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Special Issue "The Role and Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) in Sustainable Smart Cities"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2022 | Viewed by 8725

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Fadi Al-Turjman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Artificial Intelligence Engineering Department, Near East University, 99138 Nicosia, Cyprus
Interests: IoT; AI; cloud computing; blockchain, AIoT

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming a key enabling technology, with multiple innovations supporting the smart city paradigm. For instance, providing multi-hop collaboration among IoT sensor networks helps to reach possible services from Cloud computing facilities, and machine learning (ML) techniques are employed to adapt existing configurations. Moreover, emerging 5th and 6th generation (5G/6G) technologies can revolutionize ubiquitous computing with numerous sustainable applications built around various "smart" sensors enabled with cognition and ML techniques. ML has shown an outstanding performance in complicated tasks that require human-like intelligence and intuition. It is capable of detecting hidden structures in data and using that to make smart decisions in smart cities' critical missions. To successfully accomplish this vision, cognitive IoT solutions are needed to reshape the existing smart applications toward further sustainable services in smart city paradigms. This Special Issue brings together a broad multidisciplinary community studying cognitive architectures across science and engineering. It aims to integrate ideas, theories, models, and techniques from across different disciplines on cognitive architectures. Potential topics include but are not limited to:

  • IoT communication protocols for sustainable smart cities
  • Cognitive resource management in IoT
  • ML and intelligent IoT-based localization
  • Intelligent blockchain for sustainable cities
  • AI algorithms in the IoT era
  • Enablers for intelligent/secured IoT
  • Use cases enabled by intelligent IoT in Smart cities
  • IoT and ML in smart cities
  • ML and mobile assisted public safety and emergency IoT
  • Intelligent 5G/6G communication for sustainable cities
  • Design and evaluation of IoT test beds, prototypes, and platforms

Prof. Dr. Fadi Al-Turjman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IoT
  • sustainable smart cities
  • deep learning
  • machine learning, smart apps

