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Special Issue "Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2022 | Viewed by 2699

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Md Rajibul Karim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
Interests: soft soil engineering; constitutive modelling of soft soil behavior; ground improvement; biocementation; soil–atmospheric boundary interaction; expansive soils behavior; soil–structure interaction; liquefaction behavior of granular materials; pavement engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Md Mizanur Rahman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
Interests: liquefaction assessment; pavement engineering; recycling materials for circular economy; soil reactivity; the failure of buried pipelines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Khoi Nguyen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UniSA STEM, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
Interests: micromechanical aspects of soil behavior; tailing material behavior; liquefaction of granular materials; expansive soil movement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A significant proportion of research activities in recent years have been focused on sustainable civil engineering design and construction practices. New construction materials are being developed, along with new ways of recycling or reusing waste streams in construction. The integration of biological processes in construction has undergone significant development. Fueled by an improved understanding of fundamental material behavior, design tools and techniques are being developed for a safer and more economical design of different structures. Improved computing capacity enables simulations of scenarios that were not previously possible, aiding the development of important insights into the behavior of structures from micro- to macro-level. Advanced laboratory equipment allows better replication of the field conditions.

In the light of these recent developments, this Special Issue invites original submissions and review articles covering some of the recent advances in any aspect of sustainable civil engineering design and construction practices from theoretical, experimental or numerical perspectives.

Topics may include but are not limited to:

  • Case studies and field observations;
  • Numerical modelling of civil engineering processes;
  • Material behavior—experimental or numerical studies;
  • Climate change and future challenges;
  • Resilience of civil engineering structures;
  • Soil–structure or soil–atmospheric boundary interaction;
  • Offshore structures;
  • Innovative structures;
  • Innovative materials;
  • Eco-friendly materials;
  • Recycling and reuse;
  • Sustainable construction practices;
  • Low-carbon construction;
  • Constitutive modelling;
  • Post-mining land use;
  • Biological processes in construction including bio-cementation;
  • Green infrastructure.

Dr. Md Rajibul Karim
Prof. Dr. Md Mizanur Rahman
Dr. Khoi Nguyen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • civil engineering
  • structures
  • materials
  • design
  • laboratory
  • numerical

