sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Multi-Sensor Information Fusion

A topical collection in Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Viewed by 250947
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Editors

Artificial Intelligence College, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 10048, China
Interests: multisensor fusion; statistical signal processing; video/image processing; Bayesian theory; time series analysis; artificial intelligence; target tracking and dynamic analysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Yuan Gao
E-Mail
Collection Editor
Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China
Interests: information fusion; state estimation; modern time series analysis; system identification

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Information fusion techniques can integrate a large amount of data and knowledge, representing the same real-world object, and obtain a consistent, accurate and useful representation of that object. These data may be independent or redundant and can be obtained by different sensors at the same time, or at different times. A suitable combination of investigative methods can substantially increase the profit of information in comparison with that from a single sensor.

Multi-sensor information fusion has been a key issue in sensor research and has been applied in many fields, such as geospatial information systems, business intelligence, oceanography, discovery science, intelligent transport systems, and wireless sensor networks, etc. Recently, thanks to the vast developments in senor and computer memory technologies, more and more sensors are being used in practical systems and a large amount of measurement data is recorded and restored, which may actually be "time series big data". For example, sensors in machines and process control industries can generate a lot of data, which have real, actionable business value. The fusion of these data can greatly improve productivity through digitization.

The classical multi-sensor information fusion technique can effectively deal with a limited amount of sensor data, and can even obtain optimal results in real time. However, regarding "big series time data", we have to consider how to deal with the mass of sensor data in real-time processes, and how to model the multi-sensor system based on the huge amount of data, etc. The development of sensor systems has created many new challenges in multi-sensor information fusion theory and its application. Therefore, the innovations of information fusion still need to be studiously pursued in future research works.

The goal of this Special Issue is to report on innovative ideas and solutions for the methods of multi-sensor information fusion in the emerging applications era, focusing on development, adoption and applications.

Prof. Xue-Bo Jin
Dr. Yuan Gao
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tracking by the big data from multi-sensor system
  • Information (speech or image, etc.) fusion processing
  • Knowledge cognitive based on multi-sensor system
  • Fusion decision theory
  • Fusion estimation and control algorithms
  • Modeling by the big data from multi-sensor system
  • The structure and/or levels of multi-sensor fusion system
  • Uncertain information integration
  • Possibility theory and other reasoning methods
  • Remote sensing data processing
  • The basic theory of the information fusion
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) technology for multi-sensor fusion system

Published Papers (71 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

21 pages, 20734 KiB  
Article
DSA-Net: Infrared and Visible Image Fusion via Dual-Stream Asymmetric Network
Sensors 2023, 23(16), 7097; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23167097 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Infrared and visible image fusion technologies are used to characterize the same scene using diverse modalities. However, most existing deep learning-based fusion methods are designed as symmetric networks, which ignore the differences between modal images and lead to source image information loss during [...] Read more.
Infrared and visible image fusion technologies are used to characterize the same scene using diverse modalities. However, most existing deep learning-based fusion methods are designed as symmetric networks, which ignore the differences between modal images and lead to source image information loss during feature extraction. In this paper, we propose a new fusion framework for the different characteristics of infrared and visible images. Specifically, we design a dual-stream asymmetric network with two different feature extraction networks to extract infrared and visible feature maps, respectively. The transformer architecture is introduced in the infrared feature extraction branch, which can force the network to focus on the local features of infrared images while still obtaining their contextual information. The visible feature extraction branch uses residual dense blocks to fully extract the rich background and texture detail information of visible images. In this way, it can provide better infrared targets and visible details for the fused image. Experimental results on multiple datasets indicate that DSA-Net outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both qualitative and quantitative evaluations. In addition, we also apply the fusion results to the target detection task, which indirectly demonstrates the fusion performances of our method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Distributed Consensus Kalman Filter Design with Dual Energy-Saving Strategy: Event-Triggered Schedule and Topological Transformation
Sensors 2023, 23(6), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23063261 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
In the distributed information fusion of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the filtering accuracy is commonly negatively correlated with energy consumption. Therefore, a class of distributed consensus Kalman filters was designed to balance the contradiction between them in this paper. Firstly, an event-triggered schedule [...] Read more.
In the distributed information fusion of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the filtering accuracy is commonly negatively correlated with energy consumption. Therefore, a class of distributed consensus Kalman filters was designed to balance the contradiction between them in this paper. Firstly, an event-triggered schedule was designed based on historical data within a timeliness window. Furthermore, considering the relationship between energy consumption and communication distance, a topological transformation schedule with energy-saving is proposed. The energy-saving distributed consensus Kalman filter with a dual event-driven (or event-triggered) strategy is proposed by combining the above two schedules. The sufficient condition of stability for the filter is given by the second Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed filter was verified by a simulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4309 KiB  
Article
Research on Rapid and Low-Cost Spectral Device for the Estimation of the Quality Attributes of Tea Tree Leaves
Sensors 2023, 23(2), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23020571 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Tea polyphenols, amino acids, soluble sugars, and other ingredients in fresh tea leaves are the key parameters of tea quality. In this research, a tea leaf ingredient estimation sensor was developed based on a multi-channel spectral sensor. The experiment showed that the device [...] Read more.
Tea polyphenols, amino acids, soluble sugars, and other ingredients in fresh tea leaves are the key parameters of tea quality. In this research, a tea leaf ingredient estimation sensor was developed based on a multi-channel spectral sensor. The experiment showed that the device could effectively acquire 700–1000 nm spectral data of tea tree leaves and could display the ingredients of leaf samples in real time through the visual interactive interface. The spectral data of Fuding white tea tree leaves acquired by the detection device were used to build an ingredient content prediction model based on the ridge regression model and random forest algorithm. As a result, the prediction model based on the random forest algorithm with better prediction performance was loaded into the ingredient detection device. Verification experiment showed that the root mean square error (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2) in the prediction were, respectively, as follows: moisture content (1.61 and 0.35), free amino acid content (0.16 and 0.79), tea polyphenol content (1.35 and 0.28), sugar content (0.14 and 0.33), nitrogen content (1.15 and 0.91), and chlorophyll content (0.02 and 0.97). As a result, the device can predict some parameters with high accuracy (nitrogen, chlorophyll, free amino acid) but some of them with lower accuracy (moisture, polyphenol, sugar) based on the R2 values. The tea leaf ingredient estimation sensor could realize rapid non-destructive detection of key ingredients affecting tea quality, which is conducive to real-time monitoring of the current quality of tea leaves, evaluating the status during tea tree growth, and improving the quality of tea production. The application of this research will be helpful for the automatic management of tea plantations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018

