under a special policy and industrial background jointly provided by the Foshan municipal government and the Nanhai District government together, is the initial impetus for the emergence of the 39° Community. The community has a concise and flexible organizational structure, creative community members, reasonable community function partitioning, a vibrant and innovative environment, and a variety of creative elements. Finally, the key to the sustainable development of the government-oriented creative community lies in the combined effect of endogenous and exogenous motivations that include a strong support from the local government, market demand, a favorable location, high-quality community services, and creative spirit. High-quality community service is a critical factor in the interaction between exogenous forces and endogenous factors because it can create bridges among governments, enterprises, employees, and the community. Full article
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Article
Spatial Spillover of House Prices: An Empirical Study of the Yangtze Delta Urban Agglomeration in China
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020544 - 21 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
This study investigates the spatial dependence of house prices in the Yangtze Delta Urban Agglomeration since the year 2000. According to Moran’s I index and the LISA scatter plot derived from a cross-section data set, the spatial dependence of house prices can be [...] Read more.
This study investigates the spatial dependence of house prices in the Yangtze Delta Urban Agglomeration since the year 2000. According to Moran’s I index and the LISA scatter plot derived from a cross-section data set, the spatial dependence of house prices can be traced across the 25 cities in the agglomeration and became more evident after 2005. This study develops a spatial panel model with geographical distance and economic distance weight matrices. Spatial effects significantly influenced house prices in both cases but the intensity of the former was weaker than for the latter. Income, proportion of the tertiary industry, and amenity exhibited significant indirect effects on house prices in other cities in the inner region of the agglomeration, while competition of population between cities with economic proximity exerted negative indirect effects. Furthermore, urban industrial structure, innovation capability, and urbanization degree revealed differences in terms of spatial dependence among various city groups. Full article
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