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Special Issue "Electronic Noses"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jose Vicente Ros Lis
Website
Guest Editor
Inorganic Chemistry Department, Universitat de València, Doctor Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Interests: sensors; optical chemosensors; dyes; nanomaterials; optoelectronic noses and tongues
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of electronic tongues and, recently, noses has surged as popular trend in the last decades, with several groups worldwide preparing novel sensing systems. In comparison with the traditional analytical instrumental methods of analysis based in expensive and complex equipment, electronic noses are relatively cheap and easy to handle. Electronic noses usually integrate an array of non-specific sensors, together with statistical tools for the analysis of data. Ideally, each sensor differs in their response to the volatile compounds generated by the sample, creating a characteristic fingerprint. This kind of system can be applied even to complex samples such as food or biological samples for quantification, classification, sensorial analysis, and quality evaluation purposes.

This Special Issue is intended to be a timely and comprehensive Issue on recent and emerging concepts and technologies in the area of electronic noses including metal-oxide semiconductors, and polymers. Topics include but are not limited to systems based on metal-oxide sensors, polymers, color changes, other variations in optical properties, quartz crystal microbalance, or surface acoustic wave sensors. Furthermore, other areas such as data analysis and pattern recognition methodologies can be discussed. Research papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome. If the author is interested in submitting a review, it would be helpful to discuss this with the Guest Editor before your submission.

Asst. Prof. Dr. Jose V. Ros-Lis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • e-nose
  • electronic nose
  • pattern recognition
  • optoelectronic nose
  • array analysis

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Classifying the Biological Status of Honeybee Workers Using Gas Sensors
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010166 - 29 Dec 2020
Abstract
Honeybee workers have a specific smell depending on the age of workers and the biological status of the colony. Laboratory tests were carried out at the Department of Apiculture at UWM Olsztyn, using gas sensors installed in two twin prototype multi-sensor detectors. The [...] Read more.
Honeybee workers have a specific smell depending on the age of workers and the biological status of the colony. Laboratory tests were carried out at the Department of Apiculture at UWM Olsztyn, using gas sensors installed in two twin prototype multi-sensor detectors. The study aimed to compare the responses of sensors to the odor of old worker bees (3–6 weeks old), young ones (0–1 days old), and those from long-term queenless colonies. From the experimental colonies, 10 samples of 100 workers were taken for each group and placed successively in the research chambers for the duration of the study. Old workers came from outer nest combs, young workers from hatching out brood in an incubator, and laying worker bees from long-term queenless colonies from brood combs (with laying worker bee’s eggs, humped brood, and drones). Each probe was measured for 10 min, and then immediately for another 10 min ambient air was given to regenerate sensors. The results were analyzed using 10 different classifiers. Research has shown that the devices can distinguish between the biological status of bees. The effectiveness of distinguishing between classes, determined by the parameters of accuracy balanced and true positive rate, of 0.763 and 0.742 in the case of the best euclidean.1nn classifier, may be satisfactory in the context of practical beekeeping. Depending on the environment accompanying the tested objects (a type of insert in the test chamber), the introduction of other classifiers as well as baseline correction methods may be considered, while the selection of the appropriate classifier for the task may be of great importance for the effectiveness of the classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Instrumental Odour Monitoring System Classification Performance Optimization by Analysis of Different Pattern-Recognition and Feature Extraction Techniques
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010114 - 27 Dec 2020
Abstract
Instrumental odour monitoring systems (IOMS) are intelligent electronic sensing tools for which the primary application is the generation of odour metrics that are indicators of odour as perceived by human observers. The quality of the odour sensor signal, the mathematical treatment of the [...] Read more.