16 pages, 689 KiB  
Article
Bifurcation Control on the Un-Linearizable Dynamic System via Washout Filters
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9334; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239334 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Information fusion integrates aspects of data and knowledge mostly on the basis that system information is accumulative/distributive, but a subtle case emerges for a system with bifurcations, which is always un-linearizable and exacerbates information acquisition and presents a control problem. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Information fusion integrates aspects of data and knowledge mostly on the basis that system information is accumulative/distributive, but a subtle case emerges for a system with bifurcations, which is always un-linearizable and exacerbates information acquisition and presents a control problem. In this paper, the problem of an un-linearizable system related to system observation and control is addressed, and Andronov–Hopf bifurcation is taken as a typical example of an un-linearizable system and detailed. Firstly, the properties of a linear/linearized system is upon commented. Then, nonlinear degeneracy for the normal form of Andronov–Hopf bifurcation is analyzed, and it is deduced that the cubic terms are an integral part of the system. Afterwards, the theoretical study on feedback stabilization is conducted between the normal-form Andronov–Hopf bifurcation and its linearized counterpart, where stabilization using washout-filter-aided feedback is compared, and it is found that by synergistic controller design, the dual-conjugate-unstable eigenvalues can be stabilized by single stable washout filter. Finally, the high-dimensional ethanol fermentation model is taken as a case study to verify the proposed bifurcation control method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5363 KiB  
Article
Research on a Non-Contact Multi-Electrode Voltage Sensor and Signal Processing Algorithm
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8573; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218573 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Traditional contact voltage measurement requires a direct electrical connection to the system, which is not easy to install and maintain. The voltage measurement based on the electric field coupling plate capacitance structure does not need to be in contact with the measured object [...] Read more.
Traditional contact voltage measurement requires a direct electrical connection to the system, which is not easy to install and maintain. The voltage measurement based on the electric field coupling plate capacitance structure does not need to be in contact with the measured object or the ground, which can avoid the above problems. However, most of the existing flat-plate structure voltage measurement sensors are not only expensive to manufacture, but also bulky, and when the relative position between the wire under test and the sensor changes, it will bring great measurement errors, making it difficult to meet actual needs. Aiming to address the above problems, this paper proposes a multi-electrode array structure non-contact voltage sensor and signal processing algorithm. The sensor is manufactured by the PCB process, which effectively reduces the manufacturing cost and process difficulty. The experimental and simulation results show that, when the relative position of the wire and the sensor is offset by 10 mm in the 45° direction, the relative error of the traditional single-electrode voltage sensor is 17.62%, while the relative error of the multi-electrode voltage sensor designed in this paper is only 0.38%. In addition, the ratio error of the sensor under the condition of power frequency of 50 Hz is less than ±1% and the phase difference is less than 4°. The experimental results show that the sensor has good accuracy and linearity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2921 KiB  
Article
Integrated Navigation Algorithm Based on Multiple Fading Factors Kalman Filter
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5081; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145081 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
An integrated navigation algorithm based on a multiple fading factors Kalman filter (MFKF) is proposed to solve the problems that the Kalman filtering (KF) algorithm easily brings about diffusion when the model becomes a mismatched or noisy, and the MFKF accuracy is reduced [...] Read more.
An integrated navigation algorithm based on a multiple fading factors Kalman filter (MFKF) is proposed to solve the problems that the Kalman filtering (KF) algorithm easily brings about diffusion when the model becomes a mismatched or noisy, and the MFKF accuracy is reduced when the fading factor is overused. Based on the innovation covariance theory, the algorithm designs an improved basis for judging filtering anomalies and makes the timing of the introduction of the fading factor more reasonable by switching the filtering state. Different from the traditional basis of filter abnormality judgment, the improved judgment basis adopts a recursive way to continuously update the estimated value of the innovation covariance to improve the estimation accuracy of the innovation covariance, and an empirical reserve factor for the judgment basis is introduced to adapt to practical engineering applications. By establishing an inertial navigation system (INS)/global navigation satellite system (GNSS) integrated navigation model, the results show that the average positioning accuracy of the proposed algorithm is improved by 26.52% and 7.48%, respectively, compared with the KF and MFKF, and shows better robustness and self-adaptability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5713 KiB  
Article
Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on NSCT, Pseudo 3D-DCT and NMF
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4752; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134752 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Video watermarking is an important means of video and multimedia copyright protection, but the current watermarking algorithm is difficult to ensure high robustness under various attacks. In this paper, a video watermarking algorithm based on NSCT, pseudo 3D-DCT and NMF has been proposed. [...] Read more.
Video watermarking is an important means of video and multimedia copyright protection, but the current watermarking algorithm is difficult to ensure high robustness under various attacks. In this paper, a video watermarking algorithm based on NSCT, pseudo 3D-DCT and NMF has been proposed. Combined with NSCT, 3D-DCT and NMF, the algorithm embeds the encrypted QR code copyright watermark into the NMF base matrix to improve the anti-attack ability of the watermark under the condition of invisibility. The experimental results show that the algorithm ensures the invisibility of the watermark with a high signal-to-noise ratio of the video, and meanwhile has high ability and robustness against common single and combined attacks, such as filtering, noise, compression, shear, rotation and so on. The issue that the video watermarking algorithm has poor resistance to various attacks, especially the shearing attack, has been solved in this paper; thus, it can be used for digital multimedia video copyright protection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Cramér-Rao Lower Bounds for Prediction and Smoothing of Nonlinear TASD Systems
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4667; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134667 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 898
Abstract
The performance evaluation of state estimators for nonlinear regular systems, in which the current measurement only depends on the current state directly, has been widely studied using the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (BCRLB). However, in practice, the measurements of many nonlinear systems are [...] Read more.
The performance evaluation of state estimators for nonlinear regular systems, in which the current measurement only depends on the current state directly, has been widely studied using the Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bound (BCRLB). However, in practice, the measurements of many nonlinear systems are two-adjacent-states dependent (TASD) directly, i.e., the current measurement depends on the current state as well as the most recent previous state directly. In this paper, we first develop the recursive BCRLBs for the prediction and smoothing of nonlinear systems with TASD measurements. A comparison between the recursive BCRLBs for TASD systems and nonlinear regular systems is provided. Then, the recursive BCRLBs for the prediction and smoothing of two special types of TASD systems, in which the original measurement noises are autocorrelated or cross-correlated with the process noises at one time step apart, are presented, respectively. Illustrative examples in radar target tracking show the effectiveness of the proposed recursive BCRLBs for the prediction and smoothing of TASD systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 363 KiB  
Article
Extended Object Tracking with Embedded Classification
by and
Sensors 2022, 22(6), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22062134 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel extended object tracking (EOT) approach with embedded classification. Traditionally, for extended objects, only tracking is addressed without considering classification. This has serious defects: On the one hand, some practical EOT problems require classification as an embedded subproblem; on [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel extended object tracking (EOT) approach with embedded classification. Traditionally, for extended objects, only tracking is addressed without considering classification. This has serious defects: On the one hand, some practical EOT problems require classification as an embedded subproblem; on the other hand, with the assistance of classification, the tracking performance can be improved. Therefore, we propose a systematic EOT method with embedded classification, which is desired to satisfy the practical demands and also enjoys superior tracking performance. Specifically, we first formulate the EOT problem with embedded classification by kinematic models and attribute models. Then, we explore a random-matrix-based, multiple model EOT method with embedded classification. Two strategies are creatively provided in which soft classification and hard classification are embedded, respectively. Especially for the EOT with hard classification, a sequential probability ratio-test-based classification scheme is explored due to its nice properties and adaptability to our problem. In both methods, classification assist tracking is used. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed EOT method with embedded classification, which can not only satisfy the practical requirements for classification but can also improve the tracking performance by utilizing the assistant of classification. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2020, 2019, 2018

