Special Issue "Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Md Rabiul Islam
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: renewable energy technologies; power electronics; electrical machines; smart grids; power quality; electrical vehicles
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy and the environment are the two foremost areas of global crisis. The world’s energy demand is growing remarkably due to the strong growth of population and economy in developing countries, which is not only diminishing the reserve of fossil fuels but also affecting the environment and hampering sustainability. Carbon dioxide gas is generated by burning fossil fuels, which significantly contributes to the increase of average global temperatures, i.e., global warming. The world’s scientists are looking forward to achieving sustainable development, that is, to generating renewable power for social development without affecting the environment. It is more and more broadly recognized that by using renewable energy, we can move towards a safe and sound environment. This can help us to minimize the carbon footprint on the environment. However, further extensive multiphysics research in the field of renewable power generation, grid integration, and storage is needed to develop next-generation renewable energy technologies for the widespread application of renewable energy to ensure sustainability. This Special Issue will serve to collect recent advancements in renewable energy technologies with a special emphasis on the efficient and reliable conversion, transmission, storage, and use of renewable energy towards a sustainable world. Prospective authors are invited to submit original contributions and survey papers in these areas.

Dr. Md Rabiul Islam
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Renewable energy
  • Sustainability
  • Conversion of renewable energy
  • Advanced control technique
  • Drives for renewable power generation systems
  • Grid integration of renewable sources
  • Green storage solution
  • Advanced electrical machines for renewable generation
  • Power electronics for renewable generation systems
  • Sustainable electric vehicles
  • Sustainable smart energy management
  • Sustainable power transmission system
  • Sensors for renewable power generation systems
  • Materials for renewable power generation systems
  • Sustainable renewable energy business model

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
An Adaptive Feed-Forward Phase Locked Loop for Grid Synchronization of Renewable Energy Systems under Wide Frequency Deviations
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 7048; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177048 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 485
Abstract
Synchronization is a crucial problem in the grid-connected inverter’s control and operation. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a typical grid synchronization strategy, which ought to have a high resistance to power system uncertainties since its sensitivity influences the generated reference signal. The traditional [...] Read more.
Synchronization is a crucial problem in the grid-connected inverter’s control and operation. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a typical grid synchronization strategy, which ought to have a high resistance to power system uncertainties since its sensitivity influences the generated reference signal. The traditional PLL catches the phase and frequency of the input signal via the feedback loop filter (LF). In general, to enhance the steady-state capability during distorted grid conditions generally, a filter tuned for nominal frequency is used. This PLL corrects large frequency deviations around the nominal frequency, which increases the PLL’s locking time. Therefore, this paper presents an adaptive feed-forward PLL, where the input signal frequency and phase under large frequency deviations are tracked precisely, which overcomes the above-mentioned limitations. The proposed adaptive PLL consists of a feedback loop that reduces the phase error. The feed-forward loop predicts the frequency and phase error, and the frequency adaptive FIR filter reduces the ripples in output, which is due to input distortions. The adaptive mechanism adjusts the gain of the filter in accordance with the supply frequency. This reduces the phase and frequency error and also decreases the locking time under wide frequency deviations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive feed-forward PLL, the system was tested under different grid abnormal conditions. Further, the stability analysis has been carried out via a developed prototype test platform in the laboratory. To bring the proposed simulations into real-time implementations and for control strategies, an Altera Cyclone II field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board has been used. The obtained results of the proposed PLL via simulations and hardware are compared with conventional techniques, and it indicates the superiority of the proposed method. The proposed PLL effectively able to tackle the different grid uncertainties, which can be observed from the results presented in the result section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
A Comparative Study of Supercapacitor-Based STATCOM in a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System for Regulating Power Quality Issues
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6781; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176781 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Renewable energy resources (RERs) play a vital role in reducing greenhouse gases, as well as balancing the power generation demand in daily life. Due to the high penetration of RERs and non-linear loads into utility power systems, various power quality issues arise, i.e., [...] Read more.