Instrumental odour monitoring systems (IOMS) are intelligent electronic sensing tools for which the primary application is the generation of odour metrics that are indicators of odour as perceived by human observers. The quality of the odour sensor signal, the mathematical treatment of the acquired data, and the validation of the correlation of the odour metric are key topics to control in order to ensure a robust and reliable measurement. The research presents and discusses the use of different pattern recognition and feature extraction techniques in the elaboration and effectiveness of the odour classification monitoring model (OCMM). The effect of the rise, intermediate, and peak period from the original response curve, in collaboration with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) as a pattern recognition algorithm, were investigated. Laboratory analyses were performed with real odour samples collected in a complex industrial plant, using an advanced smart IOMS. The results demonstrate the influence of the choice of method on the quality of the OCMM produced. The peak period in combination with the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) highlighted the best combination on the basis of high classification rates. The paper provides information to develop a solution to optimize the performance of IOMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Tuneable NDIR Optical Electronic Nose
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6875; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236875 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Electronic nose (E-nose) technology provides an easy and inexpensive way to analyse chemical samples. In recent years, there has been increasing demand for E-noses in applications such as food safety, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. Currently, the majority of E-noses utilise an array [...] Read more.
Electronic nose (E-nose) technology provides an easy and inexpensive way to analyse chemical samples. In recent years, there has been increasing demand for E-noses in applications such as food safety, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. Currently, the majority of E-noses utilise an array of metal oxide (MOX) or conducting polymer (CP) gas sensors. However, these sensing technologies can suffer from sensor drift, poor repeatability and temperature and humidity effects. Optical gas sensors have the potential to overcome these issues. This paper reports on the development of an optical non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) E-nose, which consists of an array of four tuneable detectors, able to scan a range of wavelengths (3.1–10.5 μm). The functionality of the device was demonstrated in a series of experiments, involving gas rig tests for individual chemicals (CO2 and CH4), at different concentrations, and discriminating between chemical standards and complex mixtures. The optical gas sensor responses were shown to be linear to polynomial for different concentrations of CO2 and CH4. Good discrimination was achieved between sample groups. Optical E-nose technology therefore demonstrates significant potential as a portable and low-cost solution for a number of E-nose applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236750 - 26 Nov 2020
Abstract
Essential oil resins of Aucoumea klaineana (Okoume) and Canarium schweinfurthii (Aiele) species, of the Burseraceae family, were studied to investigate their bioactive constituents and their antibacterial activities. Aiele resin had a higher yield (6.86%) of essential oil than Okoume (3.62%). Twenty-one compounds for [...] Read more.
Essential oil resins of Aucoumea klaineana (Okoume) and Canarium schweinfurthii (Aiele) species, of the Burseraceae family, were studied to investigate their bioactive constituents and their antibacterial activities. Aiele resin had a higher yield (6.86%) of essential oil than Okoume (3.62%). Twenty-one compounds for Okoume and eighteen for Aiele essential oil were identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Gp-C-MS) technique. The main compounds identified in Okoume essential oil were benzenemethanol, α, α,4-trimethyl (28.85%), (+)-3-carene (3,7,7-trimethyl bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene) (17.93%), D-Limonene ((4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene) (19.36%). With regard to the Aiele essential oil, we identified (1R,4S)-1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol (26.64%), and 1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol (26.83%). Two strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were used in antibacterial tests. S. aureus was found to be more sensitive to Okoume and Aiele essential oils, with a high inhibition zone ranging from 20 to 16 mm. In comparison, the inhibition zone ranged from 6 to 12 mm for E. coli. An electronic nose (e-nose) combined with pattern analysis methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to discriminate the essential oil samples. In summary, the e-nose and GC-MS allowed the identification of bioactive compounds in the essential oil samples, which have a strong antimicrobial activity, with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Odor Detection Using an E-Nose With a Reduced Sensor Array
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123542 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Recent advances in the field of electronic noses (e-noses) have led to new developments in both sensors and feature extraction as well as data processing techniques, providing an increased amount of information. Therefore, feature selection has become essential in the development of e-nose [...] Read more.
Recent advances in the field of electronic noses (e-noses) have led to new developments in both sensors and feature extraction as well as data processing techniques, providing an increased amount of information. Therefore, feature selection has become essential in the development of e-nose applications. Sophisticated computation techniques can be applied for solving the old problem of sensor number optimization and feature selections. In this way, one can find an optimal application-specific sensor array and reduce the potential cost associated with designing new e-nose devices. In this paper, we examine a procedure to extract and select modeling features for optimal e-nose performance. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated in detail. We calculated the model’s performance using cross-validation with the standard leave-one-group-out and group shuffle validation methods. Our analysis of wine spoilage data from the sensor array shows when a transient sensor response is considered, both from gas adsorption and desorption phases, it is possible to obtain a reasonable level of odor detection even with data coming from a single sensor. This requires adequate extraction of modeling features and then selection of features used in the final model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Analysis of Odor Interaction Based on Support Vector Regression Method
Sensors 2020, 20(6), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20061707 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
The complex odor interaction between odorants makes it difficult to predict the odor intensity of their mixtures. The analysis method is currently one of the factors limiting our understanding of the odor interaction laws. We used a support vector regression algorithm to establish [...] Read more.