22 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter for Target Tacking with Time-Varying Noise Covariance Based on Multi-Sensor Information Fusion
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5808; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175808 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
In this paper, an innovative optimal information fusion methodology based on adaptive and robust unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems is proposed. Based on the linear minimum variance criterion, this multi-sensor information fusion method has a two-layer architecture: at the [...] Read more.
In this paper, an innovative optimal information fusion methodology based on adaptive and robust unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for multi-sensor nonlinear stochastic systems is proposed. Based on the linear minimum variance criterion, this multi-sensor information fusion method has a two-layer architecture: at the first layer, a new adaptive UKF scheme for the time-varying noise covariance is developed and serves as a local filter to improve the adaptability together with the estimated measurement noise covariance by applying the redundant measurement noise covariance estimation, which is isolated from the state estimation; the second layer is the fusion structure to calculate the optimal matrix weights and gives the final optimal state estimations. Based on the hypothesis testing theory with the Mahalanobis distance, the new adaptive UKF scheme utilizes both the innovation and the residual sequences to adapt the process noise covariance timely. The results of the target tracking simulations indicate that the proposed method is effective under the condition of time-varying process-error and measurement noise covariance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3255 KiB  
Article
Sea Fog Dissipation Prediction in Incheon Port and Haeundae Beach Using Machine Learning and Deep Learning
Sensors 2021, 21(15), 5232; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21155232 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3147
Abstract
Sea fog is a natural phenomenon that reduces the visibility of manned vehicles and vessels that rely on the visual interpretation of traffic. Fog clearance, also known as fog dissipation, is a relatively under-researched area when compared with fog prediction. In this work, [...] Read more.
Sea fog is a natural phenomenon that reduces the visibility of manned vehicles and vessels that rely on the visual interpretation of traffic. Fog clearance, also known as fog dissipation, is a relatively under-researched area when compared with fog prediction. In this work, we first analyzed meteorological observations that relate to fog dissipation in Incheon port (one of the most important ports for the South Korean economy) and Haeundae beach (the most populated and famous resort beach near Busan port). Next, we modeled fog dissipation using two separate algorithms, classification and regression, and a model with nine machine learning and three deep learning techniques. In general, the applied methods demonstrated high prediction accuracy, with extra trees and recurrent neural nets performing best in the classification task and feed-forward neural nets in the regression task. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2338 KiB  
Review
RGB-D Data-Based Action Recognition: A Review
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4246; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124246 - 21 Jun 2021
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 7082
Abstract
Classification of human actions is an ongoing research problem in computer vision. This review is aimed to scope current literature on data fusion and action recognition techniques and to identify gaps and future research direction. Success in producing cost-effective and portable vision-based sensors [...] Read more.
Classification of human actions is an ongoing research problem in computer vision. This review is aimed to scope current literature on data fusion and action recognition techniques and to identify gaps and future research direction. Success in producing cost-effective and portable vision-based sensors has dramatically increased the number and size of datasets. The increase in the number of action recognition datasets intersects with advances in deep learning architectures and computational support, both of which offer significant research opportunities. Naturally, each action-data modality—such as RGB, depth, skeleton, and infrared (IR)—has distinct characteristics; therefore, it is important to exploit the value of each modality for better action recognition. In this paper, we focus solely on data fusion and recognition techniques in the context of vision with an RGB-D perspective. We conclude by discussing research challenges, emerging trends, and possible future research directions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 7638 KiB  
Article
SAFS: Object Tracking Algorithm Based on Self-Adaptive Feature Selection
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21124030 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2653
Abstract
Object tracking is one of the most challenging problems in the field of computer vision. In challenging object tracking scenarios such as illumination variation, occlusion, motion blur and fast motion, existing algorithms can present decreased performances. To make better use of the various [...] Read more.
Object tracking is one of the most challenging problems in the field of computer vision. In challenging object tracking scenarios such as illumination variation, occlusion, motion blur and fast motion, existing algorithms can present decreased performances. To make better use of the various features of the image, we propose an object tracking method based on the self-adaptive feature selection (SAFS) algorithm, which can select the most distinguishable feature sub-template to guide the tracking task. The similarity of each feature sub-template can be calculated by the histogram of the features. Then, the distinguishability of the feature sub-template can be measured by their similarity matrix based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP). The selection task of the feature sub-template is transformed into the classification task between feature vectors by the above process and adopt modified Jeffreys’ entropy as the discriminant metric for classification, which can complete the update of the sub-template. Experiments with the eight video sequences in the Visual Tracker Benchmark dataset evaluate the comprehensive performance of SAFS and compare them with five baselines. Experimental results demonstrate that SAFS can overcome the difficulties caused by scene changes and achieve robust object tracking. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method of Fault Detection and Identification in a Tightly Coupled, INS/GNSS-Integrated System
Sensors 2021, 21(9), 2922; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21092922 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Fault detection and identification are vital for guaranteeing the precision and reliability of tightly coupled inertial navigation system (INS)/global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-integrated navigation systems. A variance shift outlier model (VSOM) was employed to detect faults in the raw pseudo-range data in this [...] Read more.
Fault detection and identification are vital for guaranteeing the precision and reliability of tightly coupled inertial navigation system (INS)/global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-integrated navigation systems. A variance shift outlier model (VSOM) was employed to detect faults in the raw pseudo-range data in this paper. The measurements were partially excluded or included in the estimation process depending on the size of the associated shift in the variance. As an objective measure, likelihood ratio and score test statistics were used to determine whether the measurements inflated variance and were deemed to be faulty. The VSOM is appealing because the down-weighting of faulty measurements with the proper weighting factors in the analysis automatically becomes part of the estimation procedure instead of deletion. A parametric bootstrap procedure for significance assessment and multiple testing to identify faults in the VSOM is proposed. The results show that VSOM was validated through field tests, and it works well when single or multiple faults exist in GNSS measurements. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 42546 KiB  
Communication
Miniaturised Low-Cost Gamma Scanning Platform for Contamination Identification, Localisation and Characterisation: A New Instrument in the Decommissioning Toolkit
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082884 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2652
Abstract
Formerly clandestine, abandoned and legacy nuclear facilities, whether associated with civil or military applications, represent a significant decommissioning challenge owing to the lack of knowledge surrounding the existence, location and types of radioactive material(s) that may be present. Consequently, mobile and highly deployable [...] Read more.
Formerly clandestine, abandoned and legacy nuclear facilities, whether associated with civil or military applications, represent a significant decommissioning challenge owing to the lack of knowledge surrounding the existence, location and types of radioactive material(s) that may be present. Consequently, mobile and highly deployable systems that are able to identify, spatially locate and compositionally assay contamination ahead of remedial actions are of vital importance. Deployment imposes constraints to dimensions resulting from small diameter access ports or pipes. Herein, we describe a prototype low-cost, miniaturised and rapidly deployable ‘cell characterisation’ gamma-ray scanning system to allow for the examination of enclosed (internal) or outdoor (external) spaces for radioactive ‘hot-spots’. The readout from the miniaturised and lead-collimated gamma-ray spectrometer, that is progressively rastered through a stepped snake motion, is combined with distance measurements derived from a single-point laser range-finder to obtain an array of measurements in order to yield a 3-dimensional point-cloud, based on a polar coordinate system—scaled for radiation intensity. Existing as a smaller and more cost-effective platform than presently available, we are able to produce a millimetre-accurate 3D volumetric rendering of a space—whether internal or external, onto which fully spectroscopic radiation intensity data can be overlain to pinpoint the exact positions at which (even low abundance) gamma-emitting materials exist. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 27669 KiB  
Article
Non-Invasive Cattle Body Temperature Measurement Using Infrared Thermography and Auxiliary Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072425 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5446
Abstract
To achieve a sensitive and accurate method in body temperature measurement of cattle, this study explores the uses of infrared thermography (IRT), an anemometer, and a humiture meter as a multiple sensors architecture. The influence of environmental factors on IRT, such as wind [...] Read more.
To achieve a sensitive and accurate method in body temperature measurement of cattle, this study explores the uses of infrared thermography (IRT), an anemometer, and a humiture meter as a multiple sensors architecture. The influence of environmental factors on IRT, such as wind speed, ambient temperature, and humidity, was considered. The proposed signal processes removed the IRT frames affected by air flow, and also eliminated the IRT frames affected by random body movement of cattle using the frame difference method. In addition, the proposed calibration method reduced the impact of ambient temperature and humidity on IRT results, thereby increasing the accuracy of IRT temperature. The difference of mean value and standard deviation value between recorded rectal reference temperature and IRT temperature were 0.04 °C and 0.10 °C, respectively, and the proposed system substantially improved the measurement consistency of the IRT temperature and reference on cattle body temperature. Moreover, with a relatively small IRT image sensor, the combination of multiple sensors architecture and proper data processing still achieved good temperature accuracy. The result of the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.74 °C, which is quite close to the accurate result of the IRT measurement. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 64535 KiB  
Article
Panoramic Stereo Imaging of a Bionic Compound-Eye Based on Binocular Vision
Sensors 2021, 21(6), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21061944 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3269
Abstract
With the rapid development of the virtual reality industry, one of the bottlenecks is the scarcity of video resources. How to capture high-definition panoramic video with depth information and real-time stereo display has become a key technical problem to be solved. In this [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the virtual reality industry, one of the bottlenecks is the scarcity of video resources. How to capture high-definition panoramic video with depth information and real-time stereo display has become a key technical problem to be solved. In this paper, the optical optimization design scheme of panoramic imaging based on binocular stereo vision is proposed. Combined with the real-time processing algorithm of multi detector mosaic panoramic stereo imaging image, a panoramic stereo real-time imaging system is developed. Firstly, the optical optimization design scheme of panoramic imaging based on binocular stereo vision is proposed, and the space coordinate calibration platform of ultra-high precision panoramic camera based on theodolite angle compensation function is constructed. The projection matrix of adjacent cameras is obtained by solving the imaging principle of binocular stereo vision. Then, a real-time registration algorithm of multi-detector mosaic image and Lucas-Kanade optical flow method based on image segmentation are proposed to realize stereo matching and depth information estimation of panoramic imaging, and the estimation results are analyzed effectively. Experimental results show that the stereo matching time of panoramic imaging is 30 ms, the registration accuracy is 0.1 pixel, the edge information of depth map is clearer, and it can meet the imaging requirements of different lighting conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 7227 KiB  
Article
Blind Source Separation Method Based on Neural Network with Bias Term and Maximum Likelihood Estimation Criterion
Sensors 2021, 21(3), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21030973 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3367
Abstract
Convergence speed and steady-state source separation performance are crucial for enable engineering applications of blind source separation methods. The modification of the loss function of the blind source separation algorithm and optimization of the algorithm to improve its performance from the perspective of [...] Read more.
Convergence speed and steady-state source separation performance are crucial for enable engineering applications of blind source separation methods. The modification of the loss function of the blind source separation algorithm and optimization of the algorithm to improve its performance from the perspective of neural networks (NNs) is a novel concept. In this paper, a blind source separation method, combining the maximum likelihood estimation criterion and an NN with a bias term, is proposed. The method adds L2 regularization terms for weights and biases to the loss function to improve the steady-state performance and designs a novel optimization algorithm with a dual acceleration strategy to improve the convergence speed of the algorithm. The dual acceleration strategy of the proposed optimization algorithm smooths and speeds up the originally steep, slow gradient descent in the parameter space. Compared with competing algorithms, this strategy improves the convergence speed of the algorithm by four times and the steady-state performance index by 96%. In addition, to verify the source separation performance of the algorithm more comprehensively, the simulation data with prior knowledge and the measured data without prior knowledge are used to verify the separation performance. Both simulation results and validation results based on measured data indicate that the new algorithm not only has better convergence and steady-state performance than conventional algorithms, but it is also more suitable for engineering applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4912 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection and Identification Method for Quadcopter Based on Airframe Vibration Signals
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020581 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 4303
Abstract
Quadcopters are widely used in a variety of military and civilian mission scenarios. Real-time online detection of the abnormal state of the quadcopter is vital to the safety of aircraft. Existing data-driven fault detection methods generally usually require numerous sensors to collect data. [...] Read more.
Quadcopters are widely used in a variety of military and civilian mission scenarios. Real-time online detection of the abnormal state of the quadcopter is vital to the safety of aircraft. Existing data-driven fault detection methods generally usually require numerous sensors to collect data. However, quadcopter airframe space is limited. A large number of sensors cannot be loaded, meaning that it is difficult to use additional sensors to capture fault signals for quadcopters. In this paper, without additional sensors, a Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) method for quadcopter blades based on airframe vibration signals is proposed using the airborne acceleration sensor. This method integrates multi-axis data information and effectively detects and identifies quadcopter blade faults through Long and Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network models. Through flight experiments, the quadcopter triaxial accelerometer data are collected for airframe vibration signals at first. Then, the wavelet packet decomposition method is employed to extract data features, and the standard deviations of the wavelet packet coefficients are employed to form the feature vector. Finally, the LSTM-based FDI model is constructed for quadcopter blade FDI. The results show that the method can effectively detect and identify quadcopter blade faults with a better FDI performance and a higher model accuracy compared with the Back Propagation (BP) neural network-based FDI model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2019, 2018

