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Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sustainability and Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019) | Viewed by 35799

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK
Interests: biomass waste/other waste characterisation, pre-treatments and alternative ways of exploitation; thermochemical treatments (carbonization-torrefaction-pyrolysis-gasification-combustion) of food-woody biomass waste, fossil fuels and other waste for waste to energy (WtE), bioenergy-biofuels, biochar production; bioenergy/solid-gaseous biofuels systems design/repurposing of existing technologies to adapt new types of waste to fuels/feedstock; advanced cycles and alternative processes for biomass, fossil fuels and waste exploitation for biofuels-bioenergy-biochars under the circular economy scenario; combined renewable energy sources (RES) energy production systems, emphasized in lignocellulosic biomass/other waste sources for net zero carbon centralised and decentralized solutions; 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation feedstock for biofuels production; biorefineries/waste-refineries and integration of thermochemical and biochemical processing routes of biomass/waste; artificial intelligence (AI)
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Co-Guest Editor
Laboratory of Environmental Fuels & Hydrocarbons - LEFH, Chemical Process & Energy Resources Institute - CPERI, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas - CERTH, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: biorefinery; bio-fuels; energy; environmental science; chemical engineering

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Co-Guest Editor
Chemical Process & Energy Resources Research Institute– CPERI, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas – CERTH, 6th km Harilaou-Thermi Rd., 57001 Thermi-Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: catalytic hydrotreating and hydrocracking of lipids (vegetable oils, waste oils, micro-algal oils) for the production of paraffinic fuels; upgrading of pyrolysis biooil via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation; hydrothermal liquefaction of bio-based feedstocks; experimental evaluation of hydrodesulfurization and hydrocracking catalysts; statistical modeling for monitoring catalytic hydrotreating processes; oxidation and decomposition mechanisms of FAME biodiesel in diesel engines; sustainability assessment of bioethanol and biodiesel production processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Waste produced upstream and/or downstream from bioenergy generation and the biofuels production sector could be useful as value added feedstock for supplementary support of other relevant sectors under a wider circular waste-economy scenario. A wide range of end users, from small to medium and large scale applications, e.g., fertilizers, food supplements production, building sector, low grade process heat, greenhouses to future breakthroughs, such as nanocarbon fibers and other relevant fields could be benefited from the advances in the field.

Aim of this Special Issue is to shade light not only on production routes, nature and properties of such waste but also their upgrading routes and their sustainability. Such waste management is also one of the most multi-disciplinary fields encompassing a large number of sciences from business–economics and logistics, chemistry, mechanical–chemical engineering, social and environmental sciences, governance–sustainability assessment policies to other closely-related areas.

This Special Issue focuses on nature, properties, upgrading processes of bioenergy–biofuels originated waste to value added feedstock. Overviews of the international ongoing and collaborative research projects, technology transfer and policies development in the field are also welcome. A multi-disciplinary approach in order to examine, explore and critically engage with issues, advances and barriers of the attempt are also encouraged.

Dr. Vasiliki Skoulou
Dr. Panayiota Manara
Dr. Stella Bezergianni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Solid, Liquid, Gaseous Waste
  • Bioenergy–Biofuels by-products
  • Upgrading processes of waste
  • Nature and properties of waste
  • Carbonaceous materials
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Economical Sustainability
  • Social Sustainability
  • Circular Economy
  • Bio-refineries
  • Feasibility