The complex odor interaction between odorants makes it difficult to predict the odor intensity of their mixtures. The analysis method is currently one of the factors limiting our understanding of the odor interaction laws. We used a support vector regression algorithm to establish odor intensity prediction models for binary esters, aldehydes, and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures, respectively. The prediction accuracy to both training samples and test samples demonstrated the high prediction capacity of the support vector regression model. Then the optimized model was used to generate extra odor data by predicting the odor intensity of more simulated samples with various mixing ratios and concentration levels. Based on these olfactory measured and model predicted data, the odor interaction was analyzed in the form of contour maps. This intuitive method showed more details about the odor interaction pattern in the binary mixture. We found that that the antagonism effect was commonly observed in these binary mixtures and the interaction degree was more intense when the components’ mixing ratio was close. Meanwhile, the odor intensity level of the odor mixture barely influenced the interaction degree. The machine learning algorithms were considered promising tools in odor researches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Electronic Nose with Digital Gas Sensors Connected via Bluetooth to a Smartphone for Air Quality Measurements
Sensors 2020, 20(3), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20030786 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper introduces a miniaturized personal electronic nose (39 mm × 33 mm), which is managed through an app developed on a smartphone. The electronic nose (e-nose) incorporates four new generation digital gas sensors. These MOx-type sensors incorporate a microcontroller in the same [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a miniaturized personal electronic nose (39 mm × 33 mm), which is managed through an app developed on a smartphone. The electronic nose (e-nose) incorporates four new generation digital gas sensors. These MOx-type sensors incorporate a microcontroller in the same package, being also smaller than the previous generation. This makes it easier to integrate them into the electronics and improves their performance. In this research, the application of the device is focused on the detection of atmospheric pollutants in order to complement the information provided by the reference stations. To validate the system, it has been tested with different concentrations of NOx including some tests specifically developed to study the behavior of the device in different humidity conditions. Finally, a mobile application has been developed to provide classification services. In this regard, a neural network has been developed, trained, and integrated into a smartphone to process the information retrieved from e-nose devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Portable Low-Cost Electronic Nose Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors for the Detection of BTX Vapors in Air
Sensors 2019, 19(24), 5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19245406 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
A portable electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is proposed in this work to detect toxic chemicals, which have a great potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment or adversely affect the health of people. We want to emphasize that [...] Read more.
A portable electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is proposed in this work to detect toxic chemicals, which have a great potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment or adversely affect the health of people. We want to emphasize that ferrite nanoparticles, decorated (Au, Pt, Pd) and undecorated, have been used as sensitive coatings for the first time in these types of sensors. Furthermore, the proposed electronic nose incorporates signal conditioning and acquisition and transmission modules. The electronic nose was tested to low concentrations of benzene, toluene, and xylene, exhibiting excellent performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and response time, indicating its potential as a monitoring system that can contribute to the detection of toxic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Framework with High Diagnostic Sensitivity for Lung Cancer Detection by Electronic Nose
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5333; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235333 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The electronic nose (e-nose) system is a newly developing detection technology for its advantages of non-invasiveness, simple operation, and low cost. However, lung cancer screening through e-nose requires effective pattern recognition frameworks. Existing frameworks rely heavily on hand-crafted features and have relatively low [...] Read more.
