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Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 45217

Special Issue Editors

School of Architecture Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Richview Sch of Architecture Belfield Dublin 4, Dublin, Ireland
Interests: multi criteria decision making (MCDM); sustainable transport planning; public transport; mobility choice; driver behavior; road safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Bursa Technical University, 16330 Bursa, Turkey
Interests: sustainable urban mobility planning (SUMP); micro-mobility; road user’s behavior; road safety; accident modelling; infrastructure design
Faculty of Applied Science, The University of British Columbia (UBC) Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
Interests: digital twins; transformational land use and smart cities; resilient planning; climate challenges and environmental studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mobility is one of the central themes for the development of a city, which can be declined in different aspects, using different methods and approaches. Current transport policies are increasingly focused on defining measures on mobility that can increase sustainability.

In order to evaluate the results produced by such strategies and/or to analyze in advance various aspects of mobility, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge tools to make it possible to monitor developments in the transport system and evaluate possible interventions. The choice of these tools must be shared as much as possible among stakeholders in order to contribute to the creation of a broad consensus on the measures to be taken.

With this Special Issue, we are looking for the description and analysis of the strategies, initiatives, and actions identified and implemented through the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of data from different sources, aimed at promoting, disseminating, and undertaking change towards sustainable mobility.

Multi-criteria analysis represents a wide family of techniques that can simultaneously take into account a multiplicity of aspects of the problem being addressed, both qualitative and quantitative, bringing out the different points of view of the actors involved. One of their accredited articulations in the specialist literature is based on reciprocal compensatory (rebalancing) or non-compensatory character of the criteria of used evaluation.

This Special Issue will consist of papers applying multi-criteria decision-making methodologies for evaluating and selecting the best solution for solving transport complex issues (quality issues, safety issues, behavior issues, survey design issues). In this Special Issue, we invite papers related to all transport sectors which utilize multi-criteria decision making as a methodology (AHP/ANP; BWM; TOPSIS; DEMATEL; PROMETHEE; ELECTRE and MABAC). The adopted outcomes can provide sustainable and efficient solutions for transport future strategic plans.

Dr. Sarbast Moslem
Dr. Tiziana Campisi
Dr. Nurten Akgün
Dr. Kh Md Nahiduzzaman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Public transport
  • Service quality
  • Logistics
  • Road safety
  • Road design
  • Rail
  • Mobility type
  • Passenger satisfaction
  • Transportation processes
  • Transportation management
  • Information technologies Multi-criteria decision making
  • Multiple-criteria problem solution models
  • Foresight studies
  • Risk management
  • Computer-aided problem solutions
  • Research and development
  • Fuzzy decision problems
  • AHP/ANP
  • BWM
  • TOPSIS
  • DEMATEL
  • Outranking MCDM methods
  • PROMETHEE
  • ELECTRE
  • Fuzzy sets
  • MCDM extensions
  • MABAC

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 8572 KiB  
Article
Multiobjective-Based Decision-Making for the Optimization of an Urban Passenger Traffic System Structure
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13644; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813644 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
Urbanization has aggravated the conflict between continuously increasing urban travel demands and limited supply. Moreover, the inability to expand urban roads due to previous land planning and utilization has resulted in significant traffic congestion, traffic safety issues, and environmental problems. To address these [...] Read more.
