Towards Sustainable Urban Logistics: Creating Sustainable Urban Freight Transport on the Example of a Limited Accessibility Zone in Gdansk
2. Transport Policy of European Cities in the Near Future
- Sharing experiences, show-casing best practices, and fostering cooperation;
- providing targeted financial support;
- Focusing research and innovation on delivering solutions for urban mobility challenges;
- Involving the Member States and enhancing international cooperation.
- Defining the common vision, needs and priority lines;
- Designing a set of suitable measures/solutions/services;
- Reducing air and noise pollution as well as energy consumption;
- Creating a consensus among different stakeholders;
- Defining a road map for a possible adoption at Institutional Level.
- Establishment of a Team for the Development of SULP (representatives of municipal units, experts and stakeholders-suppliers of goods, logistics centers operators, etc.);
- Regular meetings of the Team, under which principles will be developed to manage the transport of goods in Gdansk (period of work of around 2 years);
- Creation of the SULP which forms the basis of the transport management system in Gdansk.
3. Drafting SULP
- Defining the problems and needs of Freight Urban Area (FUA) by taking into consideration the needs of all stakeholders.
- Analyzing the logistics context and processes:
- Analyzing current logistics situation-knowledge and knowing users’ needs;
- Technical analysis-knowledge about infrastructure, traffic flows, cargo flows;
- Survey-knowledge about the acceptance level of proposed measures (decreases the risk of failure).
- Inclusion of goals into the transport policy and making it public.
- Prioritizing Sustainable Urban Logistics with local authorities and policymakers.
- Starting communication and raising awareness.
- ROAD MAP
- Identification, visions and goals, who, why, what, when.
- Steps and suitable measures.
- Starting public debate.
- Establishing a team with stakeholders and scientists.
- Corroborating data with findings.
- Cost-benefit analysis, SWOT (Strenghts, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis, risk management, timetable.
- Responsibility allocation.
- Services/Solutions Assessment and Impacts.
- DECISION-SULP PREPARATION.
- Defining all collected data and knowledge into the document that can be used as an operating manual.
- Creating opportunities for interaction between policymakers, stakeholders and the public.
- SOLUTION–SULP IMPLEMENTATION.
- SULP guidelines are embedded in the policy and implemented in the functioning of FUA.
- The changes implemented by SULP result in reduced congestion and pollution.
3.1. Infrastructure and Its Use
- Multifunctional lanes, e.g., bus passes;
- Dedicated and planned loading zones;
- Urban Consolidation Centre (UCC);
- Cargo tram that uses existing infrastructure (there is a tram line in Gdansk);
- Bus stops used as loading zones.
3.2. ICT Solutions
- Other software solutions, e.g., sensory network for parking, smartphones apps used for parking, booking etc.;
- Load-sharing based on UCC and e-platform;
- Benchmarking (which involves a need for sharing some company information);
- Electronic platform combining transport demand and supply to increase the delivery efficiency and also requires sharing some company data;
- A system of monitoring the delivery drivers’ decisions that supports proper behavior in the city center (e.g., CCTV);
- Metropolitan ITS System “Tristar” used for Urban Freight Transport (UFT), e.g., CCTV cameras recognizing the license plates of the delivery cars and automatically charging for the entrance to the LEZ;
- Interactive city map with live information about the traffic and available parking spots.
3.3. Other Popular Sustainable Solutions for Urban Freight Transport in Europe (UFT)
- Night deliveries;
- Last mile deliveries operated by eco vehicles (Electric Vehicles—EV, Compressed Natural Gas—CNG driven vehicles, hybrid, hydrogen, cargo bikes, electric scooters);
- Low Emission Zone (LEZ)/Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ);
- Pilot project using latest technologies for UFT for testing their potential use (drones for delivery, autonomic cars);
- Inevitability of financial fines for unauthorized entry to LEZ/ZEZ;
- Inevitability of financial fines for parking delivery vehicles in prohibited places.