The electronic nose (e-nose) system is a newly developing detection technology for its advantages of non-invasiveness, simple operation, and low cost. However, lung cancer screening through e-nose requires effective pattern recognition frameworks. Existing frameworks rely heavily on hand-crafted features and have relatively low diagnostic sensitivity. To handle these problems, gated recurrent unit based autoencoder (GRU-AE) is adopted to automatically extract features from temporal and high-dimensional e-nose data. Moreover, we propose a novel margin and sensitivity based ordering ensemble pruning (MSEP) model for effective classification. The proposed heuristic model aims to reduce missed diagnosis rate of lung cancer patients while maintaining a high rate of overall identification. In the experiments, five state-of-the-art classification models and two popular dimensionality reduction methods were involved for comparison to demonstrate the validity of the proposed GRU-AE-MSEP framework, through 214 collected breath samples measured by e-nose. Experimental results indicated that the proposed intelligent framework achieved high sensitivity of 94.22%, accuracy of 93.55%, and specificity of 92.80%, thereby providing a new practical means for wide disease screening by e-nose in medical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Active Learning on Dynamic Clustering for Drift Compensation in an Electronic Nose System
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163601 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Drift correction is an important concern in Electronic noses (E-nose) for maintaining stable performance during continuous work. A large number of reports have been presented for dealing with E-nose drift through machine-learning approaches in the laboratory. In this study, we aim to counter [...] Read more.
Drift correction is an important concern in Electronic noses (E-nose) for maintaining stable performance during continuous work. A large number of reports have been presented for dealing with E-nose drift through machine-learning approaches in the laboratory. In this study, we aim to counter the drift effect in more challenging situations in which the category information (labels) of the drifted samples is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thus, only a few of the drifted samples can be used for label querying. To solve this problem, we propose an innovative methodology based on Active Learning (AL) that selectively provides sample labels for drift correction. Moreover, we utilize a dynamic clustering process to balance the sample category for label querying. In the experimental section, we set up two E-nose drift scenarios—a long-term and a short-term scenario—to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology. The results indicate that the proposed methodology is superior to the other state-of-art methods presented. Furthermore, the increasing tendencies of parameter sensitivity and accuracy are analyzed. In addition, the Label Efficiency Index (LEI) is adopted to measure the efficiency and labelling cost of the AL methods. The LEI values indicate that our proposed methodology exhibited better performance than the other presented AL methods in the online drift correction of E-noses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Prototype to Detect the Alcohol Content of Beers Based on an Electronic Nose
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2646; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112646 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Due to the emergence of new microbreweries in the Brazilian market, there is a need to construct equipment to quickly and accurately identify the alcohol content in beverages, together with a reduced marketing cost. Towards this purpose, the electronic noses prove to be [...] Read more.
Due to the emergence of new microbreweries in the Brazilian market, there is a need to construct equipment to quickly and accurately identify the alcohol content in beverages, together with a reduced marketing cost. Towards this purpose, the electronic noses prove to be the most suitable equipment for this situation. In this work, a prototype was developed to detect the concentration of ethanol in a high spectrum of beers presents in the market. It was used cheap and easy-to-acquire 13 gas sensors made with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS). Samples with 15 predetermined alcohol contents were used for the training and construction of the models. For validation, seven different commercial beverages were used. The correlation (R2) of 0.888 for the MLR (RMSE = 0.45) and the error of 5.47% for the ELM (RMSE = 0.33) demonstrate that the equipment can be an effective tool for detecting the levels of alcohol contained in beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Cell Concentration during Saccharomyces cerevisiae Culture by a Color Sensor: Optimization of Feature Sensor Using ACO
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092021 - 30 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The odor information produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture is one of the important characteristics of yeast growth status. This work innovatively presents the quantitative monitoring of cell concentration during the yeast culture process using a homemade color sensor. First, a color sensor array, [...] Read more.
