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Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment

1
Biosensors and Nanotechnology Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P., Zitoune, Meknes 11201, Morocco
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Sensor Electronic & Instrumentation Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismaïl University, B.P., Zitoune, Meknes 11201, Morocco
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sciences and Technolgy of Masuku, Franceville 901, Gabon
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Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, MINOS-EMaS, Microsystems and Nanotechnologies for Chemical Analysis, Avinguda Països Catalans, 26, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6750; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236750
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Noses)
Essential oil resins of Aucoumea klaineana (Okoume) and Canarium schweinfurthii (Aiele) species, of the Burseraceae family, were studied to investigate their bioactive constituents and their antibacterial activities. Aiele resin had a higher yield (6.86%) of essential oil than Okoume (3.62%). Twenty-one compounds for Okoume and eighteen for Aiele essential oil were identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Gp-C-MS) technique. The main compounds identified in Okoume essential oil were benzenemethanol, α, α,4-trimethyl (28.85%), (+)-3-carene (3,7,7-trimethyl bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene) (17.93%), D-Limonene ((4R)-1-methyl-4-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohexene) (19.36%). With regard to the Aiele essential oil, we identified (1R,4S)-1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol (26.64%), and 1-methyl-4-propan-2-ylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol (26.83%). Two strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were used in antibacterial tests. S. aureus was found to be more sensitive to Okoume and Aiele essential oils, with a high inhibition zone ranging from 20 to 16 mm. In comparison, the inhibition zone ranged from 6 to 12 mm for E. coli. An electronic nose (e-nose) combined with pattern analysis methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to discriminate the essential oil samples. In summary, the e-nose and GC-MS allowed the identification of bioactive compounds in the essential oil samples, which have a strong antimicrobial activity, with satisfactory results. View Full-Text
Keywords: okoume; aiele; essential oils; electronic nose; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; antimicrobial activity okoume; aiele; essential oils; electronic nose; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; antimicrobial activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aghoutane, Y.; Moufid, M.; Motia, S.; Padzys, G.S.; Omouendze, L.P.; Llobet, E.; Bouchikhi, B.; El Bari, N. Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment. Sensors 2020, 20, 6750. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236750

AMA Style

Aghoutane Y, Moufid M, Motia S, Padzys GS, Omouendze LP, Llobet E, Bouchikhi B, El Bari N. Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment. Sensors. 2020; 20(23):6750. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236750

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aghoutane, Youssra; Moufid, Mohammed; Motia, Soukaina; Padzys, Guy S.; Omouendze, Linda P.; Llobet, Eduard; Bouchikhi, Benachir; El Bari, Nezha. 2020. "Characterization and Analysis of Okoume and Aiele Essential Oils from Gabon by GC-MS, Electronic Nose, and Their Antibacterial Activity Assessment" Sensors 20, no. 23: 6750. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236750

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