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Special Issue "Colorimetric Nanosensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jose Vicente Ros Lis
Website
Guest Editor
Inorganic Chemistry Department, Universitat de València, Doctor Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Interests: sensors; optical chemosensors; dyes; nanomaterials; optoelectronic noses and tongues
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ramón Martínez-Máñez
Website
Guest Editor
Universitat Politècnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia, Spain
Interests: chromo-fluorogenic sensors, electrochemical sensors, molecular probes, nanomaterials, controlled release, nanomedicine, smart materials, hybrid material

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of colorimetric sensors has been a main trend in the last decades, with several groups worldwide preparing novel chemical sensing systems. They are usually cheap, versatile and can be printed on the surfaces. However, the main advantages currently include the possibility of designing naked eye systems or easily measuring colour changes using smartphones, cameras, or other image capturing systems. Few technologies are as advanced or as inexpensive as visual imaging. Traditionally, the most common approaches to colorimetric sensors was provided by (i) linking a chromophore with a receptor unit by means of a covalent bond, (ii) the use of competition assays between a dye bonded to a receptor and a certain analyte, and (iii) the use of new molecular systems that undergo guest-induced chemical reactions coupled to suitable colorimetric events. Recently, the incorporation of nanomaterials in the sensing systems has offered a full set of novel properties to be explored. This Special Issue is intended to be a timely and comprehensive issue on recent and emerging concepts and technologies in the area of chromogenic chemosensors including nanomaterials. Topics include, but are not limited to, sensors that include nanomaterials in the recognition moiety (i.e., hybrid supramolecular materials), in the signalling group (i.e., gold nanoparticles or quantum dots), or as vehicles for more complex events (i.e., aggregation processes or FRET). Furthermore, other areas such as chromogenic arrays or other emerging fields can be discussed. Research papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome. If the author is interested in submitting a review, it would be helpful to discuss this with the Guest Editor before your submission.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Jose V. Ros-Lis
Prof. Dr. Ramón Martínez-Máñez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanoparticle
  • colour
  • sensor
  • molecular recognition
  • arrays

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Colorimetric and Fluorescent Sensor to Detect Organophosphate Pesticides Based on Adenosine Triphosphate-Modified Gold Nanoparticles
Sensors 2018, 18(12), 4302; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18124302 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
A simple and dual modal (colorimetric and fluorescent) sensor for organophosphate pesticides with high sensitivity and selectivity using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and rhodamine B-modified gold nanoparticles (RB-AuNPs), was successfully fabricated. This detection for ethoprophos afforded colorimetric and fluorescence imaging changes visualization. The quantitative [...] Read more.
A simple and dual modal (colorimetric and fluorescent) sensor for organophosphate pesticides with high sensitivity and selectivity using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and rhodamine B-modified gold nanoparticles (RB-AuNPs), was successfully fabricated. This detection for ethoprophos afforded colorimetric and fluorescence imaging changes visualization. The quantitative determination was linearly proportional to the amounts of ethoprophos in the range of a micromolar scale (4.0–15.0 µM). The limit of detection for ethoprophos was as low as 37.0 nM at 3σ/k. Moreover, the extent application of this simple assay was successfully demonstrated in tap water samples with high reliability and applicability, indicating remarkable application in real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Functionalized Silver Nano-Sensor for Colorimetric Detection of Hg2+ Ions: Facile Synthesis and Docking Studies
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2698; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082698 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
In the present study, we describe the facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their nanostructures functionalized with 2-aminopyrimidine-4,6-diol (APD-AgNPs) for Hg2+ ion detection. The promising colorimetric response of APD-AgNPs to detect Hg2+ ions was visible with naked eyes and spectroscopic [...] Read more.