The odor information produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture is one of the important characteristics of yeast growth status. This work innovatively presents the quantitative monitoring of cell concentration during the yeast culture process using a homemade color sensor. First, a color sensor array, which could visually represent the odor changes produced during the yeast culture process, was developed using eleven porphyrins and one pH indicator. Second, odor information of the culture substrate was obtained during the process using the homemade color sensor. Next, color components, which came from different color sensitive spots, were extracted first and then optimized using the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm. Finally, the back propagation neural network (BPNN) model was developed using the optimized feature color components for quantitative monitoring of cell concentration. Results demonstrated that BPNN models, which were developed using two color components from FTPPFeCl (component B) and MTPPTE (component B), can obtain better results on the basis of both the comprehensive consideration of the model performance and the economic benefit. In the validation set, the average of determination coefficient R P 2 was 0.8837 and the variance was 0.0725, while the average of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.0033 and the variance was 0.1452. The overall results sufficiently demonstrate that the optimized sensor array can satisfy the monitoring accuracy and stability of the cell concentration in the process of yeast culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
A Screening Method Based on Headspace-Ion Mobility Spectrometry to Identify Adulterated Honey
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071621 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Nowadays, adulteration of honey is a frequent fraud that is sometimes motivated by the high price of this product in comparison with other sweeteners. Food adulteration is considered a deception to consumers that may have an important impact on people’s health. For this [...] Read more.
Nowadays, adulteration of honey is a frequent fraud that is sometimes motivated by the high price of this product in comparison with other sweeteners. Food adulteration is considered a deception to consumers that may have an important impact on people’s health. For this reason, it is important to develop fast, cheap, reliable and easy to use analytical methods for food control. In the present research, a novel method based on headspace-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-IMS) for the detection of adulterated honey by adding high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been developed. A Box–Behnken design combined with a response surface method have been used to optimize a procedure to detect adulterated honey. Intermediate precision and repeatability studies have been carried out and coefficients of variance of 4.90% and 4.27%, respectively, have been obtained. The developed method was then tested to detect adulterated honey. For that purpose, pure honey samples were adulterated with HFCS at different percentages (10–50%). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed a tendency of the honey samples to be classified according to the level of adulteration. Nevertheless, a perfect classification was not achieved. On the contrary, a full classification (100%) of all the honey samples was performed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). This is the first time the technique of HS-IMS has been applied for the determination of adulterated honey with HFCS in an automatic way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessArticle
Discrimination of Different Species of Dendrobium with an Electronic Nose Using Aggregated Conformal Predictor
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040964 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A method using electronic nose to discriminate 10 different species of dendrobium, which is a kind of precious herb with medicinal application, was developed with high efficiency and low cost. A framework named aggregated conformal prediction was applied to make predictions with accuracy [...] Read more.
A method using electronic nose to discriminate 10 different species of dendrobium, which is a kind of precious herb with medicinal application, was developed with high efficiency and low cost. A framework named aggregated conformal prediction was applied to make predictions with accuracy and reliability for E-nose detection. This method achieved a classification accuracy close to 80% with an average improvement of 6.2% when compared with the results obtained by using traditional inductive conformal prediction. It also provided reliability assessment to show more comprehensive information for each prediction. Meanwhile, two main indicators of conformal predictor, validity and efficiency, were also compared and discussed in this work. The result shows that the approach integrating electronic nose with aggregated conformal prediction to classify the species of dendrobium with reliability and validity is promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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Open AccessLetter
Development of a Low-Cost Portable Electronic Nose for Cigarette Brands Identification
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4239; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154239 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In China, the government and the cigarette industry yearly lose millions in sales and tax revenue because of imitation cigarettes. Usually, visual observation is not enough to identify counterfeiting. An auxiliary analytical method is needed for cigarette brands identification. To this end, we [...] Read more.
In China, the government and the cigarette industry yearly lose millions in sales and tax revenue because of imitation cigarettes. Usually, visual observation is not enough to identify counterfeiting. An auxiliary analytical method is needed for cigarette brands identification. To this end, we developed a portable, low-cost electronic nose (e-nose) system for brand recognition of cigarettes. A gas sampling device was designed to reduce the influence caused by humidity fluctuation and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the environment. To ensure the uniformity of airflow distribution, the structure of the sensing chamber was optimized by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The e-nose system is compact, portable, and lightweight with only 15 cm in side length and the cost of the whole device is less than $100. Results from the machine learning algorithm showed that there were significant differences between 5 kinds of cigarettes we tested. Random Forest (RF) has the best performance with accuracy of 91.67% and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) has the accuracy of 86.98%, which indicated that the e-nose was able to discriminate samples. We believe this portable, cheap, reliable e-nose system could be used as an auxiliary screen technique for counterfeit cigarettes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
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