24 pages, 3352 KiB  
Article
An Adaptive Filter for Nonlinear Multi-Sensor Systems with Heavy-Tailed Noise
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6757; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236757 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
Aiming towards state estimation and information fusion for nonlinear systems with heavy-tailed measurement noise, a variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information filter (VBST-CIF) is designed. Furthermore, a multi-sensor variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information feedback fusion (VBST-CIFF) algorithm is also derived. In the [...] Read more.
Aiming towards state estimation and information fusion for nonlinear systems with heavy-tailed measurement noise, a variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information filter (VBST-CIF) is designed. Furthermore, a multi-sensor variational Bayesian Student’s t-based cubature information feedback fusion (VBST-CIFF) algorithm is also derived. In the proposed VBST-CIF, the spherical-radial cubature (SRC) rule is embedded into the variational Bayes (VB) method for a joint estimation of states and scale matrix, degree-of-freedom (DOF) parameter, as well as an auxiliary parameter in the nonlinear system with heavy-tailed noise. The designed VBST-CIF facilitates multi-sensor fusion, allowing to derive a VBST-CIFF algorithm based on multi-sensor information feedback fusion. The performance of the proposed algorithms is assessed in target tracking scenarios. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed VBST-CIF/VBST-CIFF outperform the conventional cubature information filter (CIF) and cubature information feedback fusion (CIFF) algorithms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2102 KiB  
Article
Multi-Object Tracking Algorithm for RGB-D Images Based on Asymmetric Dual Siamese Networks
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6745; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236745 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2207
Abstract
Currently, intelligent security systems are widely deployed in indoor buildings to ensure the safety of people in shopping malls, banks, train stations, and other indoor buildings. Multi-Object Tracking (MOT), as an important component of intelligent security systems, has received much attention from many [...] Read more.
Currently, intelligent security systems are widely deployed in indoor buildings to ensure the safety of people in shopping malls, banks, train stations, and other indoor buildings. Multi-Object Tracking (MOT), as an important component of intelligent security systems, has received much attention from many researchers in recent years. However, existing multi-objective tracking algorithms still suffer from trajectory drift and interruption problems in crowded scenes, which cannot provide valuable data for managers. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a Multi-Object Tracking algorithm for RGB-D images based on Asymmetric Dual Siamese networks (ADSiamMOT-RGBD). This algorithm combines appearance information from RGB images and target contour information from depth images. Furthermore, the attention module is applied to repress the redundant information in the combined features to overcome the trajectory drift problem. We also propose a trajectory analysis module, which analyzes whether the head movement trajectory is correct in combination with time-context information. It reduces the number of human error trajectories. The experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper has better tracking quality on the MICC, EPFL, and UMdatasets than the previous work. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10827 KiB  
Article
A Global Interconnected Observer for Attitude and Gyro Bias Estimation with Vector Measurements
Sensors 2020, 20(22), 6514; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20226514 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel interconnected observer to get good estimates of attitude and gyro bias from high-noise vector measurements. The observer is derived based on the theory of nonlinear and linear cascade systems, and its error dynamics have the properties of global [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel interconnected observer to get good estimates of attitude and gyro bias from high-noise vector measurements. The observer is derived based on the theory of nonlinear and linear cascade systems, and its error dynamics have the properties of global exponential stability and robustness to bounded noise. These properties ensure the convergence and boundedness of the attitude and gyro bias estimation errors. To obtain higher estimation accuracy, an approach to calculate time-varying gains for the proposed auxiliary observer is designed under the premise of considering noise terms in the rate gyro and vector sensors. The simulation results show that when the vector sensors’ outputs contain high-level noise, the proposed observer with time-varying gains yields better performance in both the transient and steady-state phases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Analysis of Surface Roughness, Flank Wear and 5 Different Sensorial Data via Tool Condition Monitoring System in Turning of AISI 5140
Sensors 2020, 20(16), 4377; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20164377 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 4646
Abstract
Optimization of tool life is required to tune the machining parameters and achieve the desired surface roughness of the machined components in a wide range of engineering applications. There are many machining input variables which can influence surface roughness and tool life during [...] Read more.
Optimization of tool life is required to tune the machining parameters and achieve the desired surface roughness of the machined components in a wide range of engineering applications. There are many machining input variables which can influence surface roughness and tool life during any machining process, such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. These parameters can be optimized to reduce surface roughness and increase tool life. The present study investigates the optimization of five different sensorial criteria, additional to tool wear (VB) and surface roughness (Ra), via the Tool Condition Monitoring System (TCMS) for the first time in the open literature. Based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal design principle, the basic machining parameters cutting speed (vc), feed rate (f) and depth of cut (ap) were adopted for the turning of AISI 5140 steel. For this purpose, an optimization approach was used implementing five different sensors, namely dynamometer, vibration, AE (Acoustic Emission), temperature and motor current sensors, to a lathe. In this context, VB, Ra and sensorial data were evaluated to observe the effects of machining parameters. After that, an RSM (Response Surface Methodology)-based optimization approach was applied to the measured variables. Cutting force (97.8%) represented the most reliable sensor data, followed by the AE (95.7%), temperature (92.9%), vibration (81.3%) and current (74.6%) sensors, respectively. RSM provided the optimum cutting conditions (at vc = 150 m/min, f = 0.09 mm/rev, ap = 1 mm) to obtain the best results for VB, Ra and the sensorial data, with a high success rate (82.5%). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 6976 KiB  
Article
Average Consensus over Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Weight Matrix Guaranteeing Convergence without Reconfiguration of Edge Weights
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133677 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4578
Abstract
Efficient data aggregation is crucial for mobile wireless sensor networks, as their resources are significantly constrained. Over recent years, the average consensus algorithm has found a wide application in this technology. In this paper, we present a weight matrix simplifying the average consensus [...] Read more.
Efficient data aggregation is crucial for mobile wireless sensor networks, as their resources are significantly constrained. Over recent years, the average consensus algorithm has found a wide application in this technology. In this paper, we present a weight matrix simplifying the average consensus algorithm over mobile wireless sensor networks, thereby prolonging the network lifetime as well as ensuring the proper operation of the algorithm. Our contribution results from the theorem stating how the Laplacian spectrum of an undirected simple finite graph changes in the case of adding an arbitrary edge into this graph. We identify that the mixing parameter of Best Constant weights of a complete finite graph with an arbitrary order ensures the convergence in time-varying topologies without any reconfiguration of the edge weights. The presented theorems and lemmas are verified over evolving graphs with various parameters, whereby it is demonstrated that our approach ensures the convergence of the average consensus algorithm over mobile wireless sensor networks in spite of no edge reconfiguration. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 3300 KiB  
Article
Dam Safety Evaluation Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Evidence Theory
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092648 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Considering the multi-sources, heterogeneity and complexity of dam safety assessment, a dam safety assessment model based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and evidence theory is proposed to perform dam safety reliability evaluations. In the proposed model, the dynamic reliability based on the supporting [...] Read more.
Considering the multi-sources, heterogeneity and complexity of dam safety assessment, a dam safety assessment model based on interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set and evidence theory is proposed to perform dam safety reliability evaluations. In the proposed model, the dynamic reliability based on the supporting degree is applied to modify the data from homologous information. The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is used to describing the uncertainty and fuzziness between heterogeneous information. Evidence theory is employed to integrate the data from heterogeneous information. Finally, a multiple-arch dam undergoing structural reinforcement is taken as an example. The evaluation result before reinforcement shows that the safety degree of the dam is low and the potential risk is more likely to be located at the dam section #13. From the geological survey before reinforcement, there exist weak fracture zone and broken mud belt in the foundation of the dam section #13. The comparison between the evaluation results before and after reinforcement indicates that the dam become safer and more stable after reinforcement. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 23988 KiB  
