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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 2019 IMEKO TC-19 International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2020) | Viewed by 11762

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Eulalia Balestrieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
Interests: digital signal processing in telecommunications; data converter characterization; medical measurement; standardization; unmanned aerial systems (UASs)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Maurizio Demarte
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Italian Hydrographic Institute - Italian Navy, Italy
Interests: marine surveys, unnamed surface vehicles, aerial drones, remote sensing, hydro-oceanographic instrumentations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2019 IMEKO TC-19 International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea (http://www.metrosea.org/home) will be held in Genova, Italy, 3–5 October 2019.

MetroSea aims to gather people who work in developing instrumentation and measurement methods for the sea. Attention is paid but not limited to new technology for sea environment monitoring, metrology-assisted production in the sea industry, ship component measurement, sensors and associated signal conditioning for the sea, and calibration methods for electronic testing and measurement for marine applications.

Topics:

  • Electronic instrumentation for the sea;
  • Automatic test equipment for the sea;
  • Sensors and sensor sensing systems for sea applications;
  • Wireless sensor networks for marine applications;
  • Monitoring systems for the sea;
  • Metrology for navigation and precise positioning;
  • Measurements for submarine obstacle detection;
  • Underwater vehicles for exploration;
  • Pollution detection for reclamation;
  • Submarine infrastructure maintenance and reliability;
  • Signal and image processing;
  • Metrology and quality assurance for submarine soldering;
  • Weather forecasting and nowcasting for maritime navigation;
  • Measures for marine biology;
  • Measures for marine geology.

Authors of papers related to sensors presented at the workshop are invited to submit extended versions of their work to this Special Issue for publication.