Urbanization has aggravated the conflict between continuously increasing urban travel demands and limited supply. Moreover, the inability to expand urban roads due to previous land planning and utilization has resulted in significant traffic congestion, traffic safety issues, and environmental problems. To address these problems, this work attempted to develop a multiobjective model to optimize the passenger traffic system while considering carbon emissions, transport costs, and resource utilization. In addition, the ideal point method and entropy weight method were combined to obtain the optimal solution. Based on the operational data on traffic modes and travel data on passengers in Harbin, the northern capital of China, the proposed method was used to solve the case in Harbin. The results show that the proportion of buses increased by 1.05%, that of subways increased by 36.60%, that of taxis decreased by 11.86%, and that of private cars decreased by 25.78% after optimization. Furthermore, the analyses of the results show that the optimized passenger traffic system structure can promote the sustainable development of urban transport and demonstrate the practicality of the proposed method for solving multiobjective optimization problems. Relative to the ideal point method and genetic algorithm, the proposed method is more applicable for optimizing the passenger traffic structure in Harbin. In addition, this study explored the sensitivity of the optimization goals to the four motorized modes. The results show that subways and private cars are the key areas to prioritize in adjusting the urban passenger traffic system structure. Based on the analysis results, recommendations for the development of transportation in Harbin are given. This study provides a reference for decision-makers to formulate policies for the urban sustainable development of Harbin as well as for transportation development in other cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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26 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
A Novel Decision-Making Framework to Evaluate Rail Transport Development Projects Considering Sustainability under Uncertainty
Sustainability 2023, 15(17), 13086; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151713086 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
One of the constant concerns in public and private organizations is choosing a project from among the multitude of potential projects to be implemented. Due to the limited resources in different sectors, projects should be prioritized in order to obtain the maximum benefit. [...] Read more.
One of the constant concerns in public and private organizations is choosing a project from among the multitude of potential projects to be implemented. Due to the limited resources in different sectors, projects should be prioritized in order to obtain the maximum benefit. In national and government projects, it is not necessarily important to pay attention to financial components, and more dimensions should be considered. Sustainability is a component that considers various economic, environmental, and social aspects in the evaluation of projects. In this regard, in this study, the main goal is to evaluate and select rail transportation projects according to sustainability criteria. In general, 15 indicators were identified in three economic, environmental, and social sectors, which were weighted using the best–worst fuzzy method (FBWM). The most important indicators in the evaluation of projects are the investment cost, the rate of internal return from a national perspective, and the lesser impact of the plan on environmental destruction. According to the weighted indicators, the stochastic VIKOR approach is developed for the first time in this article, which was evaluated according to two scenarios of demand changes and cost changes of candidate projects. In the stochastic VIKOR approach, to deal with uncertainty, different scenarios are defined, through which it is possible to respond to different conditions and evaluate projects more realistically. Validation of this method is compared to other multi-criteria decision-making methods. The main contribution of this study is presenting the stochastic VIKOR approach for the first time and considering the uncertainty in project evaluation. The findings show that the projects that have the most economic gains from the national and environmental aspects are selected as the best projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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20 pages, 4169 KiB  
Article
Understanding Travel Mode Choice Behavior: Influencing Factors Analysis and Prediction with Machine Learning Method
Sustainability 2023, 15(14), 11414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151411414 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Building a multimode transportation system could effectively reduce traffic congestion and improve travel quality. In many cities, use of public transport and green travel modes is encouraged in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas. With the development of the economy and [...] Read more.
Building a multimode transportation system could effectively reduce traffic congestion and improve travel quality. In many cities, use of public transport and green travel modes is encouraged in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas. With the development of the economy and society, travelers’ behaviors become complex. Analyzing the travel mode choices of urban residents is conducive to constructing an effective multimode transportation system. In this paper, we propose a statistical analysis framework to study travelers’ behavior with a large amount of survey data. Then, a stacking machine learning method considering travelers’ behavior is introduced. The results show that electric bikes play a dominant role in Jinan city and age is an important factor impacting travel mode choice. Travelers’ income could impact travel mode choice and rich people prefer to use private cars. Private cars and electric bikes are two main travel modes for commuting, accounting for 30% and 35%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed stacking method achieved 0.83 accuracy, outperforming the traditional multinomial logit (MNL) mode and nine other machine learning methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 1375 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid AHP Approach and GIS-Based Methods as Fundamental Tools in the SECAP’s Decision-Making Process
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3660; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043660 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Adapting to climate change and mitigating its impacts are the main challenges for cities today. One objective that the European Commission has set in recent decades is reducing climate change inaction, and several political actions have been implemented. Among these actions, the Covenant [...] Read more.