Article
Semantic Segmentation of Natural Materials on a Point Cloud Using Spatial and Multispectral Features
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082244 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3034
Abstract
The characterization of natural spaces by the precise observation of their material properties is highly demanded in remote sensing and computer vision. The production of novel sensors enables the collection of heterogeneous data to get a comprehensive knowledge of the living and non-living [...] Read more.
The characterization of natural spaces by the precise observation of their material properties is highly demanded in remote sensing and computer vision. The production of novel sensors enables the collection of heterogeneous data to get a comprehensive knowledge of the living and non-living entities in the ecosystem. The high resolution of consumer-grade RGB cameras is frequently used for the geometric reconstruction of many types of environments. Nevertheless, the understanding of natural spaces is still challenging. The automatic segmentation of homogeneous materials in nature is a complex task because there are many overlapping structures and an indirect illumination, so the object recognition is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method based on fusing spatial and multispectral characteristics for the unsupervised classification of natural materials in a point cloud. A high-resolution camera and a multispectral sensor are mounted on a custom camera rig in order to simultaneously capture RGB and multispectral images. Our method is tested in a controlled scenario, where different natural objects coexist. Initially, the input RGB images are processed to generate a point cloud by applying the structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithm. Then, the multispectral images are mapped on the three-dimensional model to characterize the geometry with the reflectance captured from four narrow bands (green, red, red-edge and near-infrared). The reflectance, the visible colour and the spatial component are combined to extract key differences among all existing materials. For this purpose, a hierarchical cluster analysis is applied to pool the point cloud and identify the feature pattern for every material. As a result, the tree trunk, the leaves, different species of low plants, the ground and rocks can be clearly recognized in the scene. These results demonstrate the feasibility to perform a semantic segmentation by considering multispectral and spatial features with an unknown number of clusters to be detected on the point cloud. Moreover, our solution is compared to other method based on supervised learning in order to test the improvement of the proposed approach. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 22508 KiB  
Article
On Image Fusion of Ground Surface Vibration for Mapping and Locating Underground Pipeline Leakage: An Experimental Investigation
Sensors 2020, 20(7), 1896; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20071896 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4081
Abstract
This paper is concerned with imaging techniques for mapping and locating underground pipeline leakage. Ground surface vibrations induced by the propagating axisymmetric wave can be measured by an array of acoustic/vibration sensors, with the extraction of magnitude information used to determine the position [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with imaging techniques for mapping and locating underground pipeline leakage. Ground surface vibrations induced by the propagating axisymmetric wave can be measured by an array of acoustic/vibration sensors, with the extraction of magnitude information used to determine the position of leak source. A method of connected graph traversal is incorporated into the vibroacoustic technique to obtain the spatial image with better accuracy compared to the conventional magnitude contour plot. Measurements are made on a dedicated cast iron water pipe by an array of seven triaxial geophones. The spectral characteristics of the propagation of leak noise signals from underground water pipes to the ground surface are reported. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that suspicious leakage areas can be readily identified by extracting and fusing the feature patterns at low frequencies where leak noise dominates. The results agree well with the real leakage position in the underground pipeline. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2905 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Onboard 3D State Estimation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Multi-Environments Using Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030919 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4892
Abstract
The question of how to estimate the state of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in real time in multi-environments remains a challenge. Although the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has been widely applied, drones cannot perform position estimation when a GNSS signal is [...] Read more.
The question of how to estimate the state of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in real time in multi-environments remains a challenge. Although the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has been widely applied, drones cannot perform position estimation when a GNSS signal is not available or the GNSS is disturbed. In this paper, the problem of state estimation in multi-environments is solved by employing an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm to fuse the data from multiple heterogeneous sensors (MHS), including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a magnetometer, a barometer, a GNSS receiver, an optical flow sensor (OFS), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and an RGB-D camera. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the multi-sensor data fusion system based on the EKF algorithm are verified by field flights in unstructured, indoor, outdoor, and indoor and outdoor transition scenarios. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 2065 KiB  
Article
A Novel Evidence Conflict Measurement for Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Based on the Evidence Distance and Evidence Angle
Sensors 2020, 20(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20020381 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
As an important method for uncertainty modeling, Dempster–Shafer (DS) evidence theory has been widely used in practical applications. However, the results turned out to be almost counter-intuitive when fusing the different sources of highly conflicting evidence with Dempster’s combination rule. In previous researches, [...] Read more.
As an important method for uncertainty modeling, Dempster–Shafer (DS) evidence theory has been widely used in practical applications. However, the results turned out to be almost counter-intuitive when fusing the different sources of highly conflicting evidence with Dempster’s combination rule. In previous researches, most of them were mainly dependent on the conflict measurement method between the evidence represented by the evidence distance. However, it is inaccurate to characterize the evidence conflict only through the evidence distance. To address this issue, we comprehensively consider the impacts of the evidence distance and evidence angle on conflicts in this paper, and propose a new method based on the mutual support degree between the evidence to characterize the evidence conflict. First, the Hellinger distance measurement method is proposed to measure the distance between the evidence, and the sine value of the Pignistic vector angle is used to characterize the angle between the evidence. The evidence distance indicates the dissimilarity between the evidence, and the evidence angle represents the inconsistency between the evidence. Next, two methods are combined to get a new method for measuring the mutual support degree between the evidence. Afterward, the weight of each evidence is determined by using the mutual support degree between the evidence. Then, the weights of each evidence are utilized to modify the original evidence to achieve the weighted average evidence. Finally, Dempster’s combination rule is used for fusion. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and reasonability for the proposed method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 6005 KiB  
Article
A Multisensor Data Fusion Method Based on Gaussian Process Model for Precision Measurement of Complex Surfaces
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010278 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2585
Abstract
As multisensor measurement technology is rapidly applied in industrial production, one key issue is the data fusion procedure by combining several datasets from multiple sensors to obtain the overall geometric measurement. In this paper, a multisensor data fusion method based on a Gaussian [...] Read more.
As multisensor measurement technology is rapidly applied in industrial production, one key issue is the data fusion procedure by combining several datasets from multiple sensors to obtain the overall geometric measurement. In this paper, a multisensor data fusion method based on a Gaussian process model is proposed for complex surface measurements. A robust surface registration method based on the adaptive distance function is firstly used to unify the coordinate systems of different measurement datasets. By introducing an adjustment model, the residuals between several independent datasets from different sensors are then approximated to construct a Gaussian process model-based data fusion system. The proposed method is verified through both simulation verification and actual experiments, indicating that the proposed method can fuse multisensor measurement datasets with better fusion accuracy and faster computational efficiency compared to the existing method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2019