Dr. Eulalia Balestrieri
Dr. Maurizio Demarte
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Quality Control and Pre-Analysis Treatment of the Environmental Datasets Collected by an Internet Operated Deep-Sea Crawler during Its Entire 7-Year Long Deployment (2009–2016)
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102991 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Deep-sea environmental datasets are ever-increasing in size and diversity, as technological advances lead monitoring studies towards long-term, high-frequency data acquisition protocols. This study presents examples of pre-analysis data treatment steps applied to the environmental time series collected by the Internet Operated Deep-sea Crawler [...] Read more.
Deep-sea environmental datasets are ever-increasing in size and diversity, as technological advances lead monitoring studies towards long-term, high-frequency data acquisition protocols. This study presents examples of pre-analysis data treatment steps applied to the environmental time series collected by the Internet Operated Deep-sea Crawler “Wally” during a 7-year deployment (2009–2016) in the Barkley Canyon methane hydrates site, off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada). Pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, flow, turbidity, and chlorophyll data were subjected to different standardizing, normalizing, and de-trending methods on a case-by-case basis, depending on the nature of the treated variable and the range and scale of the values provided by each of the different sensors. The final pressure, temperature, and electrical conductivity (transformed to practical salinity) datasets are ready for use. On the other hand, in the cases of flow, turbidity, and chlorophyll, further in-depth processing, in tandem with data describing the movement and position of the crawler, will be needed in order to filter out all possible effects of the latter. Our work evidences challenges and solutions in multiparametric data acquisition and quality control and ensures that a big step is taken so that the available environmental data meet high quality standards and facilitate the production of reliable scientific results. Full article
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Communication
Towards Naples Ecological REsearch for Augmented Observatories (NEREA): The NEREA-Fix Module, a Stand-Alone Platform for Long-Term Deep-Sea Ecosystem Monitoring
Sensors 2020, 20(10), 2911; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20102911 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Deep-sea ecological monitoring is increasingly recognized as indispensable for the comprehension of the largest biome on Earth, but at the same time it is subjected to growing human impacts for the exploitation of biotic and abiotic resources. Here, we present the Naples Ecological [...] Read more.
Deep-sea ecological monitoring is increasingly recognized as indispensable for the comprehension of the largest biome on Earth, but at the same time it is subjected to growing human impacts for the exploitation of biotic and abiotic resources. Here, we present the Naples Ecological REsearch (NEREA) stand-alone observatory concept (NEREA-fix), an integrated observatory with a modular, adaptive structure, characterized by a multiparametric video-platform to be deployed in the Dohrn canyon (Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea) at ca. 650 m depth. The observatory integrates a seabed platform with optoacoustic and oceanographic/geochemical sensors connected to a surface transmission buoy, plus a mooring line (also equipped with depth-staged environmental sensors). This reinforced high-frequency and long-lasting ecological monitoring will integrate the historical data conducted over 40 years for the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) at the station “Mare Chiara”, and ongoing vessel-assisted plankton (and future environmental DNA-eDNA) sampling. NEREA aims at expanding the observational capacity in a key area of the Mediterranean Sea, representing a first step towards the establishment of a bentho-pelagic network to enforce an end-to-end transdisciplinary approach for the monitoring of marine ecosystems across a wide range of animal sizes (from bacteria to megafauna). Full article
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Article
Compressive Sensing Approach to Harmonics Detection in the Ship Electrical Network
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092744 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The contribution of this paper is to show the opportunities for using the compressive sensing (CS) technique for detecting harmonics in a frequency sparse signal. The signal in a ship’s electrical network, polluted by harmonic distortions, can be modeled as a superposition of [...] Read more.
The contribution of this paper is to show the opportunities for using the compressive sensing (CS) technique for detecting harmonics in a frequency sparse signal. The signal in a ship’s electrical network, polluted by harmonic distortions, can be modeled as a superposition of a small number of sinusoids and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) basis forms its sparse domain. According to the theory of CS, a signal may be reconstructed from under-sampled incoherent linear measurements. This paper highlights the use of the discrete Radon transform (DRT) techniques in the CS scheme. In the reconstruction algorithm section, a fast algorithm based on the inverse DRT is presented, in which a few randomly sampled projections of the input signal are used to correctly reconstruct the original signal. However, DRT requires a very large set of measurements that can defeat the purpose of compressive data acquisition. To acquire the wideband data below the Nyquist frequency, the K-rank-order filter is applied in the sparse transform domain to extract the most significant components and accelerate the convergence of the solution. While most CS research efforts focus on random Gaussian measurements, the Bernoulli matrix with different values of the probability of ones is applied in the presented algorithm. Preliminary results of numerical simulation confirm the effectiveness of the algorithm used, but also indicate its limitations. A significant advantage of the proposed approach is the speed of analysis, which uses fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse FFT (IFFT) algorithms widely available in programming environments. Moreover, the data processing algorithm is quite simple, and therefore memory usage and burden of the data processing load are relatively low. Full article
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Article
Stepped Coastal Water Warming Revealed by Multiparametric Monitoring at NW Mediterranean Fixed Stations
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092658 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Since 2014, the global land and sea surface temperature has scaled 0.23 °C above the decadal average (2009–2018). Reports indicate that Mediterranean Sea temperatures have been rising at faster rates than in the global ocean. Oceanographic time series of physical and biogeochemical data [...] Read more.
Since 2014, the global land and sea surface temperature has scaled 0.23 °C above the decadal average (2009–2018). Reports indicate that Mediterranean Sea temperatures have been rising at faster rates than in the global ocean. Oceanographic time series of physical and biogeochemical data collected from an onboard and a multisensor mooring array in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Blanes submarine canyon, Balearic Sea) during 2009–2018 revealed an abrupt temperature rising since 2014, in line with regional and global warming. Since 2014, the oligotrophic conditions of the water column have intensified, with temperature increasing 0.61 °C on the surface and 0.47 °C in the whole water column in continental shelf waters. Water transparency has increased due to a decrease in turbidity anomaly of −0.1 FTU. Since 2013, inshore chlorophyll a concentration remained below the average (−0.15 mg·l−1) and silicates showed a declining trend. The mixed layer depth showed deepening in winter and remained steady in summer. The net surface heat fluxes did not show any trend linked to the local warming, probably due to the influence of incoming offshore waters produced by the interaction between the Northern Current and the submarine canyon. Present regional and global water heating pattern is increasing the stress of highly diverse coastal ecosystems at unprecedented levels, as reported by the literature. The strengthening of the oligotrophic conditions in the study area may also apply as a cautionary warning to similar coastal ecosystems around the world following the global warming trend. Full article
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Article