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Cluster-Based Routing Protocol with Static Hub (CRPSH) for WSN-Assisted IoT Networks
Sustainability 2022, 14(12), 7304; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127304 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an evolving concept that has achieved prominence in the modern era. An autonomous sensor-equipped device is the major component of WSN-assisted IoT infrastructure. These devices intelligently sense the environment, automatically collect the data, and deliver the information [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an evolving concept that has achieved prominence in the modern era. An autonomous sensor-equipped device is the major component of WSN-assisted IoT infrastructure. These devices intelligently sense the environment, automatically collect the data, and deliver the information to paired devices. However, in WSN-assisted IoT networks, energy depletion and hardware faults might result in device failures. Additionally, this might affect data transmission. A reliable route significantly reduces data retransmissions, which can help in congestion reduction and energy conservation. Generally, the sensor devices are typically deployed densely throughout the WSN-assisted IoT networks. A high number of sensor devices covering a monitoring area might result in duplicate data. The clustering method can be used to overcome this problem. The clustering technique reduces network traffic, whereas the multipath technique ensures path reliability. In CRPSH, we used the clustering technique to reduce the duplicate data. Moreover, the multipath approach can increase the reliability of the proposed protocol. CRPSH is intended to minimize the overhead associated with control packets and extend the network’s lifetime. The complete set of simulations is carried out using the Castalia simulator. The proposed protocol is found to reduce energy consumption and increase the lifetime of IoT infrastructure networks. Full article
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Article
Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Improve Energy Performance
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020666 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 587
Abstract
Energy-efficient retrofits embrace enhancement of the building envelope through climate control strategies, employment of building-integrated renewable energy technologies, and insulation for a sustainable city. Building envelope improvements with insulation is a common approach, yet decision-making plays an important role in determining the most [...] Read more.
Energy-efficient retrofits embrace enhancement of the building envelope through climate control strategies, employment of building-integrated renewable energy technologies, and insulation for a sustainable city. Building envelope improvements with insulation is a common approach, yet decision-making plays an important role in determining the most appropriate envelope retrofit strategy. In this paper, the main objective is to evaluate different retrofit strategies (RS) through a calibrated simulation approach. Based on an energy performance audit and monitoring, an existing building is evaluated on performance levels and improvement potentials with basic energy conservation measures. The considered building is experimentally monitored for a full year, and monitoring data are used in calibrating the simulation model. The validation of the base model is done by comparing the simulation analysis with the experimental investigation, and good agreement is found. Three different retrofit strategies based on Intervention of minor (RS1), Moderate (RS2), and Major (RS3) are analyzed and juxtaposed with the base model to identify the optimal strategy of minimizing energy consumption. The result shows that total energy intensity in terms of the percentage reduction index is about 16.7% for RS1, 19.87 for RS2, and 24.12% for RS3. Hence, RS3 is considered the optimal retrofit strategy and is further simulated for a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and payback investigation. It was found that the annual reduction in CO2 emissions of the building was 18.56%, and the payback period for the investment was 10.6 years. Full article
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Article
Blockchain-Based Community Safety Security System with IoT Secure Devices
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13994; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413994 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 700
Abstract
Humans frequently need to construct a huge number of buildings for occupants in large cities to work or live in a highly developed civilization; people who live in the same building or same area are defined as a community. A thief stealing items, [...] Read more.
Humans frequently need to construct a huge number of buildings for occupants in large cities to work or live in a highly developed civilization; people who live in the same building or same area are defined as a community. A thief stealing items, a burglary, fire hazards, flood hazards, earthquakes, emergency aid, abnormal gas leakage, strange behavior, falling in a building, fainting in a building, and other incidents all threaten the community’s safety. Therefore, we proposed a blockchain-based community safety security system that is combined with IoT devices. In the proposed scheme, we designed multiple phases to process the alarm triggered by IoT devices. IoT devices can be set up in two types areas: private and public areas. Both types of IoT devices’ alarms have different process flow for the response and records checking phase. All records are saved in the Blockchain Center to assure the data can be verified and cannot be forged. During the communication between sender and receiver, we implemented some security methods to prevent message repudiation, prevent transmission intercept, prevent replay attacks, and ensure data integrity. We also implemented a clarifying mechanism to ensure that all system participants can have confidence in the system’s processing methods. The proposed scheme can be used in communities to improve community safety and prevent unnecessary conflicts. Full article
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Article
Analyzing the Adoption Challenges of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Smart Cities in China
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910983 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
Smart cities play a vital role in the growth of a nation. In recent years, several countries have made huge investments in developing smart cities to offer sustainable living. However, there are some challenges to overcome in smart city development, such as traffic [...] Read more.
Smart cities play a vital role in the growth of a nation. In recent years, several countries have made huge investments in developing smart cities to offer sustainable living. However, there are some challenges to overcome in smart city development, such as traffic and transportation management, energy and water distribution and management, air quality and waste management monitoring, etc. The capabilities of the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) can help to achieve some goals of smart cities, and there are proven examples from some cities like Singapore, Copenhagen, etc. However, the adoption of AI and the IoT in developing countries has some challenges. The analysis of challenges hindering the adoption of AI and the IoT are very limited. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the causal relationships among the challenges in smart city development, and contains several parts that conclude the previous scholars’ work, as well as independent research and investigation, such as data collection and analysis based on DEMATEL. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to extract key challenges for the adoption of AI and the IoT. These helped us to proceed with the investigation and analyze the adoption status. Therefore, using the PRISMA method, 10 challenges were identified from the literature review. Subsequently, determination of the causal inter-relationships among the key challenges based on expert opinions using DEMATEL is performed. This study explored the driving and dependent power of the challenges, and causal relationships between the barriers were established. The results of the study indicated that “lack of infrastructure (C1)”, ”insufficient funds (C2)”, “cybersecurity risks (C3)”, and “lack of trust in AI, IoT” are the causal factors that are slowing down the adoption of AI and IoT in smart city development. The inter-relationships between the various challenges are presented using a network relationship map, cause–effect diagram. The study’s findings can help regulatory bodies, policymakers, and researchers to make better decisions to overcome the challenges for developing sustainable smart cities. Full article
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Article
An Attribute-Based Access Control for IoT Using Blockchain and Smart Contracts
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10556; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910556 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
With opportunities brought by the Internet of Things (IoT), it is quite a challenge to maintain concurrency and privacy when a huge number of resource-constrained distributed devices are involved. Blockchain have become popular for its benefits, including decentralization, persistence, immutability, auditability, and consensus. [...] Read more.
With opportunities brought by the Internet of Things (IoT), it is quite a challenge to maintain concurrency and privacy when a huge number of resource-constrained distributed devices are involved. Blockchain have become popular for its benefits, including decentralization, persistence, immutability, auditability, and consensus. Great attention has been received by the IoT based on the construction of distributed file systems worldwide. A new generation of IoT-based distributed file systems has been proposed with the integration of Blockchain technology, such as the Swarm and Interplanetary File System. By using IoT, new technical challenges, such as Credibility, Harmonization, large-volume data, heterogeneity, and constrained resources are arising. To ensure data security in IoT, centralized access control technologies do not provide credibility. In this work, we propose an attribute-based access control model for the IoT. The access control lists are not required for each device by the system. It enhances access management in terms of effectiveness. Moreover, we use blockchain technology for recording the attribute, avoiding data tempering, and eliminating a single point of failure at edge computing devices. IoT devices control the user’s environment as well as his or her private data collection; therefore, the exposure of the user’s personal data to non-trusted private and public servers may result in privacy leakage. To automate the system, smart contracts are used for data accessing, whereas Proof of Authority is used for enhancing the system’s performance and optimizing gas consumption. Through smart contracts, ciphertext can be stored on a blockchain by the data owner. Data can only be decrypted in a valid access period, whereas in blockchains, the trace function is achieved by the storage of invocation and the creation of smart contracts. Scalability issues can also be resolved by using the multichain blockchain. Eventually, it is concluded from the simulation results that the proposed system is efficient for IoT. Full article
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Article
Load Balancing Algorithm on the Immense Scale of Internet of Things in SDN for Smart Cities
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9587; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179587 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Since the worldwide Internet of Things (IoT) in smart cities is becoming increasingly popular among consumers and the business community, network traffic management is a crucial issue for optimizing the IoT ’s performance in smart cities. Multiple controllers on a immense scale implement [...] Read more.
Since the worldwide Internet of Things (IoT) in smart cities is becoming increasingly popular among consumers and the business community, network traffic management is a crucial issue for optimizing the IoT ’s performance in smart cities. Multiple controllers on a immense scale implement in Software Defined Networks (SDN) in integration with Internet of Things (IoT) as an emerging paradigm enhances the scalability, security, privacy, and flexibility of the centralized control plane for smart city applications. The distributed multiple controller implementation model in SDN-IoT cannot conform to the dramatic developments in network traffic which results in a load disparity between controllers, leading to higher packet drop rate, high response time, and other problems with network performance deterioration. This paper lays the foundation on the multiple distributed controller load balancing (MDCLB) algorithm on an immense-scale SDN-IoT for smart cities. A smart city is a residential street that uses information and communication technology (ICT) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to improve its citizens’ quality of living. Researchers then propose the algorithm on the unbalancing of the load using the multiple controllers based on the parameter CPU Utilization in centralized control plane. The experimental results analysis is performed on the emulator named as mininet and validated the results in ryu controller over dynamic load balancing based on Nash bargaining, efficient switch migration load balancing algorithm, efficiency aware load balancing algorithm, and proposed algorithm (MDCLB) algorithm are executed and analyzed based on the parameter CPU Utilization which ensures that the Utilization of CPU with load balancing is 20% better than the Utilization of CPU without load balancing. Full article
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Article
Cloud Based Smart City Services for Industrial Internet of Things in Software-Defined Networking
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8910; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168910 - 09 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
The network session constraints for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications are different and challenging. These constraints necessitates a high level of reconfigurability, so that the system can assess the impact of an event and adjust the network effectively. Software Defined Networking (SDN) [...] Read more.
The network session constraints for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications are different and challenging. These constraints necessitates a high level of reconfigurability, so that the system can assess the impact of an event and adjust the network effectively. Software Defined Networking (SDN) in contrast to existing networks segregates the control and data plane to support network configuration which is programmable with smart cities requirement that shows the highest impact on the system but faces the problem of reliability. To address this issue, the SDN-IIoT based load balancing algorithm is proposed in this article and it is not application specific.Quality of service (QoS) aware architecture i.e., SDN-IIoT load balancing scheme is proposed and it deals with load on the servers. Huge load on the servers, makes them vulnerable to halt the system and hence leads to faults which creates the reliability problem for real time applications. In this article, load is migrated from one server to another server, if load on one server is more than threshold value. Load distribution has made the proposed scheme more reliable than already existing schemes. Further, the topology used for the implementation has been designed using POX controller and the results has been evaluated using Mininet emulator with its support in python programming. Lastly, the performance is evaluated based on the various Quality of Service (QoS) metrics; data transmission, response time and CPU utilization which shows that the proposed algorithm has shown 10% improvement over the existing LBBSRT, Random, Round-robin, Heuristic algorithms. Full article
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Review