Adapting to climate change and mitigating its impacts are the main challenges for cities today. One objective that the European Commission has set in recent decades is reducing climate change inaction, and several political actions have been implemented. Among these actions, the Covenant of Mayors led to the development and adoption of Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plans (SECAPs) by many cities worldwide. A challenge that local authorities must face during the development of a SECAP is the identification of the policies to be included in the plan. This paper presents a case study to show the validity of using a hybrid analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach and various geographic information system (GIS)-based methods to support local authorities in the decision-making process during the development of SECAPs. These methods can improve participation among the community and stakeholders, at the same time making it possible to choose the best actions to reduce emissions and energy consumption and optimally allocate financial resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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20 pages, 10312 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Choice of Bicycling and Walking in Rajshahi, Bangladesh: An Application of Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) Models
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 14784; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214784 - 09 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Bangladesh has emphasized active transportation in its transportation policies and has encouraged its population, especially the youth and students, towards bicycling. However, there is a scarcity of studies that have examined the factors important to the choice of active transportation that can be [...] Read more.
Bangladesh has emphasized active transportation in its transportation policies and has encouraged its population, especially the youth and students, towards bicycling. However, there is a scarcity of studies that have examined the factors important to the choice of active transportation that can be referenced to support the initiative. To address this research gap, in this study, we explore the influence of sociodemographics and latent perceptions of a built environment on the choice to walk and bicycle among students and nonstudents in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. In Rajshahi, we conducted a household survey between July and August, 2017. We used a modeling framework that integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV) models to effectively incorporate the latent perception variables in the choice model, addressing measurement error and endogeneity bias. Our models show that students are influenced by perceptions of safety from crime, while nonstudents are influenced by their perceptions of the walkability of a built environment when choosing a bicycle for commuting trips. For recreational bicycle trips, students are more concerned about the perceptions of road safety, whereas nonstudents are concerned about safety from crime. We find that road safety perception significantly and positively influences walking behavior among nonstudents. Structural equation models of the latent perception variables show that females are more likely to provide lower perceptions of neighborhood walkability, road safety, and safety from crime. Regarding active transportation decisions, overall, we find there is a difference between student and nonstudent groups and also within these groups. The findings of this study can assist in developing a sustainable active transportation system by addressing the needs of different segments of the population. In this study, we also provide recommendations regarding promoting active transportation in Rajshahi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 1586 KiB  
Article
A Sustainable Transport System—The MMQUAL Model of Shared Micromobility Service Quality Assessment
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4168; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074168 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Shared micromobility is a new phenomenon being observed in urban transport. It is a response to the problems associated with congestion and environmental pollution. Small electric vehicles such as e-scooters are highly suitable for crowded city centres, often providing an alternative to private [...] Read more.
Shared micromobility is a new phenomenon being observed in urban transport. It is a response to the problems associated with congestion and environmental pollution. Small electric vehicles such as e-scooters are highly suitable for crowded city centres, often providing an alternative to private motor vehicles or public transport, and serve as a good first- and last-mile transport option. While they have become a feature of sustainable transport systems in cities, their impact on the environment often depends on the services offered by operators of this mode of personal transport. There are many tools available to measure the quality of transport, e-services and shared mobility services. However, no specific mechanism has been designed for vehicles in the field of shared e-scooters (research gap). The aim of the article is to verify whether the three dimensions identified by the authors: mobile application functions, device features, and customer service are valid for examining the quality of shared e-micromobility factors on the example of e-scooters. Based on the obtained results, the authors created the MMQUAL (MicroMobility QUALity) model, which accurately describes the quality of the studied phenomenon. The results of the study can serve as a platform for researchers interested in further exploring the issue and improving the proposed model. They may also be of commercial value to operators, who could use this tool to boost the competitiveness of their services by enhancing those features that have the greatest impact on their quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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21 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
Estimating Driver Behavior Measures Related to Traffic Safety by Investigating 2-Dimensional Uncertain Linguistic Data—A Pythagorean Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031881 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
Human behavior has been estimated as a factor too uncertain and complex to investigate road safety issues. By utilizing recent expansions of ordinary fuzzy sets, experts in the field have intended to handle the vagueness of human behavior in sustainable transport systems by [...] Read more.