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 3227 KiB  
Article
Towards Circular Economy Solutions for The Management of Rice Processing Residues to Bioenergy via Gasification
by I. Vaskalis, V. Skoulou, G. Stavropoulos and A. Zabaniotou
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6433; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226433 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5895
Abstract
A techno-economic assessment of two circular economy scenarios related to fluidized bed gasification-based systems for combined heat and power (CHP) generation, fueled with rice processing wastes, was conducted. In the first scenario, a gasification unit with 42,700 t/y rice husks capacity provided a [...] Read more.
A techno-economic assessment of two circular economy scenarios related to fluidized bed gasification-based systems for combined heat and power (CHP) generation, fueled with rice processing wastes, was conducted. In the first scenario, a gasification unit with 42,700 t/y rice husks capacity provided a waste management industrial symbiosis solution for five small rice-processing companies (SMEs), located at the same area. In the second scenario, a unit of 18,300 t/y rice husks capacity provided a waste management solution to only one rice processing company at the place of waste generation, as a custom-made solution. The first scenario of a cooperative industrial symbiosis approach is the most economically viable, with an annual revenue of 168 €/(t×y) of treated rice husks, a very good payout time (POT = 1.05), and return in investment (ROI = 0.72). The techno-economic assessment was based on experiments performed at a laboratory-scale gasification rig, and on technological configurations of the SMARt-CHP system, a decentralized bioenergy generation system developed at Aristotle University, Greece. The experimental proof of concept of rice husks gasification was studied at a temperature range of 700 to 900 °C, under an under-stoichiometric ratio of O2/N2 (10/90 v/v) as the gasification agent. Producer gas’s Lower Heating Value (LHV) maximized at 800 °C (10.9 MJ/Nm3), while the char’s Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET) surface reached a max of 146 m2/g at 900 °C. Recommendations were provided for a pretreatment of rice husks in order to minimize de-fluidization problems of the gasification system due to Si-rich ash. With the application of this model, simultaneous utilization and processing of waste flows from various rice value chain can be achieved towards improving environmental performance of the companies and producing energy and fertilizer by using waste as a fuel and resource with value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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18 pages, 2511 KiB  
Article
Lipid-Extracted Algae as a Soil Amendment Can Increase Soil Salinization and Reduce Forage Growth
by Katie L. Lewis, Jamie L. Foster and Frank M. Hons
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071946 - 2 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
Algae as a biodiesel feedstock are more productive per unit area than traditional feedstock options, but currently algae production is not economical without high-value co-products. Lipid-extracted algae (LEA) may be useful as a soil amendment; however, research is needed to determine the feasibility [...] Read more.
Algae as a biodiesel feedstock are more productive per unit area than traditional feedstock options, but currently algae production is not economical without high-value co-products. Lipid-extracted algae (LEA) may be useful as a soil amendment; however, research is needed to determine the feasibility and management strategies required. The objective was to determine salinity-associated effects of LEA as a soil amendment on a range of salt tolerant forages [foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), and a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)]. Forage seed were planted in columns containing sandy clay loam soil amended with the following: (1) control [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer added], (2) 1.5% LEA by weight, (3) 3.0% LEA, (4) 1.5% LEA + 1.5% wheat straw (WS), and (5) 1.5% WS (+N, +P). Seedling emergence and total herbage mass (HM) from sequential harvests was determined, along with forage mineral uptake. Soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were analyzed after the final harvest. Seedling emergence of pearl millet was negatively affected by LEA application, but not foxtail millet or sorghum-sudangrass. Pearl millet emergence was most reduced in 3.0% LEA treated soil, however, this treatment produced greater HM by the third harvest. Soil pH and EC were greater in 3.0% LEA-treated soil than the control and 1.5% WS treatment. Production of salt tolerant forages such as sorghum-sudangrass is possible in LEA-amended soil; however, with repeated applications soil salinity may reduce productivity and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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15 pages, 1902 KiB  
Article
Biodiesel and Crude Glycerol from Waste Frying Oil: Production, Characterization and Evaluation of Biodiesel Oxidative Stability with Diesel Blends
by Mariem Harabi, Soumaya Neji Bouguerra, Fatma Marrakchi, Loukia P. Chrysikou, Stella Bezergianni and Mohamed Bouaziz
Sustainability 2019, 11(7), 1937; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071937 - 1 Apr 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5759
Abstract
Waste oils are becoming increasingly more important as feedstock for the production of fuels and glycerol as byproduct. Optimization of homogeneous transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO) to biodiesel over hydroxide potassium (KOH) catalyst have been investigated. In this respect, response surface methodology [...] Read more.