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Review
Revolutionary Strategies Analysis and Proposed System for Future Infrastructure in Internet of Things
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010071 - 22 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has changed the worldwide network of people, smart devices, intelligent things, data, and information as an emergent technology. IoT development is still in its early stages, and numerous interrelated challenges must be addressed. IoT is the unifying idea [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has changed the worldwide network of people, smart devices, intelligent things, data, and information as an emergent technology. IoT development is still in its early stages, and numerous interrelated challenges must be addressed. IoT is the unifying idea of embedding everything. The Internet of Things offers a huge opportunity to improve the world’s accessibility, integrity, availability, scalability, confidentiality, and interoperability. However, securing the Internet of Things is a difficult issue. The IoT aims to connect almost everything within the framework of a common infrastructure. This helps in controlling devices and, will allow device status to be updated everywhere and at any time. To develop technology via IoT, several critical scientific studies and inquiries have been carried out. However, many obstacles and problems remain to be tackled in order to reach IoT’s maximum potential. These problems and concerns must be taken into consideration in different areas of the IoT, such as implementation in remote areas, threats to the system, development support, social and environmental impacts, etc. This paper reviews the current state of the art in different IoT architectures, with a focus on current technologies, applications, challenges, IoT protocols, and opportunities. As a result, a detailed taxonomy of IoT is presented here which includes interoperability, scalability, security and energy efficiency, among other things. Moreover, the significance of blockchains and big data as well as their analysis in relation to IoT, is discussed. This article aims to help readers and researchers understand the IoT and its applicability to the real world. Full article
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