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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Stepped Coastal Water Warming Revealed by Multiparametric Monitoring at NW Mediterranean Fixed Stations

1
Instituto de Ciencias del Mar–CSIC, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Blanes–CSIC, 17300 Blanes, Spain
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Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, 80122 Naples, Italy
4
Coastal Dynamics Laboratory, Universidad del Mar, Puerto Ángel, 70902 Oaxaca, Mexico
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Department of Earth Sciences, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Chemistry and Biology, Hochschule Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, 65510 Idstein, Germany
7
Oceans Catalonia International SL, 17300 Blanes, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of the paper entitled “Stepped water warming effects on coastal ecosystem dynamics as monitored from fixed mooring stations in NW Mediterranean Sea” presented at 2019 IMEKO TC-19 International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea Genoa, Italy, October 3–5, 2019.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2658; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092658
Received: 15 March 2020 / Revised: 27 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 6 May 2020
Since 2014, the global land and sea surface temperature has scaled 0.23 °C above the decadal average (2009–2018). Reports indicate that Mediterranean Sea temperatures have been rising at faster rates than in the global ocean. Oceanographic time series of physical and biogeochemical data collected from an onboard and a multisensor mooring array in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Blanes submarine canyon, Balearic Sea) during 2009–2018 revealed an abrupt temperature rising since 2014, in line with regional and global warming. Since 2014, the oligotrophic conditions of the water column have intensified, with temperature increasing 0.61 °C on the surface and 0.47 °C in the whole water column in continental shelf waters. Water transparency has increased due to a decrease in turbidity anomaly of −0.1 FTU. Since 2013, inshore chlorophyll a concentration remained below the average (−0.15 mg·l−1) and silicates showed a declining trend. The mixed layer depth showed deepening in winter and remained steady in summer. The net surface heat fluxes did not show any trend linked to the local warming, probably due to the influence of incoming offshore waters produced by the interaction between the Northern Current and the submarine canyon. Present regional and global water heating pattern is increasing the stress of highly diverse coastal ecosystems at unprecedented levels, as reported by the literature. The strengthening of the oligotrophic conditions in the study area may also apply as a cautionary warning to similar coastal ecosystems around the world following the global warming trend. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine-observing systems; multiparametric buoy profiling; long time-series; water warming; oligotrophy marine-observing systems; multiparametric buoy profiling; long time-series; water warming; oligotrophy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahamon, N.; Aguzzi, J.; Ahumada-Sempoal, M.Á.; Bernardello, R.; Reuschel, C.; Company, J.B.; Peters, F.; Gordoa, A.; Navarro, J.; Velásquez, Z.; Cruzado, A. Stepped Coastal Water Warming Revealed by Multiparametric Monitoring at NW Mediterranean Fixed Stations. Sensors 2020, 20, 2658.

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