Towards Safety Improvement of Measurement and Control Signals Transmission in Marine Environment
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061668 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
This paper is dedicated to some aspects of maritime on-board safety improvement. The contribution of this article is a proposal to extend wireless communication on the ship, supported by examples of solutions that have not previously been used on board. Analyzed aspects concern [...] Read more.
This paper is dedicated to some aspects of maritime on-board safety improvement. The contribution of this article is a proposal to extend wireless communication on the ship, supported by examples of solutions that have not previously been used on board. Analyzed aspects concern the measurement and control signal transmission in hostile marine environment. A problem to solve is formulated, how to reduce a negative impact of this environment on effectiveness and reliability of maritime on board communication. The proposed ways for solving a problem under consideration cover recommendations concerning some aspects of ship construction and implementation of wireless sensor network. The main topic faced by the paper is concentrated on case study-based ZigBee as well as WiFi networks implementation in the area of the acquisition of data from sensors and measuring transducers connected to the terminal network. The exemplary implementation of ZigBee network, elaborated in Gdynia Maritime University is related, firstly, to the configuration of a simple wireless measurement and control channel, and secondly, to wireless communication channel supported by autonomously working microprocessor measurement and control system. WiFi networks were also tested in the same area of application. Finally, some concluding remarks are formulated. Full article
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Article
A Flexible Autonomous Robotic Observatory Infrastructure for Bentho-Pelagic Monitoring
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061614 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
This paper presents the technological developments and the policy contexts for the project “Autonomous Robotic Sea-Floor Infrastructure for Bentho-Pelagic Monitoring” (ARIM). The development is based on the national experience with robotic component technologies that are combined and merged into a new product for [...] Read more.
This paper presents the technological developments and the policy contexts for the project “Autonomous Robotic Sea-Floor Infrastructure for Bentho-Pelagic Monitoring” (ARIM). The development is based on the national experience with robotic component technologies that are combined and merged into a new product for autonomous and integrated ecological deep-sea monitoring. Traditional monitoring is often vessel-based and thus resource demanding. It is economically unviable to fulfill the current policy for ecosystem monitoring with traditional approaches. Thus, this project developed platforms for bentho-pelagic monitoring using an arrangement of crawler and stationary platforms at the Lofoten-Vesterålen (LoVe) observatory network (Norway). Visual and acoustic imaging along with standard oceanographic sensors have been combined to support advanced and continuous spatial-temporal monitoring near cold water coral mounds. Just as important is the automatic processing techniques under development that have been implemented to allow species (or categories of species) quantification (i.e., tracking and classification). At the same time, real-time outboard processed three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning has been implemented to increase mission autonomy capability, delivering quantifiable information on habitat features (i.e., for seascape approaches). The first version of platform autonomy has already been tested under controlled conditions with a tethered crawler exploring the vicinity of a cabled stationary instrumented garage. Our vision is that elimination of the tether in combination with inductive battery recharge trough fuel cell technology will facilitate self-sustained long-term autonomous operations over large areas, serving not only the needs of science, but also sub-sea industries like subsea oil and gas, and mining. Full article
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Article
Geochemical and Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrocarbon Seepage in the Adriatic Sea
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051504 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Hydrocarbon seepage is overlooked in the marine environment, mostly due to the lack of high-resolution exploration data. This contribution is about the set-up of a relocatable and cost-effective monitoring system, which was tested on two seepages in the Central Adriatic Sea. The two [...] Read more.
Hydrocarbon seepage is overlooked in the marine environment, mostly due to the lack of high-resolution exploration data. This contribution is about the set-up of a relocatable and cost-effective monitoring system, which was tested on two seepages in the Central Adriatic Sea. The two case studies are an oil spill at a water depth of 10 m and scattered biogenic methane seeps at a water depth of 84 m. Gas plumes in the water column were detected with a multibeam system, tightened to sub-seafloor seismic reflection data. Dissolved benthic fluxes of nutrients, metals and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) were measured by in situ deployment of a benthic chamber, which was used also for the first time to collect water samples for hydrocarbons characterization. In addition, the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as major and trace elements were analyzed to provide an estimate of hydrocarbon contamination in the surrounding sediment and to make further inferences on the petroleum system. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Spectrum Estimation Methods for the Accurate Evaluation of Sea State Parameters
Sensors 2020, 20(5), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20051416 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The monitoring of sea state conditions, either for weather forecasting or ship seakeeping analysis, requires the reliable assessment of the sea spectra encountered by the ship, either as a final result or intermediate step for the measurement of the relevant wave-motion parameters. In [...] Read more.
The monitoring of sea state conditions, either for weather forecasting or ship seakeeping analysis, requires the reliable assessment of the sea spectra encountered by the ship, either as a final result or intermediate step for the measurement of the relevant wave-motion parameters. In current analyses, different spectrum estimation methods, namely the Welch, Thomson and ARMA models, have been applied and compared based on a set of random wave signals, with different durations, representative of several sea state conditions. Subsequently, two sea spectrum reconstruction techniques were described and applied in order to detect the main sea state parameters, namely the significant wave height, the mean wave period and the spectrum peak enhancement factor. The performances of both spectral analysis and sea state reconstruction methods are discussed in order to provide some preliminary guidelines for practical application purposes. In this respect, based on current results, the Welch and Thomson methods seem to be the most promising techniques, combined with the nonlinear least-square reconstruction technique. Full article
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Article
Accuracy Analysis of Measuring X-Y-Z Coordinates with Regard to the Investigation of the Tombolo Effect
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041167 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Tombolo is a narrow belt connecting the mainland with an island lying near the shore. It is formed as a result of sand and gravel being deposited by sea currents. In consequence, the seabed constantly rises and the shoreline moves towards the sea. [...] Read more.
Tombolo is a narrow belt connecting the mainland with an island lying near the shore. It is formed as a result of sand and gravel being deposited by sea currents. In consequence, the seabed constantly rises and the shoreline moves towards the sea. This paper deals with accuracy analysis of the undertaken tombolo effect investigation, namely estimation of uncertainty of the measurement results. The aforementioned analysis concerns two methods used for creating a 3D beach model: Firstly, based on geodetic laser scanning (TLS—terrestrial laser scanning) and secondly, using images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The presented exemplary estimation of uncertainty of the measurement of coordinates X-Y-Z is based on the Polish case study. Full article
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