Special Issue "Recent Developments in the Field of Risk and Crisis Management towards Realization of the Sustainable Development Goals"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tomasz Zwęgliński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw, Poland
Interests: crisis and disaster management; international civil protection and humanitarian assistance; civil emergency planning; CBRNE security
Prof. Jerzy Wolanin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw, Poland
Interests: Protection of population; crisis management; risk assessment, risk management, resilience, vulnerability
Prof. Bernard Wiśniewski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Police Academy in Szczytno, Poland
Interests: national security, internal security, crisis management, public administration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

You are already well aware that in year 2000 the United Nations, as the only one universal international organization in the globe, in an agreement with 191 member states declared to commit their efforts towards realization of the Millennium Development Goals. The declaration identified the key challenges of the globalized world in the reality of XXI century. Then the eight declared goals embraced such topics as combat poverty, hunger, disease, environmental degradation, discrimination against women as well as decrease of child mortality and others. These goals had been aimed to be achieved in 2015. Although enormous effort world widely has been dedicated to this agenda, the declared goals have not been fully met. Realizing the value of the Millennium Development Goals process as well as the need for continuity of such a project after 2015, the UN decided to launch a new agenda. During the historic UN summit in 2015 the world leaders agreed on the Sustainable Development Goals agenda which came into force on the 1-st of January 2016 as a continuity process for Millennium Development Goals. In the new agenda there are 17 global goals formulated, scheduled to be realized up to 2030. This time the goals address global challenges we all still face, including those related to poverty, hunger, health, inequality, clean water and sanitation, energy affordability, economic growth, climate change, environmental degradation, sustainable cities and communities as well as peace and justice issues.

Achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals has to take into consideration the key hazards which could negatively influence their realization. The list of those hazards seems to be endless when we realize that dynamically changing world of XXI century, a side the old threats, brings the new ones which are mainly related to globalization processes e.g. climate change, cyber world, social radicalization and fundamentalism, decreasing power of states and others. The old and new hazards might work as a trigger for natural and man-made disasters, including regional or even global war. Such hazards have definitely a potential to slow down or even, in case of black scenarios, entirely disable realization of the ambitious and humanistic agenda for Sustainable Development Goals committed by the world in UN Resolution 70/1 in 2015.

Therefore, crisis and risk management research appears as an irreplaceable field of scientific exploration in order to build resilient societies and systems towards such hazards. World widely there are a lot of different approaches and methods explored and implemented which facilitate societies and systems to prevent, mitigate, prepare for as well as response to and recover from such major emergencies. Moreover, the biggest international organizations like UN and EU have been since years dedicating significant financial contributions to research programs aimed at exploring new ways of resilience building.

The brief argumentation presented above leads to a conclusion that there is a deep sense for scientific exploration of the common fields and relations existing between sustainable and resilient societies and systems on local, regional and finally global level.

In this frame, this Thematic Issue aims to propose a collection of worthy studies that combine the aforementioned concepts in the prism of the Sustainable Development Goals dealing with methodologies, research projects’ results, case studies and/or other surveys concerning:

  • analyses and explanations of the latest developments in the field crisis and disaster management,
  • risk assessment, risk management especially including risk reduction,
  • civil protection and civil defence
  • critical infrastructure protection,
  • emergency management,
  • new technologies testing and usage towards crisis/disaster management improvement,
  • good practices and lesson-learnt in the field of international and interagency cooperation and coordination in case of a crisis and/or a disaster,
  • evaluation processes and studies on crises, conflicts, disasters as well as readiness exercises,
  • safety and security institutions and systems on local, reginal and global level.

Original papers related to the above topics and also dealing generally with methodologies, numerical and experimental investigations, case-studies addressing building retrofit are welcome.

Thank you for your contributions.