Human behavior has been estimated as a factor too uncertain and complex to investigate road safety issues. By utilizing recent expansions of ordinary fuzzy sets, experts in the field have intended to handle the vagueness of human behavior in sustainable transport systems by using linguistic terms for assessment. Pythagorean Fuzzy sets (PFSs) are considered a superior method that has been developed for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), which enables assigning of both membership and non-membership functions in a large domain area. A novel Pythagorean Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (PF-AHP) is performed to assess and prioritize critical driver behavior criteria designed into a hierarchical model based on data gathered from observed driver groups in Budapest city. Accordingly, based on the aggregated weights, the criterion ‘lapses’ is prioritized as the most critical factor connected to road safety. The criterion ‘disobey speed limits’ is found to be the least critical factor, followed by ‘disobey overtaking rules’ as the second least. For a comparative analysis, the case of dependent criteria has been considered. Pythagorean Fuzzy DEMATEL method has been applied to determine dependencies between the criteria. Through the dependencies, a network of criteria has been constructed and the Pythagorean Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (ANP) conducted to interpret the results. Moreover, sensitivity analyses have been carried out to examine its robustness by applying different case scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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25 pages, 21076 KiB  
Article
Achieving Sustainable Mobility in the Szczecin Metropolitan Area in the Post-COVID-19 Era: The DEMATEL and PROMETHEE II Approach
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12672; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212672 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
This article presents the idea of modelling and supporting the decision-making process in the field of development directions of a sustainable transport system in a metropolitan area. The global COVID-19 pandemic is causing changes in the perception of the public transport system by [...] Read more.
This article presents the idea of modelling and supporting the decision-making process in the field of development directions of a sustainable transport system in a metropolitan area. The global COVID-19 pandemic is causing changes in the perception of the public transport system by passengers. Users’ concerns for their own safety may lead to a shift away from public transport. Policy makers are advised to pay attention to these new phenomena that are hindering the development of sustainable transport in urban areas. Thus, many projects for the development of sustainable urban transport mobility, prepared before COVID-19, require re-analysis and adaptation to the decision-making processes of choosing the preferred means of transport by citizens. The scientific aim of this article was to develop a mathematical model based on the hybrid DEMATEL-PROMETHEE II method, supporting city decision-makers in the decision-making process regarding the selection of appropriate measures supporting the development of sustainable transport. The issues covered in the article include economic, informational and legal aspects, including electromobility, the principles of a low-emission society, and sustainable collective transport. The model was prepared for the needs of the Szczecin Metropolitan Area, where the construction of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway, delayed by COVID-19, is underway and is to be the main axis of the public transport system. Finally, the article provides a ranking of groups of measures, dimensions and criteria that should be taken into account by decision-makers and planners in the modified plans for the sustainable development of metropolitan transport systems in the period after COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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23 pages, 5254 KiB  
Article
Influence of Socio-Cultural Attributes on Stigmatizing Public Transport in Saudi Arabia
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12075; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112075 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
Several factors over the years have contributed to stigma in public transport. Many studies have highlighted the need to make the transport system more equitable both from economic and gender perspectives. This study attempts to demonstrate how the perceptions of public transport users [...] Read more.