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
3D-Printable Materials Made with Industrial By-Products: Formulation, Fresh and Hardened Properties
Sustainability 2022, 14(21), 14236; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142114236 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Growing in the field of construction, 3D printing allows to build non-standard shapes and to optimise the use of resources. The development of printable materials requires good control of the fresh state of the material—between mixing and printing, a printable material has to [...] Read more.
Growing in the field of construction, 3D printing allows to build non-standard shapes and to optimise the use of resources. The development of printable materials requires good control of the fresh state of the material—between mixing and printing, a printable material has to evolve from fluid matter to be pumpable (extrudability) up to a matter supporting its own weight and those of superior layers (buildability). Our researches are focused on printable materials used in large printers, i.e., printers able to build structural pieces for buildings. As many pumps and printers can be used to achieve a wide range of parts, this paper presents a simple method to provide valuable guidance to users when a decision needs to be made about printable materials. In this context, our researches both try to maximise the use of industrial by-products to reduce the environmental cost of printed material and to propose tests easy to carry out in the field. Consequently, on the one hand, some printable materials that mainly include quarry washing fines have been developed and, on the other hand, Fall cone and Vicat tests have been used to determine the printability limit. By not focusing on a single formula, the novelty of this paper is to present to readers some parametric models, i.e., a methodology that can be used according to their own devices and applications. Based on a design of experiments, 20 formulas have been tested. Parameters that influence the quality of printing are highlighted. Mechanical tests results at hardened state and shrinkage measurements are also shown to demonstrate the ability of some formulas to be structural materials: compressive strengths at 28 days between 7.50 MPa and 18.40 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Article
Enhancing the Durability Properties of Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Coarse Aggregate and Ultrafine Slag at Ambient Curing
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710948 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 345
Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the durability characteristics of the ambient-cured geopolymer concrete (GPC) developed using recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and ultrafine slag (UFS). Two series of mixes were prepared. Natural aggregates (NAs) were replaced by RCA at different volume levels of 0, [...] Read more.
This study aimed at investigating the durability characteristics of the ambient-cured geopolymer concrete (GPC) developed using recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and ultrafine slag (UFS). Two series of mixes were prepared. Natural aggregates (NAs) were replaced by RCA at different volume levels of 0, 25, 50 and 100% in both series. Meanwhile, UFS was added as a replacement by volume of fly ash at varying levels of 0, 15, and 30% in the first series, while UFS was used in addition to fly ash by percentage weight of fly ash at the levels of 0, 15, and 30% in the second series. The compressive strength, water absorption, chloride ion penetration, and carbonation depth of the developed ambient-cured GPC were studied. In addition, creep and drying shrinkage of the specimens were also examined. It was found that the compressive strength increased with the UFS content, while the opposite trend was observed with increasing RCA%. The highest compressive strength obtained with 100% RCA was 40.21 MPa (at 90 days), when 30% UFS was used in addition to fly ash. The addition of UFS not only helped in improving the strength characteristics but also provided an alternative to heat curing, which is a major drawback of GPC. Furthermore, the negative effects of RCA can also be minimised by adding UFS, which can be used as a compensator to RCA to improve the durability characteristics. The experimental results prove that susceptibility to chemical, water and chloride attacks can be mitigated by incorporation of UFS, and durable GPC can be produced by using RCA and UFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Article
Axial Behavior of FRP Confined Concrete Using Locally Available Low-Cost Wraps
Sustainability 2022, 14(16), 9989; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14169989 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
This study investigates the influences of three types of locally available low-cost Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) wraps and two concrete mix designs on the axial behavior of FRP confined concrete. The experimental program comprised four unconfined (control), four glass FRP Matt Strand (GFRP-MS) [...] Read more.
This study investigates the influences of three types of locally available low-cost Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) wraps and two concrete mix designs on the axial behavior of FRP confined concrete. The experimental program comprised four unconfined (control), four glass FRP Matt Strand (GFRP-MS) confined concrete, four glass FRP Rowing (GFRP-R) confined concrete and four carbon FRP (CFRP) confined concrete specimens with a diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm tested under axial compression. The specimens were prepared using two normal strength concrete mix designs, i.e., Mix-A and Mix-B. The experimental results exhibited that an increase in the confined concrete strength per unit cost ratio of a single layer of GFRP-MS was about two times of a single layer of CFRP wrap, whereas the increase in confined concrete strength per unit cost ratio of single layer of GFRP-R was about four times of a single layer of CFRP wrap. GFRP-MS and GFRP-R wraps can exhibit similar confined strengths as CFRP wrap with six and twelve times lower costs, respectively, than CFRP wrap. Mix-B concrete specimens exhibited higher confined concrete strengths but lower confined concrete strain than Mix-A concrete specimens. A database of 140 FRP confined concrete specimens was developed based on a set of specific criteria to develop a design-oriented model to predict the FRP confined concrete strength. The predicted confined concrete strengths matched well with the experimental confined concrete strengths. The two layers of GFRP-R exhibited similar confined concrete strength as CFRP wrap. In addition, GFRP-R exhibited high cement strength index (CSI) and low embodied CO2 index (CI). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Article
An Investigation of Compression Bearing Capacity of Concrete-Filled Rectangular Stainless Steel Tubular Columns under Axial Load and Eccentric Axial Load