Renewable energy resources (RERs) play a vital role in reducing greenhouse gases, as well as balancing the power generation demand in daily life. Due to the high penetration of RERs and non-linear loads into utility power systems, various power quality issues arise, i.e., voltage drop, harmonic distortion, reactive power demand, etc. In order to handle these power quality issues, there is a need for smart flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. In this paper, a super capacitor energy storage system (SCESS)-based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is designed in order for the grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system to overcome the abovementioned power quality issues. A voltage controller and a d-q axis controller are used for the efficient performance of the STATCOM. In order to show the superiority of the supercapacitor, a detailed comparison is made between a battery energy storage system (BESS)-based STATCOM and a SCESS-based STATCOM. Four scenarios are studied to evaluate the performance of the proposed STATCOM design. The proposed SCESS-based STATCOM not only boosts the voltage but also stabilizes it from 368 V to 385 V (Ph-Phrms). The simulated results have confirmed that the proposed design is not only superior to a BESS-based STATCOM but also has the capability to overcome the power quality issues as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
GIS-Based Assessment of the Technical and Economic Feasibility of Utility-Scale Solar PV Plants: Case Study in West Kalimantan Province
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6283; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156283 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1231
Abstract
This paper presents a technical and economic feasibility assessment of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants in the West Kalimantan Province of Borneo, which is essential for boosting the development of solar PV plants in Indonesia. The assessment was performed based on a previously [...] Read more.
This paper presents a technical and economic feasibility assessment of utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) plants in the West Kalimantan Province of Borneo, which is essential for boosting the development of solar PV plants in Indonesia. The assessment was performed based on a previously developed geographical information systems (GIS) package that integrates satellite-derived data of solar irradiation with locally obtained data such as land usage, topography, road lines, and an electrical network. For the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility, annual energy production and electrical cost were calculated using an analysis tool that was integrated into a GIS package. The results show that more than 93% of the exploitable land that covers the area of 49,859 km2 is available for the development of solar PV plants, with an annual energy production higher than 180 GWh/km2 and an electricity cost lower than 0.05 USD/kWh, indicating the attractiveness of utility-scale solar PV plant development in West Kalimantan Province. A further detailed assessment of optimal sites shows that the selected sites are technically and economically feasible for the development of utility-scale solar PV plants. The approaches and results of this research should be valuable for energy planners, developers, and policy makers to set the strategies for promoting the development of utility-scale solar PV plants in pro of the sustainable development of Indonesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Optimization of Wind Turbine Interconnections in an Offshore Wind Farm Using Metaheuristic Algorithms
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5761; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145761 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Wind energy is currently one of the fastest-growing renewable energy sources in the world. For this reason, research on methods to render wind farms more energy efficient is reasonable. The optimization of wind turbine positions within wind farms makes the exploitation of wind [...] Read more.
Wind energy is currently one of the fastest-growing renewable energy sources in the world. For this reason, research on methods to render wind farms more energy efficient is reasonable. The optimization of wind turbine positions within wind farms makes the exploitation of wind energy more efficient and the wind farms more competitive with other energy resources. The investment costs alone for substation and electrical infrastructure for offshore wind farms run around 15–30% of the total investment costs of the project, which are considered high. Optimizing the substation location can reduce these costs, which also minimizes the overall cable length within the wind farm. In parallel, optimizing the cable routing can provide an additional benefit by finding the optimal grid network routing. In this article, the authors show the procedure on how to create an optimized wind farm already in the design phase using metaheuristic algorithms. Besides the optimization of wind turbine positions for more energy efficiency, the optimization methods of the substation location and the cable routing for the collector system to avoid cable losses are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Performance Analysis of a Compression Ignition Engine Using Mixture Biodiesel Palm and Diesel
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184918 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 789
Abstract
The present investigation analyzes the performance of a Hatz diesel engine that has 912 cubic centimeters (cc), stationary type, two cylinders, an air cooled feature and B10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), using a test bench to improve statistically the repeatability and [...] Read more.