Several factors over the years have contributed to stigma in public transport. Many studies have highlighted the need to make the transport system more equitable both from economic and gender perspectives. This study attempts to demonstrate how the perceptions of public transport users and non-users are stigmatized from social and cultural standpoints. Thus, it identifies the social and cultural stigma-induced barriers embedded with the use and people’s general perception about the public bus service, taking SAPTCO (Saudi Public Transport Company) as a case study. The study results suggest that privacy concern is the primary cause of stigma. Most of the users are unwilling to ride with their families as SAPTCO does not account for gender needs (e.g., privacy, travel convenience, safety, comfort, etc.). Moreover, people from the high-income classes are more stigmatized against this ridership. A fuzzy inference system (FIS) model is used to analyze the survey questionnaire responses and understand what stigma means for the public bus service. Expert opinions are employed to generate “if–then” rules of the FIS models. Sensitivity of the defined fuzzy model is conducted to different aspects of the ridership. The study results further suggest that “inconvenience” poses the highest impact while “feeling safe”, “privacy”, “fare”, “timing”, and “comfort” are found to be the medium impact-making variables for stigma. The stigma-defining variables would be critical for the public bus service to improve its service quality and help (re-)design the policies that would attract a high amount of ridership. Some solutions are suggested in the end that would complement, strengthen, and promote the current SAPTCO service. The demonstrated methodology of this study would be relevant and adaptive to any relevant context to improve public transportation service and pertaining policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 8861 KiB  
Article
Strengthening the Collaborative Environment in Port-Hinterland Corridor Management Initiatives: A Value System Approach
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9212; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169212 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
With port competition now increasingly taking place on the landside, port actors have a genuine interest in enhancing their role and introducing improvements in the hinterland transport and logistics system. Among the different opportunities that are available, less attention has been placed on [...] Read more.
With port competition now increasingly taking place on the landside, port actors have a genuine interest in enhancing their role and introducing improvements in the hinterland transport and logistics system. Among the different opportunities that are available, less attention has been placed on those that port–hinterland corridor management initiatives have to offer. These will be discussed herein, and a proposal is put forward for strengthening the collaborative environment in those initiatives, further reinforcing existing opportunities or creating new ones. More specifically, a value system approach is outlined and the steps for its development are sketched, putting forward value-oriented perspectives over the current performance-related ones. The proposed approach adds another useful dimension to the business thinking and decision-making of corridor members, enabling them to more holistically understand their respective roles and positioning and, in turn, further enhance collaboration among them, not just for improving performance but also, more importantly, for adding further value to the corridor. In the long term, this can result in greater benefits being realized for the corridor community as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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16 pages, 2370 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Multi Criteria Decision Making Model for Evaluating Park-and-Ride Facility Location Issue: A Case Study for Cuenca City in Ecuador
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7461; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137461 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
A park-and-ride (P&R) system is a set of facilities where private vehicle users can transfer to public transport to continue their journey. The main advantage of the system is decreasing the congestion in the central business district. This paper aims to analyze the [...] Read more.
A park-and-ride (P&R) system is a set of facilities where private vehicle users can transfer to public transport to continue their journey. The main advantage of the system is decreasing the congestion in the central business district. This paper aims to analyze the most significant factors related to a Park-and-Ride facility location by adopting a combined model of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Best Worst Method (BWM). The integrated model is applicable for complex problems, which can be structured as a hierarchy with at least one 5 × 5 pairwise comparison matrix (PCM) (or bigger). Applying AHP for at least 5 × 5 PCM may generate inconsistent matrices, which may cause a loss of reliable information. As a solution for this gap, we conducted BWM, which generates more consistent comparisons compared to the AHP approach. Moreover, the model requires fewer comparisons compared to the classic AHP approach. That is the main reason of adopting the AHP-BWM model to evaluate Park-and-Ride facility location factors for a designed two-level hierarchical structure. As a case study, a real-world complex decision-making process was selected to evaluate the Park-and-Ride facility location problem in Cuenca city, Ecuador. The result shows that the application of multi-criteria methods becomes a planning tool for experts when designing a P&R system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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21 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Policies of Railway Operators Using SWOT Criteria and the SIMUS Method: A Case for the Bulgarian Railway Network
Sustainability 2021, 13(12), 6948; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126948 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3834
Abstract
This study is useful for railway operators as it enables them to verify their decisions against the results of the application of the techniques of strategic planning and multi-criteria analysis. It gives railway stakeholders concise, objective and unbiased information so that they can [...] Read more.