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8946; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148946 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 393
Abstract
In order to study the compression bearing capacity of concrete-filled rectangular stainless steel tubular columns, the influence of the stainless steel tube thickness, relative eccentricity, and slenderness ratio on the compression bearing capacity is analyzed, and then the calculation formula of compression bearing [...] Read more.
In order to study the compression bearing capacity of concrete-filled rectangular stainless steel tubular columns, the influence of the stainless steel tube thickness, relative eccentricity, and slenderness ratio on the compression bearing capacity is analyzed, and then the calculation formula of compression bearing capacity is proposed. The results show that the finite element model can effectively simulate the compression bearing capacity, the mean of finite element calculations Nufem to the test Nuexp is 0.985, and the variance is 0.000621. The slenderness ratio and relative eccentricity have a great influence on the load–displacement curves. The thickness of the stainless steel tube has little influence on the load–displacement curves. With the increase in slenderness ratio and relative eccentricity, the compression bearing capacity decreases. With the increase in the slenderness ratio, the failure model of the specimen gradually changes from plastic failure to elastoplastic failure and then elastic failure. When the slenderness ratio is the same, if the relative eccentricity is larger, increasing the thickness of the stainless steel tube will be more effective in improving the compression bearing capacity. When the relative eccentricity is the same, if the slenderness ratio is smaller, increasing the thickness of the stainless steel tube will be more effective for improving the compression bearing capacity. The slenderness ratio and relative eccentricity have a great influence on the longitudinal stress distribution in the cross-section. When the slenderness ratio and relative eccentricity are greater, the longitudinal compressive stress in parts of the cross-section gradually becomes longitudinal tensile stress. The proposed formula can effectively predict the compression bearing capacity of concrete-filled rectangular stainless steel tubular columns. The mean of theoretical calculations to the test and the finite element is 1.054, and the variance is 0.0247. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Article
Improved Performance of Asphalt Concretes using Bottom Ash as an Alternative Aggregate
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7033; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127033 - 08 Jun 2022
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Road networks are major infrastructures that support the economic development in both developed and developing countries. Bottom ash (BA) is a by-product from coal-fired powerplants, which is composed of a lipophilic molecule with effective reactivity to bituminous binder. BA was adopted in this [...] Read more.
Road networks are major infrastructures that support the economic development in both developed and developing countries. Bottom ash (BA) is a by-product from coal-fired powerplants, which is composed of a lipophilic molecule with effective reactivity to bituminous binder. BA was adopted in this research, as a green fine aggregate, to improve the mechanistic performance of asphalt concretes in this research. The effect of BA-replacement ratio (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%, by total weight of natural fine aggregate) on the Marshall stability and flow, indirect tensile strength (ITS), and mechanistic performance of BA-asphalt concrete, were examined. The mechanistic performance tests included the indirect-tensile condition (indirect tensile resilient modulus (IT Mr), indirect tensile fatigue life (ITFL)) and compressive condition (permanent deformation (PD), rut depth, and skid resistance). BA replacement improves the Marshall stability and flow, strength index, and ITS, up to the optimum BA-replacement ratio, of 5%. The change in IT Mr was found to be linearly proportional to the change in ITS, for all BA-replacement ratios. The ITFL is dependent upon the repeated stress level and can be estimated in terms of IT Mr. For the compressive condition, the PD, rutting, and skid resistances were found to be improved by the BA replacement. The lowest PD and rut depth as well as the highest skid resistance, for IT Mr and ITFL, were found at the optimum BA-replacement ratio, of 5%. The outcome of this research will promote the usage of BA as a cleaner additive in asphalt concrete pavement, which is useful in terms of engineering and environmental perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Accounting for Expansive Soil Movement in Geotechnical Design—A State-of-the-Art Review
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15662; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315662 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Lightweight structures built on expansive soils are susceptible to damage caused by soil movement. Financial losses resulting from the improper design of structures on expansive soils can be significant. The interactions and failure mechanisms of different geotechnical structures constructed on such soils differ [...] Read more.
Lightweight structures built on expansive soils are susceptible to damage caused by soil movement. Financial losses resulting from the improper design of structures on expansive soils can be significant. The interactions and failure mechanisms of different geotechnical structures constructed on such soils differ depending on the structure type, site characteristics, and climatic conditions, as the behaviour of expansive soils is influenced by moisture variations. Therefore, the performance of different geotechnical structures (e.g., lightweight footings for residential buildings) is expected to be adversely affected by climate change (especially rainfall and temperature change), as geotechnical structures are often designed to have a service life of 50–100 years. Some structures may even fail if the effect of climate change is not considered in the present design. This review aims to provide insights into problems associated with expansive soils that trigger the failure of lightweight structures, including current investigations and industry practices. This review recognises that although the soil moisture conditions govern expansive soil behaviour, limited studies have incorporated the effect of future climate changes. In addition, this review identifies the need to improve the current Australian design practice for residential footings through the inclusion of more site-specific investigations and expected climate changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Enhancing the Durability Properties of Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete using Recycled Coarse Aggregate and Ultrafine Slag at Ambient Curing
Authors: Salonia, Parveenb,*, Thong M. Phamc,**, Yee Yan Lima, Jatin Kumarb, Jatinb
Affiliation: 