4. Gdansk—Characteristics of the Studied Area
- Population is 464,254;
- Active population is 274,719;
- Total area 262 km2, of which urban area constitutes 177 km2, rural area covers 85 km2;
- Type of distribution–diffused;
- GDP-4 512 093 EUR;
- Main economic sectors-construction, trade, processing, seaport, IT, real estate, gastronomy, fashion industry;
- Length of road infrastructure—976 km, in which national roads—27.4 km, county roads 57.7 km and provincial roads—711.3 km;
- Overall number of circulating vehicles—275,418;
- Number of commercial vehicles—37,938;
- Extension of limited traffic zones-1;
- Good infrastructure but lack of tributary roads from “bedroom” suburbs;
- Mobility habits (trip home-work/school): 32.1% of the citizens of Gdansk travel by public transport, 41.2% travel by car, 20.8% walk, and 5.9% travel by bike compared to average of 10 selected European cities according to CIVITAS it is respectively—30.3%, 32.8%, 24% and 12.9%.
5. Methodology and Summary of the Obtained Results
6. Recommendations Based on Results
Conflicts of Interest
- Dolan, S. The Challenges of Last Mile Logistics & Delivery Technology Solutions. 2018. Available online: https://www.businessinsider.com/last-mile-delivery-shipping-explained?IR=T (accessed on 1 February 2018).
- Kaszubowski, D. Recommendations for urban freight policy development in Gdynia, Transportation Research Procedia 12. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on City Logistics, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 17–19 June 2015. [Google Scholar]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. In Proceedings of the Together towards Competitive and Resource-Efficient Urban Mobility, COM (2013) 913 final, Brussels, Belgium, 17 December 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Wołek, M. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan as a tool for the development of sustainable urban mobility. Logistyka 2014, 4, 3401–3412. [Google Scholar]
- ENCLOSE, Project Website. 2015. Available online: http://www.enclose.eu/content.php?p=1 (accessed on 10 May 2019).
- SULPiTER, Project Website. 2019. Available online: https://www.interreg-central.eu (accessed on 10 May 2019).
- Ambrosino, G.; Liberato, A.; Pettinelli, I. Sustainable Urban Logistics Plans (SULP) Guidelines. In Proceedings of the Civitas Forum, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 7–9 October 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Debyser, A. Urban Mobility. Shifting Towards Sustainable Transport Systems; European Parliamentary Research Service: Brussels, Belgium, 2014; p. 14. [Google Scholar]
- Foltynski, M. New challenges for transport systems beyond 2020—SULPiTER project. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference Green Cities 2018–Green Logistics for Greener Cities, Szczecin, Poland, 13–14 September 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Giuliano, G. The challenges of urban freight: A research perspective. In Proceedings of the 2018 VREF Conference on Urban Freight, Gothenburg, Sweden, 17–19 October 2018. [Google Scholar]
- UM Gdansk. Gdansk in Numbers. 2019. Available online: https://www.gdansk.pl/biznes/gdansk-w-liczbach,a,33608 (accessed on 17 February 2019).
- CIVITAS. Smart Choices for Cities. Cycling in the City. 2016. Available online: https://civitas.eu/sites/default/files/civ_pol-09_m_web.pdf (accessed on 2 March 2019).
- Statistics Poland. Available online: https://stat.gov.pl/en/ (accessed on 12 July 2019).
- Tundys, B. City-logistics as a Factor Regional Development (in a Aspect Quality Management of the Air). In Proceedings of the 8th European Conference of Young Research and Scientific Workers Transcom Proceedings, Žilina, Slovakia, 22–24 June 2009. Section 2, Economics and Management, Part 2. [Google Scholar]
- Transportation Research Board. Guidebook for Freight Policy, Planning, and Programming in Small-and Medium-Sized Metropolitan Areas, Washington, DC. 2007. Available online: http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/ogm/key_reports_files/National,%20Technical%20studies/NCHRP_guide_to_small_and_med_metro_freight_planning.pdf (accessed on 9 February 2018).
- ZDiZ. Zarząd Dróg i Zieleni w Gdansku. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan for Gdansk. 2018. Available online: https://gzdiz.gda.pl/download/2019-01/360.pdf (accessed on 11 February 2018).