This study is useful for railway operators as it enables them to verify their decisions against the results of the application of the techniques of strategic planning and multi-criteria analysis. It gives railway stakeholders concise, objective and unbiased information so that they can then make decisions and also allows them to determine the strengths and sensitivity, of the best solution found. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the policies of railway operators using Strengths–Weakness–Opportunities–Threats (SWOT) criteria and the Sequential Interactive Modelling for Urban Systems (SIMUS) method. The methodology of the research consists of two stages. In the first stage, the alternatives of the policies for the railway operator are formulated; the criteria in the SWOT group are defined; and the values of the criteria are determined for each of the alternatives. In the second stage, the SIMUS method is applied to rank the alternatives and assess the criteria in the SWOT groups. The criteria are interpreted as objectives and linear optimizations are performed. A comparison between the desired values for each objective of the SWOT criteria and the optimum values of the objective functions obtained by SIMUS was made. The methodology was applied to the Bulgarian railway network. Three policies for railway operation were studied. The total number of 17 railway policies criteria in the SWOT group were defined and assessed—three strengths criteria, seven weaknesses criteria, three opportunities criteria and four threats criteria. The results indicated that the best strategy is A3 (some reconstruction of the railway infrastructure and new rolling stock on some lines), with the highest score of 3.76, followed by A2 (new rolling stock on some lines), with a score of 2.71. The status-quo strategy (A1) has a very low score of 0.43, that the current situation or status-quo cannot be supported. The weights of both strengths and opportunities are both of the same importance with a weight of 0.180. It was found out that the clusters Weakness and Threats are dominant with weights of 0.4 and 0.24 respectively. The results show that the weights are all practically the same, about 0.06, and therefore, no discrimination by importance is possible. The methodology makes it possible to consider the alternatives simultaneously, and in this way, the results will reflect the effect of one criterion on all others, and permit us to quantify the differences between expected and real results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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17 pages, 120481 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Model to Study the Dynamic Accessibility of the Park & Ride System
Sustainability 2021, 13(7), 4064; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13074064 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
A Park and Ride (P&R) system is an intermodal point where private vehicle users transfer to public transport to make a combined trip. Several researchers have measured the static accessibility of the P&R system. However, studying dynamic accessibility leads to a comprehensive model [...] Read more.
A Park and Ride (P&R) system is an intermodal point where private vehicle users transfer to public transport to make a combined trip. Several researchers have measured the static accessibility of the P&R system. However, studying dynamic accessibility leads to a comprehensive model consisting of a series of elements and steps that allow for travel time analysis in various traffic conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to develop an integrated model that provides a set of procedures which determine the travel origin points of the P&R system, calculate the trips in different traffic conditions (in this article, the results are shown in three scenarios: no traffic (NT), low traffic (LT), and heavy traffic (HT)), and include a hot spot analysis and correlation in order to finally be able to display the dynamic accessibility using geospatial software. The result shows that the accessibility of the P&R system varies depending on the traffic volume and the variation of the accessibility in the different areas that conform to the urban environment. In conclusion, the integrated model helps users decide on the best time to travel to the P&R system, allows transport planners to develop strategies to make the system more functional, and gives an excellent opportunity to develop a travel information system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 1979 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Determining the Location of River Ports on a Modernized Waterway Based on Non-Cost Criteria: A Case Study of the Odra River Waterway
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3571; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063571 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
The paper responds to research problems related to the implementation of large-scale investment projects in waterways in Europe. As part of design and construction works, it is necessary to indicate river ports that play a major role within the European transport network as [...] Read more.