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018

17 pages, 5474 KiB  
Article
Extrinsic Calibration between Camera and LiDAR Sensors by Matching Multiple 3D Planes
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010052 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 7569
Abstract
This paper proposes a simple extrinsic calibration method for a multi-sensor system which consists of six image cameras and a 16-channel 3D LiDAR sensor using a planar chessboard. The six cameras are mounted on a specially designed hexagonal plate to capture omnidirectional images [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a simple extrinsic calibration method for a multi-sensor system which consists of six image cameras and a 16-channel 3D LiDAR sensor using a planar chessboard. The six cameras are mounted on a specially designed hexagonal plate to capture omnidirectional images and the LiDAR sensor is mounted on the top of the plates to capture 3D points in 360 degrees. Considering each camera–LiDAR combination as an independent multi-sensor unit, the rotation and translation between the two sensor coordinates are calibrated. The 2D chessboard corners in the camera image are reprojected into 3D space to fit to a 3D plane with respect to the camera coordinate system. The corresponding 3D point data that scan the chessboard are used to fit to another 3D plane with respect to the LiDAR coordinate system. The rotation matrix is calculated by aligning normal vectors of the corresponding planes. In addition, an arbitrary point on the 3D camera plane is projected to a 3D point on the LiDAR plane, and the distance between the two points are iteratively minimized to estimate the translation matrix. At least three or more planes are used to find accurate external parameters between the coordinate systems. Finally, the estimated transformation is refined using the distance between all chessboard 3D points and the LiDAR plane. In the experiments, quantitative error analysis is done using a simulation tool and real test sequences are also used for calibration consistency analysis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5358 KiB  
Article
Artificial Marker and MEMS IMU-Based Pose Estimation Method to Meet Multirotor UAV Landing Requirements
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5428; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245428 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3541
Abstract
The fully autonomous operation of multirotor unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in many applications requires support of precision landing. Onboard camera and fiducial marker have been widely used for this critical phase due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
The fully autonomous operation of multirotor unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in many applications requires support of precision landing. Onboard camera and fiducial marker have been widely used for this critical phase due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This paper proposes a six-degrees-of-freedom (DoF) pose estimation solution for UAV landing based on an artificial marker and a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU). The position and orientation of the landing maker are measured in advance. The absolute position and heading of the UAV are estimated by detecting the marker and extracting corner points with the onboard monocular camera. To achieve continuous and reliable positioning when the marker is occasionally shadowed, IMU data is fused by an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The error terms of the IMU sensor are modeled and estimated. Field experiments show that the positioning accuracy of the proposed system is at centimeter level, and the heading error is less than 0.1 degrees. Comparing to the marker-based approach, the roll and pitch angle errors decreased by 33% and 54% on average. Within five seconds of vision outage, the average drifts of the horizontal and vertical position were 0.41 and 0.09 m, respectively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Time-Domain Data Fusion Using Weighted Evidence and Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule: Application in Object Classification
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5187; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235187 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
To apply data fusion in time-domain based on Dempster–Shafer (DS) combination rule, an 8-step algorithm with novel entropy function is proposed. The 8-step algorithm is applied to time-domain to achieve the sequential combination of time-domain data. Simulation results showed that this method is [...] Read more.
To apply data fusion in time-domain based on Dempster–Shafer (DS) combination rule, an 8-step algorithm with novel entropy function is proposed. The 8-step algorithm is applied to time-domain to achieve the sequential combination of time-domain data. Simulation results showed that this method is successful in capturing the changes (dynamic behavior) in time-domain object classification. This method also showed better anti-disturbing ability and transition property compared to other methods available in the literature. As an example, a convolution neural network (CNN) is trained to classify three different types of weeds. Precision and recall from confusion matrix of the CNN are used to update basic probability assignment (BPA) which captures the classification uncertainty. Real data of classified weeds from a single sensor is used test time-domain data fusion. The proposed method is successful in filtering noise (reduce sudden changes—smoother curves) and fusing conflicting information from the video feed. Performance of the algorithm can be adjusted between robustness and fast-response using a tuning parameter which is number of time-steps( t s ). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
A Novel Subspace Alignment-Based Interference Suppression Method for the Transfer Caused by Different Sample Carriers in Electronic Nose
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 4846; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19224846 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
A medical electronic nose (e-nose) with 31 gas sensors is used for wound infection detection by analyzing the bacterial metabolites. In practical applications, the prediction accuracy drops dramatically when the prediction model established by laboratory data is directly used in human clinical samples. [...] Read more.
A medical electronic nose (e-nose) with 31 gas sensors is used for wound infection detection by analyzing the bacterial metabolites. In practical applications, the prediction accuracy drops dramatically when the prediction model established by laboratory data is directly used in human clinical samples. This is a key issue for medical e-nose which should be more worthy of attention. The host (carrier) of bacteria can be the culture solution, the animal wound, or the human wound. As well, the bacterial culture solution or animals (such as: mice, rabbits, etc.) obtained easily are usually used as experimental subjects to collect sufficient sensor array data to establish the robust predictive model, but it brings another serious interference problem at the same time. Different carriers have different background interferences, therefore the distribution of data collected under different carriers is different, which will make a certain impact on the recognition accuracy in the detection of human wound infection. This type of interference problem is called “transfer caused by different sample carriers”. In this paper, a novel subspace alignment-based interference suppression (SAIS) method with domain correction capability is proposed to solve this interference problem. The subspace is the part of space whose dimension is smaller than the whole space, and it has some specific properties. In this method, first the subspaces of different data domains are gotten, and then one subspace is aligned to another subspace, thereby the problem of different distributions between two domains is solved. From experimental results, it can be found that the recognition accuracy of the infected rat samples increases from 29.18% (there is no interference suppression) to 82.55% (interference suppress by SAIS). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Paradox Elimination in Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule with Novel Entropy Function: Application in Decision-Level Multi-Sensor Fusion
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4810; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214810 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
Multi-sensor data fusion technology in an important tool in building decision-making applications. Modified Dempster–Shafer (DS) evidence theory can handle conflicting sensor inputs and can be applied without any prior information. As a result, DS-based information fusion is very popular in decision-making applications, but [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor data fusion technology in an important tool in building decision-making applications. Modified Dempster–Shafer (DS) evidence theory can handle conflicting sensor inputs and can be applied without any prior information. As a result, DS-based information fusion is very popular in decision-making applications, but original DS theory produces counterintuitive results when combining highly conflicting evidences from multiple sensors. An effective algorithm offering fusion of highly conflicting information in spatial domain is not widely reported in the literature. In this paper, a successful fusion algorithm is proposed which addresses these limitations of the original Dempster–Shafer (DS) framework. A novel entropy function is proposed based on Shannon entropy, which is better at capturing uncertainties compared to Shannon and Deng entropy. An 8-step algorithm has been developed which can eliminate the inherent paradoxes of classical DS theory. Multiple examples are presented to show that the proposed method is effective in handling conflicting information in spatial domain. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has competitive convergence rate and accuracy compared to other methods presented in the literature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 9036 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Measurement Method of Four-View Stereo Vision Based on Gaussian Process Regression
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204486 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
Multisensor systems can overcome the limitation of measurement range of single-sensor systems, but often require complex calibration and data fusion. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of four-view stereo vision based on Gaussian process (GP) regression is proposed. Two sets of [...] Read more.
Multisensor systems can overcome the limitation of measurement range of single-sensor systems, but often require complex calibration and data fusion. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) measurement method of four-view stereo vision based on Gaussian process (GP) regression is proposed. Two sets of point cloud data of the measured object are obtained by gray-code phase-shifting technique. On the basis of the characteristics of the measured object, specific composite kernel functions are designed to obtain the initial GP model. In view of the difference of noise in each group of point cloud data, the weight idea is introduced to optimize the GP model, which is the data fusion based on Bayesian inference method for point cloud data. The proposed method does not require strict hardware constraints. Simulations for the curve and the high-order surface and experiments of complex 3D objects have been designed to compare the reconstructing accuracy of the proposed method and the traditional methods. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the traditional methods in measurement accuracy and reconstruction effect. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Multisensor Multi-Target Tracking Based on GM-PHD Using Out-Of-Sequence Measurements
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4315; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194315 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
In this paper, we study the issue of out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) in a multi-target scenario to improve tracking performance. The OOSM is very common in tracking systems, and it would result in performance degradation if we used it inappropriately. Thus, OOSM should be [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study the issue of out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) in a multi-target scenario to improve tracking performance. The OOSM is very common in tracking systems, and it would result in performance degradation if we used it inappropriately. Thus, OOSM should be fully utilized as far as possible. To improve the performance of the tracking system and use OOSM sufficiently, firstly, the problem of OOSM is formulated. Then the classical B1 algorithm for OOSM problem of single target tracking is given. Next, the random finite set (RFS)-based Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) is introduced. Consequently, we derived the equation for re-updating of posterior intensity with OOSM. Implementation of GM-PHD using OOSM is also given. Finally, several simulations are given, and results show that tracking performance of GM-PHD using OOSM is better than GM-PHD using in-sequence measurement (ISM), which can strongly demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1844 KiB  
Article
A Computational Framework for Data Fusion in MEMS-Based Cardiac and Respiratory Gating
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194137 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
Dual cardiac and respiratory gating is a well-known technique for motion compensation in nuclear medicine imaging. In this study, we present a new data fusion framework for dual cardiac and respiratory gating based on multidimensional microelectromechanical (MEMS) motion sensors. Our approach aims at [...] Read more.