Dr. Tomasz Zwęgliński
Prof. Jerzy Wolanin
Prof. Bernard Wiśniewski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

sustainable development goals; disaster and crisis resilience; crisis and disaster management; risk assessment and management; risk reduction; civil protection and civil defence; public administration; security, safety, institutions and systems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Urban Video Surveillance as a Tool to Improve Security in Public Spaces
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6210; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156210 - 01 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Video surveillance is an integral part of the contemporary world. Its use increases the sense of security but also generates certain risks. Laws do not always clearly and comprehensively define the rules for installing and using video surveillance and different rules are adopted [...] Read more.
Video surveillance is an integral part of the contemporary world. Its use increases the sense of security but also generates certain risks. Laws do not always clearly and comprehensively define the rules for installing and using video surveillance and different rules are adopted in different countries to address these issues. This article presents an analysis of statistical data concerning urban video surveillance as a tool to improve the security of public spaces in the city of Katowice using the example of the operation of the Katowice Smart Surveillance and Analysis System. By presenting the operation of video surveillance in two different time periods, it was possible to assess the effectiveness of urban video surveillance for the security of public spaces in terms of particularly onerous crimes. The technical and organizational solutions applied, as in the case of the Katowice Smart Surveillance and Analysis System, made it possible to assess the impact of the operation of the system on offenses and the number of legal proceedings. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Use of Drones in Disaster Aerial Needs Reconnaissance and Damage Assessment – Three-Dimensional Modeling and Orthophoto Map Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6080; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156080 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
The aim of this research is to provide disaster managers with the results of testing three-dimensional modeling and orthophoto mapping, so as to add value to aerial assessments of flood-related needs and damages. The relevant testing of solutions concerning the real needs of [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to provide disaster managers with the results of testing three-dimensional modeling and orthophoto mapping, so as to add value to aerial assessments of flood-related needs and damages. The relevant testing of solutions concerning the real needs of disaster managers is an essential part of the pre-disaster phase. As such, providing evidence-based results of the solutions’ performance is critical with regard to purchasing them and their successful implementation for disaster management purposes. Since disaster response is mostly realized in complex and dynamic, rather than repetitive, environments, it requires pertinent testing methods. A quasi-experimental approach, applied in a form of a full-scale trial meets disaster manager’s requirements as well as addressing limitations resulting from the disaster environment’s characteristics. Three-dimensional modeling and orthophoto mapping have already proven their potential in many professional fields; however, they have not yet been broadly tested for disaster response purposes. Therefore, the objective here is to verify the technologies regarding their applicability in aerial reconnaissance in sudden-onset disasters. The hypothesis assumes that they will improve the efficiency (e.g., time) and effectiveness (e.g., accuracy of revealed data) of this process. The research verifies that the technologies have a potential to facilitate disaster managers with more precise damage assessment; however, their effectivity was less than expected in terms of needs reconnaissance. Secondly, the overall assessment process is heavily burdened by data processing time, however, the technologies allow a reduction of analytical work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Taxonomy of Crisis Management Functions
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5147; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125147 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
The management of crises triggered by natural or manmade events requires a concerted effort of various actors crossing institutional and geographic boundaries. Technological advances allow to make crisis management more effective, but innovation is hindered by dispersed and often disconnected knowledge on the [...] Read more.
The management of crises triggered by natural or manmade events requires a concerted effort of various actors crossing institutional and geographic boundaries. Technological advances allow to make crisis management more effective, but innovation is hindered by dispersed and often disconnected knowledge on the lessons learned, gaps, and solutions. Taxonomies enable the search for information of potential interest. This article presents a taxonomy of crisis management functions, designed on the basis of a conceptual model integrating the concepts of hazard, vulnerability, risk, and community, and the main consequence- and management-based concepts. At its highest level, the taxonomy includes ten functional areas: preparatory (mitigation, capability development, and strategic adaptiveness), operational (protection, response, and recovery), and common (crisis communications and information management; command, control, and coordination; logistics; and security management). The taxonomy facilitates the navigation of online platforms and the matching of needs and solutions. It has broader applications, e.g., for structuring the assessment of the societal impact of crisis management solutions and as a framework for a comprehensive assessment of disaster risk reduction measures. While the taxonomy was developed within a research and innovation project supported by the European Union, it reflects and is compatible with established international concepts and classification schemes, and is thus applicable by a wider international community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Risk-Based Approach for Informing Sustainable Infrastructure Resilience Enhancement and Potential Resilience Implication in Terms of Emergency Service Perspective