The paper responds to research problems related to the implementation of large-scale investment projects in waterways in Europe. As part of design and construction works, it is necessary to indicate river ports that play a major role within the European transport network as intermodal nodes. This entails a number of challenges, the cardinal one being the optimal selection of port locations, taking into account the new transport, economic, and geopolitical situation that will be brought about by modernized waterways. The aim of the paper was to present an original methodology for determining port locations for modernized waterways based on non-cost criteria, as an extended multicriteria decision-making method (MCDM) and employing GIS (Geographic Information System)-based tools for spatial analysis. The methodology was designed to be applicable to the varying conditions of a river’s hydroengineering structures (free-flowing river, canalized river, and canals) and adjustable to the requirements posed by intermodal supply chains. The method was applied to study the Odra River Waterway, which allowed the formulation of recommendations regarding the application of the method in the case of different river sections at every stage of the research process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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25 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Economic Calculation and Operations Research in Terms of LNG Carriage by Water Transport: A Case Study of the Port of Bratislava
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063414 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
The presented manuscript discusses a specific research study examining several variants of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriage from chosen seaports to the port of Bratislava using the Danube waterway, assessing them using chosen multi-criteria analysis techniques. Two ports in Turkey and one port [...] Read more.
The presented manuscript discusses a specific research study examining several variants of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriage from chosen seaports to the port of Bratislava using the Danube waterway, assessing them using chosen multi-criteria analysis techniques. Two ports in Turkey and one port in Georgia are deemed export terminals. A total of twelve variants are compared, whereby the comparison is carried out based on multiple evaluation criteria defined by a panel of experts who laid particular stress on their importance. An economic calculation is performed in the first phase to assess LNG carriage in all the variants. This represents the very foundation for the multi-criteria evaluation, which is conducted using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The evaluated variants differ not only in terms of export port location, but also in relation to transport technology. As for the second phase, four distinct technologies in three different scenarios are assessed—specifically, Small-Scale (SS) LNG-C tankers—while two modes of operation (i.e., time-charter, own tanker) and a river-sea LNG tanker with an LNG barge in two versions are considered. The first version considers the use of Marine Gasoil (MGO) fuel, while the second one considers LNG use. The results obtained provide interesting findings, wherein two out of three applied methods prefer the same transport option. Thus, it can be stated that our study presents a unique approach by comparing different scenarios of LNG distribution as a commodity inland along the river Danube, specifically to Central Europe, from a variety of standpoints. The manuscript evaluates carriage using traditional MGO fuels as well as alternative LNG fuels, and also brings a comparison from a technological point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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30 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Assessment of Public Transport, Part II—Applying a Multi-Criteria Assessment Method to Compare Different Bus Technologies
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031273 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
Many Swedish regional transport authorities want bus fleets driven on renewable fuels. However, it may be difficult to know what technology, or combination of technologies, to choose. There is a need for improved knowledge and supportive methods for sustainability assessments that can support [...] Read more.
Many Swedish regional transport authorities want bus fleets driven on renewable fuels. However, it may be difficult to know what technology, or combination of technologies, to choose. There is a need for improved knowledge and supportive methods for sustainability assessments that can support public procurement processes. In the companion article (Part I), a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method for assessments of public bus technologies’ sustainability was established, consisting of four key areas and 12 indicators. In this article, the purpose is to apply the method established in part I on different bus technologies by looking at a general Swedish case and assessing buses driven on diesel, Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), ethanol, natural gas, biomethane and electricity. Each technology is assessed on a scale from Very Poor to Very Good according to the indicators: technical maturity, daily operational availability, total cost of ownership, need for investments in infrastructure, cost stability, non-renewable primary energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emission savings, air pollution, noise, local/regional impact on land and aquatic environments, energy security and sociotechnical systems services. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of each technology, which are later discussed. We also critically reflect upon the usefulness and accuracy of the MCA method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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25 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Assessment of Public Transport, Part I—A Multi-Criteria Assessment Method to Compare Different Bus Technologies
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020825 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
This article departs from the perspective of Swedish regional transport authorities and focuses on the public procurement of bus transports. Many of these public organizations on the county level have the ambition to contribute to a transition involving the continued marginalization of fossil [...] Read more.