The present investigation analyzes the performance of a Hatz diesel engine that has 912 cubic centimeters (cc), stationary type, two cylinders, an air cooled feature and B10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), using a test bench to improve statistically the repeatability and reproducibility of the runs. The experimental reference tests were carried out under defined conditions at a fixed speed of 1800 revolutions per minute (rpm) and four load levels: 35%, 50%, 65% and 80%. The repeatability analysis was based on the technical standard NTC-ISO / IEC17025. The variables of torque, fuel consumption (FC), air consumption (AC) and exhaust gas temperatures (EGT) showed an increase related with the load increase, showing a lower variation of AC and emissions. With the mechanism’s implementation of attenuator of air blows, adjustment mechanism for rpm and preheating air chamber for intake manifold, it was observed that the rpm presented the lowest statistical variability. The variables that presented the highest Pearson correlation with respect to the FC are the CO2, NOX and O2, this is because the engine does not have the Common Rail system, which causes the fuel supply to not be injected accurately and uniformly, therefore the evaluation of performance of the engine could not be repeatable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Implementation of Bioenergy Systems towards Achieving United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in Rural Bangladesh
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3814; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143814 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
This research presents a conceptual model to illustrate how people living in rural areas can harness bioenergy to create beneficial ‘community-driven’ income-generating activities. The research is contextualised within the rural developing areas of Bangladesh where people live in abject poverty and energy deficiency. [...] Read more.
This research presents a conceptual model to illustrate how people living in rural areas can harness bioenergy to create beneficial ‘community-driven’ income-generating activities. The research is contextualised within the rural developing areas of Bangladesh where people live in abject poverty and energy deficiency. The research methodology applied in this study aims to determine the basic requirements for implementing community-based anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities and illustrate how an AD facility positively impacts upon the lives of rural communities directly after its installation. The survey results demonstrate that implementing a biogas plant can save 1 h and 43 min of worktime per day for a rural family where women are generally expected to for cook (by the long-term tradition). In addition to the positive impacts on health and climate change through adoption of clean energy generation, this time saving could be utilised to improve women′s and children’s education. The research concludes that, by providing easy access to clean bioenergy, AD can change people’s quality of life, yielding major social, economic and environmental transformations; key benefits include: extending the working day; empowering women; reducing indoor air pollution; and improving people’s health and welfare. Each of these tangible benefits can positively contribute towards achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. This work demonstrates the potential to increase the implementation of AD systems in other developing world countries that have similar geographic and socioeconomic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Seasonal Correction of Offshore Wind Energy Potential due to Air Density: Case of the Iberian Peninsula
Sustainability 2019, 11(13), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133648 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
A constant value of air density based on its annual average value at a given location is commonly used for the computation of the annual energy production in wind industry. Thus, the correction required in the estimation of daily, monthly or seasonal wind [...] Read more.
A constant value of air density based on its annual average value at a given location is commonly used for the computation of the annual energy production in wind industry. Thus, the correction required in the estimation of daily, monthly or seasonal wind energy production, due to the use of air density, is ordinarily omitted in existing literature. The general method, based on the implementation of the wind speed’s Weibull distribution over the power curve of the turbine, omits it if the power curve is not corrected according to the air density of the site. In this study, the seasonal variation of air density was shown to be highly relevant for the computation of offshore wind energy potential around the Iberian Peninsula. If the temperature, pressure, and moisture are taken into account, the wind power density and turbine capacity factor corrections derived from these variations are also significant. In order to demonstrate this, the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale Model (WRF) using data assimilation was executed in the study area to obtain a spatial representation of these corrections. According to the results, the wind power density, estimated by taking into account the air density correction, exhibits a difference of 8% between summer and winter, compared with that estimated without the density correction. This implies that seasonal capacity factor estimation corrections of up to 1% in percentage points are necessary for wind turbines mainly for summer and winter, due to air density changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Inertia Provision and Small Signal Stability Analysis of a Wind-Power Generation System Using Phase-Locked Synchronized Equation
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1400; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051400 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The inertia and damping of the modern power system are consistently decreased when wind energy has a high penetration level into the grid. This paper proposes a novel solution through transforming the wind turbine generator into an equivalent motion equation mimicking the basic [...] Read more.