- Matusiewicz, M. The argumentation for the implementation of Urban Consolidation Centre for the Old Town in Gdansk as an indication of sustainable urban freight logistics. Res. J. Univ. Gdansk. Transp. Econ. Logist. 2017, 69, 63–71. [Google Scholar]
- Amundsen, A.H.; Sundvor, I. Low Emission Zones in Europe Requirements, enforcement and air quality, Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre of Transport Research. 2018. Available online: https://www.toi.no/getfile.php?mmfileid=49204 (accessed on 12 February 2019).
- Jiang, W.; Manfred, B.; Groer, S.; Scheuvens, D. Impacts of low emission zones in Germany on air pollution levels. In Proceedings of the World Conference on Transport Research-WCTR 2016 Shanghai, Shanghai, China, 10–15 July 2016. Transportation Research Procedia 25. [Google Scholar]
|Traditional Transport Planning||Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning||Sustainable Urban Logistics Plans|
|Focus on traffic||Focus on people||Focus on effectiveness of the supply chain and last mile delivery|
|Primary objectives: traffic flow, capacity and speed||Primary objectives: accessibility and quality of life, sustainability, economic viability, social equity, health and environmental quality||Primary objectives: emissions free logistics in cities by 2050|
|Modal-focused||Balanced development of all relevant transport modes and shift towards cleaner and more sustainable modes||Fully loaded and alternatively driven delivery cars, cargo bikes|
|Infrastructure focus||Integrated set of actions to achieve cost-effective solutions||City-profiled measures selected through the results of a survey. Among possible measures: dedicated loadings bays, cooperation on road, competition on shelf, access restrictions, time restrictions, ICT, etc.|
|Sectoral planning document||Sectoral planning document consistent and complementary to related policy areas (such as land use and spatial planning, social services, health, enforcement and policing; etc.)||The document is an extension of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) document and it is consistent with other local, regional and national transport policy documents|
|Short and medium-term delivery plan||Short and medium-term delivery plan embedded in a long-term vision and strategy||Short and medium-term delivery plan embedded in a long-term vision and strategy|
|Related to an administrative area||Related to a functioning area based on travel to work patterns||Related to a functioning area|
|Domain of traffic engineers||Interdisciplinary planning teams||Interdisciplinary planning teams, Freight Quality Partnership including area stakeholders|
|Planning by experts||Planning with the involvement of stakeholders using a transparent and participatory approach||Planning with the involvement of stakeholders using a transparent and participatory approach|
|Limited impact assessment||Regular monitoring and evaluation of impact to inform a structured learning and improvement process||Regular monitoring and evaluation of impact to inform structured learning and improvement process, according to allocation of responsibilities among the actors involved|
|Freight Planning Stage||Characteristics||Gdansk Check|
|Basic (freight system needs are handled indirectly as part of the overall transportation program activities)||• Little or no freight-specific planning activities||۷|
|• Few known freight data sources||۷|
|• Little or no interaction to date with the private sector freight community||۷|
|• Limited knowledge of economic base, industry or specific freight needs||۷|
|• Freight system is addressed as part of larger transportation projects||۷|
|Advanced (freight system needs have begun to receive some attention; however, they have not been fully integrated into the transportation program activities)||• Some history of freight-specific planning activities||-|
|• Some interaction with private sector stakeholders as part of a specific project||-|
|• Basic understanding of freight system and its regional importance||-|
|• Freight program elements are beginning to form, leaders are beginning to emerge||-|
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Matusiewicz, M. Towards Sustainable Urban Logistics: Creating Sustainable Urban Freight Transport on the Example of a Limited Accessibility Zone in Gdansk. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3879. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143879
Matusiewicz M. Towards Sustainable Urban Logistics: Creating Sustainable Urban Freight Transport on the Example of a Limited Accessibility Zone in Gdansk. Sustainability. 2019; 11(14):3879. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143879Chicago/Turabian Style
Matusiewicz, Maria. 2019. "Towards Sustainable Urban Logistics: Creating Sustainable Urban Freight Transport on the Example of a Limited Accessibility Zone in Gdansk" Sustainability 11, no. 14: 3879. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143879