This article departs from the perspective of Swedish regional transport authorities and focuses on the public procurement of bus transports. Many of these public organizations on the county level have the ambition to contribute to a transition involving the continued marginalization of fossil fuels and improved sustainability performance. However, there are several renewable bus technologies to choose between and it can be difficult to know what alternative (or combination) is preferable. Prior research and the authors’ experiences indicate a need for improved knowledge and supportive methods on how sustainability assessments can support public procurement processes. The purpose of this article is to develop a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) method to support assessments of public bus technologies’ sustainability. The method, which was established in an iterative and participatory process, consists of four key areas and 12 indicators. The article introduces the problem context and reviews selected prior research of relevance dealing with green or sustainable public procurement and sustainability assessments. Further on, the process and MCA method are presented and discussed based on advice for effective and efficient sustainability assessments. In the companion article (Part II), the MCA method is applied to assess several bus technologies involving biodiesel, biomethane, diesel, electricity, ethanol and natural gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 1945 KiB  
Article
Using Best Worst Method for Sustainable Park and Ride Facility Location
Sustainability 2020, 12(23), 10083; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310083 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
The Park and Ride (P&R) system is a set of facilities available to private vehicle users to transfer to public transportation in order to complete their journey. The location of the facilities is determined by the purpose for which they have been created, [...] Read more.
The Park and Ride (P&R) system is a set of facilities available to private vehicle users to transfer to public transportation in order to complete their journey. The location of the facilities is determined by the purpose for which they have been created, for example, to reduce traffic in the central business district (CBD), reduce pollution, or increase the use of public transportation. Thus, a set of six main criteria and 19 sub-criteria are considered that are particularly important for decision-makers about the location of P&R facilities in a city. In order to identify which criteria are relevant, a method belonging to the multiple criteria decision is needed. The central point of this study is to evaluate the problem of the location of the facilities of the P&R system according to the point of view of the experts. For this aim, the Best Worst Method (BWM) is adopted to estimate the location of the facilities of the P&R system. The questionnaire survey has been designed estimated by ten transport experts in the related field. The recently created BWM was conducted. The results highlighted that “accessibility of public transportation” is the most important aspect of the problem of the location of P&R facilities. The results obtained provide greater accuracy in the location of facilities problem than the pure analytic hierarchy process method (AHP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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18 pages, 4071 KiB  
Article
Development of a Composite Sustainability Index for Roadway Intersection Design Alternatives in the UAE
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8696; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208696 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the sustainability of transportation systems, but little attention has been given for the design of roadway intersections. This study aimed to establish a framework and develop a tool to assess the sustainability of roadway intersections [...] Read more.
Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the sustainability of transportation systems, but little attention has been given for the design of roadway intersections. This study aimed to establish a framework and develop a tool to assess the sustainability of roadway intersections from a road-user perspective. Sustainability indicators at the strategic level were extracted from the literature and were utilized with relative weights to develop economic, environmental, and social indices that would be combined into a composite sustainability index (CSI) tool. The tool was applied to four case studies of intersections in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. For each case study, the sustainability of fifteen design alternatives was evaluated for different scenarios of traffic volume and operational speed. Dimensional indices and the overall CSI were determined using the Multi-Criteria Decision Making method. Results indicated that traffic volume had a significant impact on intersection sustainability ranking, while the effect of operational speed was insignificant. Moreover, weight assignment had an effect on determining the most sustainable design alternative, where the best alternatives of the dimension with the major weight would most likely be the most sustainable. The developed tool would assist decision-makers in other cities to assess intersection projects that correspond to their regional goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-criteria Decision Making and Sustainable Transport)
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