The inertia and damping of the modern power system are consistently decreased when wind energy has a high penetration level into the grid. This paper proposes a novel solution through transforming the wind turbine generator into an equivalent motion equation mimicking the basic characteristics of the synchronous generator (SG). This synchronized equation builds upon the phase-locked loop (PLL) model of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which characterizes the inertia constant, damping coefficient, and synchronizing torque. Thanks to this work, the dynamic performance of the inverter-based asynchronous generator could be analyzed from the perspective of the classical rotor motion equation. It further enables us to employ the analogy method to provide the DFIG with automated frequency response ability and to estimate the inertia constant quantitatively. Results also manifest that based on the synchronized equation, the PLL forms a power system stabilizer to enhance the power system oscillation. Hence, parameters tuning in PLL for coordinating inertia provision and damping enhancement are introduced. The contribution of this study lies in that the equivalent synchronized equation is established to optimize the system operation without alterations in the existing control structure of the DFIG. The theoretical analysis and the strategy are verified through the power system simulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Article
Fault Ride through Capability Augmentation of a DFIG-Based Wind Integrated VSC-HVDC System with Non-Superconducting Fault Current Limiter
Sustainability 2019, 11(5), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051232 - 26 Feb 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
This paper proposes a non-superconducting bridge-type fault current limiter (BFCL) as a potential solution to the fault problems of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) integrated voltage source converter high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission systems. As the VSC-HVDC and DFIG systems are vulnerable to AC/DC [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a non-superconducting bridge-type fault current limiter (BFCL) as a potential solution to the fault problems of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) integrated voltage source converter high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission systems. As the VSC-HVDC and DFIG systems are vulnerable to AC/DC faults, a BFCL controller is developed to insert sizeable impedance during the inception of system disturbances. In the proposed control scheme, constant capacitor voltage is maintained by the stator VSC (SVSC) controller, while current extraction or injection is achieved by rotor VSC (RVSC) controller. Current control mode-based active and reactive power controllers for an HVDC system are developed. Balanced and different unbalanced faults are applied in the system to show the effectiveness of the proposed BFCL solution. A DFIG wind-based VSC-HVDC system, BFCL, and their controllers are implemented in a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The performance of the proposed BFCL control strategy in DFIG-based VSC-HVDC system is compared with a series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR). Comparative RTDS implementation results show that the proposed BFCL control strategy is very efficient in improving system fault ride through (FRT) capability and outperforms SDBR in all cases considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Review

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Review
Analysis of the Possibilities for Using Renewable Energy Sources in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5645; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145645 - 14 Jul 2020
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze renewable energy sources (primarily untapped biomass potentials) in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in the Republic of Serbia, which, when used for energy purposes, could significantly reduce energy dependence on fossil fuels. The idea of [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to analyze renewable energy sources (primarily untapped biomass potentials) in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in the Republic of Serbia, which, when used for energy purposes, could significantly reduce energy dependence on fossil fuels. The idea of using biomass in Vojvodina emerged about ten years ago, but it is estimated that currently only 5% of total biomass potential, the most significant source of renewable energy in the region, is being used. This paper re-emphasizes the idea of focusing Vojvodina’s energy policy on its own energy resources, which are readily available and renewable, but each year is either burned in the fields or left to rot. The paper will outline the total potential of raw materials, the form in which they are found, and the possible means of utilizing them. It will also provide an overview of energy in Vojvodina with a particular focus on the portion of renewable sources as a neglected potential within overall energy consumption. In addition to energy potential, this paper also points to the benefits for heating and the environment that would be created through increased use of biomass in the process of energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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Review
Electrical Power Generation from the Oceanic Wave for Sustainable Advancement in Renewable Energy Technologies
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062178 - 11 Mar 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Recently, electrical power generation from oceanic waves is becoming very popular, as it is prospective, predictable, and highly available compared to other conventional renewable energy resources. In this paper, various types of nearshore, onshore, and offshore wave energy devices, including their construction and [...] Read more.
Recently, electrical power generation from oceanic waves is becoming very popular, as it is prospective, predictable, and highly available compared to other conventional renewable energy resources. In this paper, various types of nearshore, onshore, and offshore wave energy devices, including their construction and working principle, are explained explicitly. They include point absorber, overtopping devices, oscillating water column, attenuators, oscillating wave surge converters, submerged pressure differential, rotating mass, and bulge wave converter devices. The encounters and obstacles of electrical power generation from the oceanic wave are discussed in detail. The electrical power generation methods of the generators involved in wave energy devices are depicted. In addition, the vital control technologies in wave energy converters and devices are described for different cases. At present, piezoelectric materials are also being implemented in the design of wave energy converters as they convert mechanical motion directly into electrical power. For this reason, various models of piezoelectric material-based wave energy devices are illustrated. The statistical reports and extensive literature survey presented in this review show that there is huge potential for oceanic wave energy. Therefore, it is a highly prospective branch of renewable energy, which would play a significant role in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Renewable Energy Technologies for Sustainability)
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