Waste oils are becoming increasingly more important as feedstock for the production of fuels and glycerol as byproduct. Optimization of homogeneous transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO) to biodiesel over hydroxide potassium (KOH) catalyst have been investigated. In this respect, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the relationships between methanol and WFO molar ratio (3:1–12:1), KOH concentration (0.5%–2%) and temperature (25–65 °C) on the conversion yield. Transesterification of WFO produced 96.33% maximum methyl ester yield at the optimum methanol/WFO molar ratio 7.3:1, KOH loading 0.5 wt. % and the reaction temperature was 58.30 °C. The physicochemical properties of optimized biodiesel met the requirements of the European Norm 14214, such as kinematic viscosity at 40 °C 4.57 mm/s2, the sulfur content 0.005 wt. %, and the density at 15 °C 889.3 kg/m3. This study also examined the accelerated oxidation of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends under combined temperature and air effect at different periods of time while measuring their acidity. Results have shown that total acid number increased proportionally to the biodiesel content of the biodiesel/diesel blends from 0.5 mgKOH/g for B7 (7% (v/v) biodiesel and 93% (v/v) diesel) up to 2.8 mg KOH/g for B100 (100% biodiesel). The synthesized trans-esterified oil can be a potential alternative to petrodiesel, hence its application at an industrial scale. This work also reports some properties of crude glycerol (CG) derived from biodiesel from WFO. The glycerol yield (%), pH, water content (wt. %), density at 15 °C (g/cm3), and kinematic viscosity at 40 °C (mm2/s) was analyzed according to standard test methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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12 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Public Value of Marine Biodiesel Technology Development in South Korea
by Joseph Kim, Hyo-Jin Kim and Seung-Hoon Yoo
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4252; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114252 - 17 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
Biodiesel (BD) is often regarded as a carbon-neutral fuel. Many countries are investing resources in biodiesel technology development to respond to the need to improve energy sustainability and the threat of climate change. Since 2009, the South Korean Government has invested a considerable [...] Read more.
Biodiesel (BD) is often regarded as a carbon-neutral fuel. Many countries are investing resources in biodiesel technology development to respond to the need to improve energy sustainability and the threat of climate change. Since 2009, the South Korean Government has invested a considerable amount of money in developing marine BD (MBD) technology that converts carbon dioxide into diesel using marine microalgae cultivated in large quantities with the help of waste heat from nuclear power plants and/or coal-fired power plants. If the development is successful, 4800 tons of MBD a year, approximately 1820 cars fully fueled annually, will be produced from 2019. Furthermore, the South Korean Government is expected to continue to invest in MBD to improve the market share after 2019. Quantitative information about the public value of MBD technology development is widely demanded by the Government. This study aims to investigate the public value of MBD technology, the attributes of which it considers to be the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the mitigation of air pollutant emissions, new job creation, and the improvement of energy security. A choice experiment (CE) survey of 600 people was conducted during July 2016. The trade-offs among the attributes and the price were evaluated in the survey. The CE data were examined through a multinomial logit model. The marginal values for a 1%p reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, 1%p mitigation of air pollutant emissions, the creation of 100 new jobs, and an improvement of energy security caused by MBD technology development are computed to be KRW 1082.7 (USD 0.9), 918.1 (0.8), and 258.3 (0.2) per household per month, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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19 pages, 4712 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Biomass Hydrolysis Waste: Activated Carbon from Humins as Exceptional Sorbent for Wastewater Treatment
by Shimin Kang, Jinxia Fu, Zhituan Deng, Shaohui Jiang, Guoyu Zhong, Yongjun Xu, Jianfeng Guo and Jingwen Zhou
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061795 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3917
Abstract
Humins, waste from biomass hydrolysis, are the main factor limiting the utilization efficiency of biomass carbon. In the present study, waste humins were employed for activated carbon production though KOH activation in a temperature range of 500–900 °C. The structure and properties of [...] Read more.
Humins, waste from biomass hydrolysis, are the main factor limiting the utilization efficiency of biomass carbon. In the present study, waste humins were employed for activated carbon production though KOH activation in a temperature range of 500–900 °C. The structure and properties of the activated carbons were studied, and a honeycomb-like macropore structure was observed. High activation temperature was demonstrated to be capable of promoting the formation of activated carbon with high surface area, high pore volume and high adsorption capacity. The activated carbon obtained by carbonization at 800 °C (KOH800) was selected as sorbent to adsorb methylene blue (MB) and phenol in aqueous solution, and the adsorption process can be explained by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption behavior complies with Langmuir isotherm model and exhibits superior adsorption capacity of 1195 and 218 mg/g for MB and phenol, respectively. The impacts of surface area, acidic active sites and pore structures were also investigated, and it was found that the adsorption of approximately 44.0% MB and 39.7% phenol were contributed by the pores with apertures from 1.7 nm to 300 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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Review