Dual cardiac and respiratory gating is a well-known technique for motion compensation in nuclear medicine imaging. In this study, we present a new data fusion framework for dual cardiac and respiratory gating based on multidimensional microelectromechanical (MEMS) motion sensors. Our approach aims at robust estimation of the chest vibrations, that is, high-frequency precordial vibrations and low-frequency respiratory movements for prospective gating in positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and radiotherapy. Our sensing modality in the context of this paper is a single dual sensor unit, including accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to measure chest movements in three different orientations. Since accelerometer- and gyroscope-derived respiration signals represent the inclination of the chest, they are similar in morphology and have the same units. Therefore, we use principal component analysis (PCA) to combine them into a single signal. In contrast to this, the accelerometer- and gyroscope-derived cardiac signals correspond to the translational and rotational motions of the chest, and have different waveform characteristics and units. To combine these signals, we use independent component analysis (ICA) in order to obtain the underlying cardiac motion. From this cardiac motion signal, we obtain the systolic and diastolic phases of cardiac cycles by using an adaptive multi-scale peak detector and a short-time autocorrelation function. Three groups of subjects, including healthy controls (n = 7), healthy volunteers (n = 12), and patients with a history of coronary artery disease (n = 19) were studied to establish a quantitative framework for assessing the performance of the presented work in prospective imaging applications. The results of this investigation showed a fairly strong positive correlation (average r = 0.73 to 0.87) between the MEMS-derived (including corresponding PCA fusion) respiration curves and the reference optical camera and respiration belt sensors. Additionally, the mean time offset of MEMS-driven triggers from camera-driven triggers was 0.23 to 0.3 ± 0.15 to 0.17 s. For each cardiac cycle, the feature of the MEMS signals indicating a systolic time interval was identified, and its relation to the total cardiac cycle length was also reported. The findings of this study suggest that the combination of chest angular velocity and accelerations using ICA and PCA can help to develop a robust dual cardiac and respiratory gating solution using only MEMS sensors. Therefore, the methods presented in this paper should help improve predictions of the cardiac and respiratory quiescent phases, particularly with the clinical patients. This study lays the groundwork for future research into clinical PET/CT imaging based on dual inertial sensors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1843 KiB  
Article
Wasserstein Distance Learns Domain Invariant Feature Representations for Drift Compensation of E-Nose
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3703; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173703 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
Electronic nose (E-nose), a kind of instrument which combines with the gas sensor and the corresponding pattern recognition algorithm, is used to detect the type and concentration of gases. However, the sensor drift will occur in realistic application scenario of E-nose, which makes [...] Read more.
Electronic nose (E-nose), a kind of instrument which combines with the gas sensor and the corresponding pattern recognition algorithm, is used to detect the type and concentration of gases. However, the sensor drift will occur in realistic application scenario of E-nose, which makes a variation of data distribution in feature space and causes a decrease in prediction accuracy. Therefore, studies on the drift compensation algorithms are receiving increasing attention in the field of the E-nose. In this paper, a novel method, namely Wasserstein Distance Learned Feature Representations (WDLFR), is put forward for drift compensation, which is based on the domain invariant feature representation learning. It regards a neural network as a domain discriminator to measure the empirical Wasserstein distance between the source domain (data without drift) and target domain (drift data). The WDLFR minimizes Wasserstein distance by optimizing the feature extractor in an adversarial manner. The Wasserstein distance for domain adaption has good gradient and generalization bound. Finally, the experiments are conducted on a real dataset of E-nose from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The experimental results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the proposed method outperforms all compared drift compensation methods, and the WDLFR succeeds in significantly reducing the sensor drift. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 3926 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Fusion of Multi-Sensor Data for Monitoring a Pilot’s Workload Condition
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3629; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163629 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3726
Abstract
To realize an early warning of unbalanced workload in the aircraft cockpit, it is required to monitor the pilot’s real-time workload condition. For the purpose of building the mapping relationship from physiological and flight data to workload, a multi-source data fusion model is [...] Read more.
To realize an early warning of unbalanced workload in the aircraft cockpit, it is required to monitor the pilot’s real-time workload condition. For the purpose of building the mapping relationship from physiological and flight data to workload, a multi-source data fusion model is proposed based on a fuzzy neural network, mainly structured using a principal components extraction layer, fuzzification layer, fuzzy rules matching layer, and normalization layer. Aiming at the high coupling characteristic variables contributing to workload, principal component analysis reconstructs the feature data by reducing its dimension. Considering the uncertainty for a single variable to reflect overall workload, a fuzzy membership function and fuzzy control rules are defined to abstract the inference process. An error feedforward algorithm based on gradient descent is utilized for parameter learning. Convergence speed and accuracy can be adjusted by controlling the gradient descent rate and error tolerance threshold. Combined with takeoff and initial climbing tasks of a Boeing 737–800 aircraft, crucial performance indicators—including pitch angle, heading, and airspeed—as well as physiological indicators—including electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration, and eye movements—were featured. The mapping relationship between multi-source data and the comprehensive workload level synthesized using the NASA task load index was established. Experimental results revealed that the predicted workload corresponding to different flight phases and difficulty levels showed clear distinctions, thereby proving the validity of data fusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 21397 KiB  
Article
Robust Non-Rigid Feature Matching for Image Registration Using Geometry Preserving
Sensors 2019, 19(12), 2729; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19122729 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3363
Abstract
In this paper, a robust non-rigid feature matching approach for image registration with geometry constraints is proposed. The non-rigid feature matching approach is formulated as a maximum likelihood (ML) estimation problem. The feature points of one image are represented by Gaussian mixture model [...] Read more.
In this paper, a robust non-rigid feature matching approach for image registration with geometry constraints is proposed. The non-rigid feature matching approach is formulated as a maximum likelihood (ML) estimation problem. The feature points of one image are represented by Gaussian mixture model (GMM) centroids, and are fitted to the feature points of the other image by moving coherently to encode the global structure. To preserve the local geometry of these feature points, two local structure descriptors of the connectivity matrix and Laplacian coordinate are constructed. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to solve this ML problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach has better performance than current state-of-the-art methods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 14934 KiB  
Article
A Unified Multiple-Target Positioning Framework for Intelligent Connected Vehicles
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19091967 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3713
Abstract
Future intelligent transport systems depend on the accurate positioning of multiple targets in the road scene, including vehicles and all other moving or static elements. The existing self-positioning capability of individual vehicles remains insufficient. Also, bottlenecks in developing on-board perception systems stymie further [...] Read more.
Future intelligent transport systems depend on the accurate positioning of multiple targets in the road scene, including vehicles and all other moving or static elements. The existing self-positioning capability of individual vehicles remains insufficient. Also, bottlenecks in developing on-board perception systems stymie further improvements in the precision and integrity of positioning targets. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, which is fast becoming a standard component of intelligent and connected vehicles, renders new sources of information such as dynamically updated high-definition (HD) maps accessible. In this paper, we propose a unified theoretical framework for multiple-target positioning by fusing multi-source heterogeneous information from the on-board sensors and V2X technology of vehicles. Numerical and theoretical studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the framework proposed. With a low-cost global navigation satellite system (GNSS) coupled with an initial navigation system (INS), on-board sensors, and a normally equipped HD map, the precision of multiple-target positioning attained can meet the requirements of high-level automated vehicles. Meanwhile, the integrity of target sensing is significantly improved by the sharing of sensor information and exploitation of map data. Furthermore, our framework is more adaptable to traffic scenarios when compared with state-of-the-art techniques. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
An EKF-Based Fixed-Point Iterative Filter for Nonlinear Systems
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1893; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081893 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
In this paper, a fixed-point iterative filter developed from the classical extended Kalman filter (EKF) was proposed for general nonlinear systems. As a nonlinear filter developed from EKF, the state estimate was obtained by applying the Kalman filter to the linearized system by [...] Read more.
In this paper, a fixed-point iterative filter developed from the classical extended Kalman filter (EKF) was proposed for general nonlinear systems. As a nonlinear filter developed from EKF, the state estimate was obtained by applying the Kalman filter to the linearized system by discarding the higher-order Taylor series items of the original nonlinear system. In order to reduce the influence of the discarded higher-order Taylor series items and improve the filtering accuracy of the obtained state estimate of the steady-state EKF, a fixed-point function was solved though a nested iterative method, which resulted in a fixed-point iterative filter. The convergence of the fixed-point function is also discussed, which provided the existing conditions of the fixed-point iterative filter. Then, Steffensen’s iterative method is presented to accelerate the solution of the fixed-point function. The final simulation is provided to illustrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear filtering method. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 6150 KiB  
Article
Research about DoS Attack against ICPS
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071542 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3402
Abstract
This paper studies denial-of-services (DoS) attacks against industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) for which we built a proper ICPS model and attack model. According to the impact of different attack rates on systems, instead of directly studying the time delay caused by the attacks [...] Read more.
This paper studies denial-of-services (DoS) attacks against industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPSs) for which we built a proper ICPS model and attack model. According to the impact of different attack rates on systems, instead of directly studying the time delay caused by the attacks some security zones are identified, which display how a DoS attack destroys the stable status of the ICPS. Research on security zone division is consistent with the fact that ICPSs’ communication devices actually have some capacity for large network traffic. The research on DoS attacks’ impacts on ICPSs by studying their operation conditions in different security zones is simplified further. Then, a detection method and a mimicry security switch strategy are proposed to defend against malicious DoS attacks and bring the ICPS under attack back to normal. Lastly, practical implementation experiments have been carried out to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the method we propose. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3184 KiB  
Article
A New Image Registration Algorithm Based on Evidential Reasoning
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051091 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
Image registration is a crucial and fundamental problem in image processing and computer vision, which aims to align two or more images of the same scene acquired from different views or at different times. In image registration, since different keypoints (e.g., corners) or [...] Read more.
Image registration is a crucial and fundamental problem in image processing and computer vision, which aims to align two or more images of the same scene acquired from different views or at different times. In image registration, since different keypoints (e.g., corners) or similarity measures might lead to different registration results, the selection of keypoint detection algorithms or similarity measures would bring uncertainty. These different keypoint detectors or similarity measures have their own pros and cons and can be jointly used to expect a better registration result. In this paper, the uncertainty caused by the selection of keypoint detector or similarity measure is addressed using the theory of belief functions, and image information at different levels are jointly used to achieve a more accurate image registration. Experimental results and related analyses show that our proposed algorithm can achieve more precise image registration results compared to several prevailing algorithms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Kalman Filtering for Attitude Estimation with Quaternions and Concepts from Manifold Theory
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010149 - 03 Jan 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 9089
Abstract
The problem of attitude estimation is broadly addressed using the Kalman filter formalism and unit quaternions to represent attitudes. This paper is also included in this framework, but introduces a new viewpoint from which the notions of “multiplicative update” and “covariance correction step” [...] Read more.
The problem of attitude estimation is broadly addressed using the Kalman filter formalism and unit quaternions to represent attitudes. This paper is also included in this framework, but introduces a new viewpoint from which the notions of “multiplicative update” and “covariance correction step” are conceived in a natural way. Concepts from manifold theory are used to define the moments of a distribution in a manifold. In particular, the mean and the covariance matrix of a distribution of unit quaternions are defined. Non-linear versions of the Kalman filter are developed applying these definitions. A simulation is designed to test the accuracy of the developed algorithms. The results of the simulation are analyzed and the best attitude estimator is selected according to the adopted performance metric. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2018

