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Article

Time-Domain Data Fusion Using Weighted Evidence and Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule: Application in Object Classification

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Indiana University—Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46224, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5187; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235187
Received: 26 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 22 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Sensor Information Fusion)
To apply data fusion in time-domain based on Dempster–Shafer (DS) combination rule, an 8-step algorithm with novel entropy function is proposed. The 8-step algorithm is applied to time-domain to achieve the sequential combination of time-domain data. Simulation results showed that this method is successful in capturing the changes (dynamic behavior) in time-domain object classification. This method also showed better anti-disturbing ability and transition property compared to other methods available in the literature. As an example, a convolution neural network (CNN) is trained to classify three different types of weeds. Precision and recall from confusion matrix of the CNN are used to update basic probability assignment (BPA) which captures the classification uncertainty. Real data of classified weeds from a single sensor is used test time-domain data fusion. The proposed method is successful in filtering noise (reduce sudden changes—smoother curves) and fusing conflicting information from the video feed. Performance of the algorithm can be adjusted between robustness and fast-response using a tuning parameter which is number of time-steps( t s ). View Full-Text
Keywords: evidence combination; time-domain data fusion; object classification; uncertainty evidence combination; time-domain data fusion; object classification; uncertainty
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.N.; Anwar, S. Time-Domain Data Fusion Using Weighted Evidence and Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule: Application in Object Classification. Sensors 2019, 19, 5187. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235187

AMA Style

Khan MN, Anwar S. Time-Domain Data Fusion Using Weighted Evidence and Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule: Application in Object Classification. Sensors. 2019; 19(23):5187. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235187

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Md Nazmuzzaman; Anwar, Sohel. 2019. "Time-Domain Data Fusion Using Weighted Evidence and Dempster–Shafer Combination Rule: Application in Object Classification" Sensors 19, no. 23: 5187. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235187

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