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27 pages, 5063 KiB  
Review
Choosing Physical, Physicochemical and Chemical Methods of Pre-Treating Lignocellulosic Wastes to Repurpose into Solid Fuels
by Martin J. Taylor, Hassan A. Alabdrabalameer and Vasiliki Skoulou
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3604; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133604 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 6702
Abstract
Various methods of physical, chemical and combined physicochemical pre-treatments for lignocellulosic biomass waste valorisation to value-added feedstock/solid fuels for downstream processes in chemical industries have been reviewed. The relevant literature was scrutinized for lignocellulosic waste applicability in advanced thermochemical treatments for either energy [...] Read more.
Various methods of physical, chemical and combined physicochemical pre-treatments for lignocellulosic biomass waste valorisation to value-added feedstock/solid fuels for downstream processes in chemical industries have been reviewed. The relevant literature was scrutinized for lignocellulosic waste applicability in advanced thermochemical treatments for either energy or liquid fuels. By altering the overall naturally occurring bio-polymeric matrix of lignocellulosic biomass waste, individual components such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can be accessed for numerous downstream processes such as pyrolysis, gasification and catalytic upgrading to value-added products such as low carbon energy. Assessing the appropriate lignocellulosic pre-treatment technology is critical to suit the downstream process of both small- and large-scale operations. The cost to operate the process (temperature, pressure or energy constraints), the physical and chemical structure of the feedstock after pre-treatment (decomposition/degradation, removal of inorganic components or organic solubilization) or the ability to scale up the pre-treating process must be considered so that the true value in the use of bio-renewable waste can be revealed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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13 pages, 2718 KiB  
Review
Dry Anaerobic Digestion Technologies for Agricultural Straw and Acceptability in China
by Yanran Fu, Tao Luo, Zili Mei, Jiang Li, Kun Qiu and Yihong Ge
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4588; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124588 - 4 Dec 2018
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7956
Abstract
Dry anaerobic digestion technology (DADT) is considered a highly feasible way to treat agricultural straw waste; however, most practical operations are always in low efficiency, due to the poor fluidity behavior and complex lignocellulosic structure of straw, which is not easily decomposed by [...] Read more.
Dry anaerobic digestion technology (DADT) is considered a highly feasible way to treat agricultural straw waste; however, most practical operations are always in low efficiency, due to the poor fluidity behavior and complex lignocellulosic structure of straw, which is not easily decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. Hence, it is necessary to further investigate the operation boundary, in order to increase biogas production efficiency for effective applications. In this paper, typical DADTs are reviewed and their suitability for application in China is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of different anaerobic digestion processes are evaluated considering pretreatment, organic loading rate, anaerobic digestion temperature, and homogenization of the feedstock and inoculate. The suitability of the DADTs is evaluated considering the accessibility of straw resources and the convenience of biogas use. It is concluded that batch anaerobic digestion processes would be more suitable for the development of southern China due to the prevalence of small-scale agriculture, while continuous anaerobic digestion would be preferable in the north where large-scale agriculture is common. However, the DADTs discussed here need to broad application in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels–Bioenergy Waste to Value Added Feedstock)
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