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4530; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114530 - 02 Jun 2020
Viewed by 686
Abstract
Infrastructure resilience ascribes into the United Nations’ agenda for sustainable development. The more information supporting infrastructure resilience enhancement, the higher chance that it will be done objectively and effectively, and especially in a sustainable way. In spite of many different approaches and data [...] Read more.
Infrastructure resilience ascribes into the United Nations’ agenda for sustainable development. The more information supporting infrastructure resilience enhancement, the higher chance that it will be done objectively and effectively, and especially in a sustainable way. In spite of many different approaches and data sources, there is a lack of information that respects the emergency service point of view. The main research objective is to investigate factors determining sustainable infrastructure resilience enhancement that reflects direct protection of the most important values (human life and health) by connecting multiple variants of infrastructural resilience corresponding with the voice of emergency service and based on real data risk assessment. The methodology consists in formulation of a reference model for informing sustainable infrastructure resilience enhancement, risk assessment for infrastructure safety in terms of emergency service perspective and risk-based rationalization of the enhancement manners. The model stems from urban resilience and city resilience. Its components are physical resilience, structure and setting resilience, organizational resilience, economic resilience and legal resilience. These elements are related to hazards’ character, operational specification and resource requirements, operationalizing the model in terms of emergency conditions. For risk rationalization purpose, 1,255,826 events which occurred in 2015–2019 are analysed. Nearly 70% of the summary value of infrastructural risk is related to residential buildings and other categories of objects (garages, auto repair shops, monuments of material culture, objects of natural environment, hydro-technical objects, military objects, ex-territorial objects and others). Sustainable-related manners are specified notably for abovementioned buildings and objects. Deepening the analysis of cognitive limitations gives ideas for further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Flammability and Explosion Parameters of Coke Dust and Use of Preliminary Hazard Analysis for Qualitative Risk Assessment
Sustainability 2020, 12(10), 4130; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104130 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Appropriate investments are required to achieve sustainable industrial development and safety conditions at the same time. A sufficient safety level is achieved when research outcomes are deployed in practice. This paper comprises a review of ignitability and explosive parameters and thermogravimetric tests of [...] Read more.
Appropriate investments are required to achieve sustainable industrial development and safety conditions at the same time. A sufficient safety level is achieved when research outcomes are deployed in practice. This paper comprises a review of ignitability and explosive parameters and thermogravimetric tests of coke dust selected for the needs of the testing The KSt value of the tested dust was 64.2 bar·m/s, which means that it belongs to explosion hazard class 1 and that it has relatively low explosive abilities. The maximum explosion pressure for the tested dust was found to be 6.84 bar, and the minimum ignition temperature of a coke dust layer with a thickness of 50 mm was 400 °C. The use of the Preliminary Hazard Analysis in plants in which coke dust is present allows for limiting the scope of the risk analysis by eliminating elements that are either insignificant or of low significance from the viewpoint of explosion hazard. The adopted method allows qualitative assessment of the risk associated with threats, dangerous situations, and hazardous events that may take place during the use of devices, machines and their systems, and subsystems, including a qualitative evaluation of potential consequences of an accident or possible health loss. Risk assessment for life safety under building fires and explosions plays an important role in performance-based fire and explosion protection design and fire insurance ratemaking. The motivation for this work was the integrated protection of people, process equipment, building resilient infrastructure, promotion of inclusive and sustainable industrialization, business operation, and the natural environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing the Role of Resource Factors in Citizens’ Intention to Pay for and Participate in Disaster Management
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083377 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze how resource variables (health status, economic affordability, social network, social capital, and neighborhood environment) influence citizens’ intention to pay for and participate in disaster management and safety activities. We compared four psychometric paradigm variables with five resource variables [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze how resource variables (health status, economic affordability, social network, social capital, and neighborhood environment) influence citizens’ intention to pay for and participate in disaster management and safety activities. We compared four psychometric paradigm variables with five resource variables and analyzed how the latter moderate the relationships of the perception variables with intention to pay and to participate. A regression analysis revealed that willingness to pay was mainly explained by trust, followed by social capital, economic affordability, perceived risk, and experience, respectively. Participation was explained by knowledge, social capital, age, trust, and social network, respectively. Gender, trust, and social capital had an influence both on willingness to pay and to participate. Perceived risk, knowledge, and trust had a moderating effect on willingness to pay, but this effect depended on the quality of the neighborhood environment. Trust, knowledge, and stigma had a moderating effect on participation intention, but this effect depended on social capital and the neighborhood environment. Full article
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