aFaculty of Science & Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2477, Australia

bDepartment of Civil Engineering, DCRUST Murthal-131039, Haryana, India.

cCenter for Infrastructural Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the durability characteristics of the ambient-cured geopolymer concrete (GPC) developed using recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and ultrafine slag (UFS). Two series of mixes were prepared. Natural aggregate (NA) were replaced by RCA at different volume levels of 0, 25, 50 and 100% in both series. Meanwhile, UFS was added as a replacement by volume of fly ash at varying levels of 0, 15, and 30% in the first series, while UFS was used in addition to fly ash by percentage weight of fly ash at the levels of 0, 15, and 30% in the second series. The compressive strength, water absorption, chloride ion penetration, and carbonation depth of the developed ambient-cured GPC were studied. In addition, creep and drying shrinkage of the specimens were also examined. It was found that the compressive strength increased with the UFS content while the opposite trend was observed with increasing RCA%. The highest compressive strength obtained with 100% RCA was 40.21 MPa (at 90 days), when 30% UFS was used in addition to fly ash. The addition of UFS not only helped in improving the strength characteristics but also provided an alternative to heat curing which is a major drawback of GPC. Furthermore, the negative effects of RCA can also be minimised by adding UFS, which can be used as a compensator to RCA to improve the durability characteristics. The experimental results proved that susceptibility to chemical, water and chloride attacks can be mitigated by incorporation of UFS, and durable GPC can be produced by using RCA and UFS.

Keywords: Recycled coarse aggregate; Geopolymer concrete; Durability; Carbonation; Creep; Shrinkage

Title: Axial Behavior of FRP Confined Concrete Using Locally Available Low-Cost FRP Wraps
Authors: Asad U. Qazi 1, Qasim S. Khan 2,*, H. Abrar Ahmed 4, Thong M. Pham 3,*
Affiliation:

1 Professor, Civil Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan;

2 Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan;

3Senior Lecturer, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Australia;

4 Lecturer, Architectural Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract: This study investigates the influences of locally available low-cost Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) confinements and concrete mix proportions (different compressive strengths) on the axial behavior of FRP confined concrete. The experimental program comprised four unconfined (control), four glass FRP Matt Strand (GFRP-MS) confined concrete, four glass FRP Rowing (GFRP-R) confined concrete and four carbon FRP (CFRP) confined concrete specimens with a diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm tested under axial compression. The specimens were prepared using two concrete mix proportions i.e., Mix-A and Mix-B with the 28-day compressive strengths of 24.3 MPa and 29.3 MPa, respectively. The experimental results exhibited that an increase in confined concrete strength per unit cost ratio of GFRP-MS was about two times of CFRP wrap, whereas the increase in confined concrete strength per unit cost ratio of GFRP-R was about four times of CFRP wrap. Mix-B concrete specimens exhibited higher confined concrete strengths but lower confined concrete strain than Mix-A concrete specimens. A database of 140 FRP confined concrete specimens was developed based on a set of specific criteria to develop a design-oriented model to predict the FRP confined concrete strength. The predicted confined concrete strengths calculated based on the developed model matched well with the experimental confined concrete strengths.

Keywords: FRP; confined concrete strength; low-cost; database; strength enhancement coefficient

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