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019

24 pages, 8050 KiB  
Article
Multi-Sensor Data Fusion for Real-Time Surface Quality Control in Automated Machining Systems
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4381; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124381 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 5023
Abstract
Multi-sensor data fusion systems entail the optimization of a wide range of parameters related to the selection of sensors, signal feature extraction methods, and predictive modeling techniques. The monitoring of automated machining systems enables the intelligent supervision of the production process by detecting [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor data fusion systems entail the optimization of a wide range of parameters related to the selection of sensors, signal feature extraction methods, and predictive modeling techniques. The monitoring of automated machining systems enables the intelligent supervision of the production process by detecting malfunctions, and providing real-time information for continuous process optimization, and production line decision-making. Monitoring technologies are essential for the reduction of production times and costs, and an improvement in product quality, discarding the need for post-process quality controls. In this paper, a multi-sensor data fusion system for the real-time surface quality control based on cutting force, vibration, and acoustic emission signals was assessed. A total of four signal processing methods were analyzed: time direct analysis (TDA), power spectral density (PSD), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and wavelet packet transform (WPT). Owing to the nonlinear and stochastic nature of the process, two predictive modeling techniques, multiple regression and artificial neural networks, were evaluated to correlate signal parametric characterization with surface quality. The results showed a high correlation of surface finish with cutting force and vibration signals. The signal processing methods based on signal decomposition in a combined time and frequency domain (SSA and WPT) exhibited better signal feature extraction, detecting excitation frequency ranges correlated to surface finish. The artificial neural network model obtained the highest predictive power, with better behavior for the whole data range. The proposed on-line multi-sensor data fusion provided significant improvements for in-process quality control, with excellent predictive power, reliability, and response times. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter with Unknown Variance of Measurement Noise
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124335 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the filtering problem caused by the inaccuracy variance of measurement noise in real nonlinear systems. A novel weighted fusion estimation method of multiple different variance estimators is presented to estimate the variance of the measurement noise. On this [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the filtering problem caused by the inaccuracy variance of measurement noise in real nonlinear systems. A novel weighted fusion estimation method of multiple different variance estimators is presented to estimate the variance of the measurement noise. On this basis, a hybrid adaptive cubature Kalman filtering structure is proposed. Furthermore, the information filter of the hybrid adaptive cubature Kalman filter is also studied, and the stability and filtering accuracy of the filter are theoretically discussed. The final simulation examples verify the validity and effectiveness of the hybrid adaptive cubature Kalman filtering methods proposed in this paper. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Observable Degree Analysis for Multi-Sensor Fusion System
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4197; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124197 - 30 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2965
Abstract
Multi-sensor fusion system has many advantages, such as reduce error and improve filtering accuracy. The observability of the system state is an important index to test the convergence accuracy and speed of the designed Kalman filter. In this paper, we evaluate different multi-sensor [...] Read more.
Multi-sensor fusion system has many advantages, such as reduce error and improve filtering accuracy. The observability of the system state is an important index to test the convergence accuracy and speed of the designed Kalman filter. In this paper, we evaluate different multi-sensor fusion systems from the perspective of observability. To adjust and optimize the filter performance before filtering, in this paper, we derive the expression form of estimation error covariance of three different fusion methods and discussed both observable degree of fusion center and local filter of fusion step. Based on the ODAEPM, we obtained their discriminant matrix of observable degree and the relationship among different fusion methods is given by mathematical proof. To confirm mathematical conclusion, the simulation analysis is done for multi-sensor CV model. The result demonstrates our theory and verifies the advantage of information fusion system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 13062 KiB  
Article
Gaussian Process Based Bayesian Inference System for Intelligent Surface Measurement
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114069 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3243
Abstract
This paper presents a Gaussian process based Bayesian inference system for the realization of intelligent surface measurement on multi-sensor instruments. The system considers the surface measurement as a time series data collection process, and the Gaussian process is used as mathematical foundation to [...] Read more.
This paper presents a Gaussian process based Bayesian inference system for the realization of intelligent surface measurement on multi-sensor instruments. The system considers the surface measurement as a time series data collection process, and the Gaussian process is used as mathematical foundation to establish an inferring plausible model to aid the measurement process via multi-feature classification and multi-dataset regression. Multi-feature classification extracts and classifies the geometric features of the measured surfaces at different scales to design an appropriate composite covariance kernel and corresponding initial sampling strategy. Multi-dataset regression takes the designed covariance kernel as input to fuse the multi-sensor measured datasets with Gaussian process model, which is further used to adaptively refine the initial sampling strategy by taking the credibility of the fused model as the critical sampling criteria. Hence, intelligent sampling can be realized with consecutive learning process with full Bayesian treatment. The statistical nature of the Gaussian process model combined with various powerful covariance kernel functions offer the system great flexibility for different kinds of complex surfaces. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Multitarget Tracking Algorithm Based on Adaptive Network Graph Segmentation in the Presence of Measurement Origin Uncertainty
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3791; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113791 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2770
Abstract
To deal with the problem of multitarget tracking with measurement origin uncertainty, the paper presents a multitarget tracking algorithm based on Adaptive Network Graph Segmentation (ANGS). The multitarget tracking is firstly formulated as an Integer Programming problem for finding the maximum a posterior [...] Read more.
To deal with the problem of multitarget tracking with measurement origin uncertainty, the paper presents a multitarget tracking algorithm based on Adaptive Network Graph Segmentation (ANGS). The multitarget tracking is firstly formulated as an Integer Programming problem for finding the maximum a posterior probability in a cost flow network. Then, a network structure is partitioned using an Adaptive Spectral Clustering algorithm based on the Nyström Method. In order to obtain the global optimal solution, the parallel A* search algorithm is used to process each sub-network. Moreover, the trajectory set is extracted by the Track Mosaic technique and Rauch–Tung–Striebel (RTS) smoother. Finally, the simulation results achieved for different clutter intensity indicate that the proposed algorithm has better tracking accuracy and robustness compared with the A* search algorithm, the successive shortest-path (SSP) algorithm and the shortest path faster (SPFA) algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4696 KiB  
Article
An Improved Yaw Estimation Algorithm for Land Vehicles Using MARG Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103251 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
This paper presents a linear Kalman filter for yaw estimation of land vehicles using magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensors. A gyroscope measurement update depending on the vehicle status and constraining yaw estimation is introduced. To determine the vehicle status, the correlations [...] Read more.
This paper presents a linear Kalman filter for yaw estimation of land vehicles using magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensors. A gyroscope measurement update depending on the vehicle status and constraining yaw estimation is introduced. To determine the vehicle status, the correlations between outputs from different sensors are analyzed based on the vehicle kinematic model and Coriolis theorem, and a vehicle status marker is constructed. In addition, a two-step measurement update method is designed. The method treats the magnetometer measurement update separately after the other updates and eliminates its impact on attitude estimation. The performances of the proposed algorithm are tested in experiments and the results show that: the introduced measurement update is an effective supplement to the magnetometer measurement update in magnetically disturbed environments; the two-step measurement update method makes attitude estimation immune to errors induced by magnetometer measurement update, and the proposed algorithm provides more reliable yaw estimation for land vehicles than the conventional algorithm. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1