In the present study, we describe the facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their nanostructures functionalized with 2-aminopyrimidine-4,6-diol (APD-AgNPs) for Hg2+ ion detection. The promising colorimetric response of APD-AgNPs to detect Hg2+ ions was visible with naked eyes and spectroscopic changes were examined by using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The aggregation of APD-AgNPs upon addition of Hg2+ ions was due to the chelation effect of the functionalized nanostructures and results in a color change from pale brown to deep yellow color. The probing sensitivity was observed within five minutes with a detection limit of about 0.35 µM/L. The TEM images of APD-AgNPs showed polydispersed morphologies with hexagonal, heptagonal and spherical nanostructures with an average size between 10 to 40 nm. Furthermore, the sensing behavior of APD-AgNPs towards Hg2+ ions detection was investigated using docking and interaction studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Colorimetric Probe Based on Functionalized Gold Nanorods for Sensitive and Selective Detection of As(III) Ions
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2372; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072372 - 21 Jul 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
A colorimetric probe for determination of As(III) ions in aqueous solutions on basis of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was synthesized. The dithiothreitol molecules with two end thiols covalently combined with Au Nanorods (AuNRs) with an aspect ratio of 2.9 by Au-S bond [...] Read more.
A colorimetric probe for determination of As(III) ions in aqueous solutions on basis of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was synthesized. The dithiothreitol molecules with two end thiols covalently combined with Au Nanorods (AuNRs) with an aspect ratio of 2.9 by Au-S bond to form dithiothreitol coated Au Nanorods (DTT-AuNRs), acting as colorimetric probe for the determination of As(III) ions. With the adding of As(III) ions, the AuNRs will be aggregated and leading the longitudinal SPR absorption band of DTT-AuNRs decrease due to the As(III) ions can bind with three DTT molecules through an As-S linkage. The potential factors affect the response of DTT-AuNRs to As(III) ions including the concentration of DTT, pH values of DTT-AuNRs, reaction time and NaCl concentration were optimized. Under optimum assay conditions, the DTT-AuNRs colorimetric probe has high sensitivity towards As(III) ions with low detection limit of 38 nM by rules of 3σ/k and excellent linear range of 0.13–10.01 μM. The developed colorimetric probe shows high selectivity for As(III) ions sensing and has applied to determine of As(III) in environmental water samples with quantitative spike-recoveries range from 95.2% to 100.4% with low relative standard deviation of less than 4.4% (n = 3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Gasochromic Rhodium Complexes Towards Their Reactivity to CO and Integration into an Optical Gas Sensor for Fire Gas Detection
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18071994 - 21 Jun 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The detection of the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO) in the low ppm range is required in different applications. We present a study of the reactivity of different gasochromic rhodium complexes towards the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, variations of binuclear rhodium [...] Read more.
The detection of the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO) in the low ppm range is required in different applications. We present a study of the reactivity of different gasochromic rhodium complexes towards the toxic gas carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, variations of binuclear rhodium complexes with different ligands were prepared. They were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. All complexes are spectroscopically distinguishable and temperature stable up to at least 187 °C. The gasochromic behavior of all different compounds was tested. Therefore, the compounds were dissolved in toluene and exposed to 100 ppm CO for 10 min to investigate their gas sensitivity and reaction velocity. The changes in the transmission spectra were recorded by UV/vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, a significant influence of the solvent to the color dyes’ gasochromic reaction and behavior was observed. After characterization, one complex was transferred as sensing element into an optical gas sensor. Two different measurement principles (reflection- and waveguide-based) were built up and tested towards their capability as gasochromic CO sensors. Finally, different gas-dependent measurements were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Color Accuracy of Colorimetric Sensors
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041252 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Accurate measurements of reflectance and color require spectrophotometers with prices often exceeding $3000. Recently, new “color instruments” became available with much lower prices, thanks to the availability of inexpensive colorimetric sensors. We investigated the Node+ChromaPro and the Color Muse, launched in 2015 and [...] Read more.
Accurate measurements of reflectance and color require spectrophotometers with prices often exceeding $3000. Recently, new “color instruments” became available with much lower prices, thanks to the availability of inexpensive colorimetric sensors. We investigated the Node+ChromaPro and the Color Muse, launched in 2015 and 2016 by Variable Inc. Both instruments are colorimeters, combining a colorimetric sensor with LED lighting. We investigated color accuracy compared to a high-end spectrophotometer from BYK Gardner. With different sets of samples we find for the Node an average value of dECMC (1:1) = 1.50, and a maximum of 7.86, when comparing with the 45° geometry of the spectrophotometer. Utilizing measurement data on the Spectral Power Distributions of the LEDs, we developed three methods to improve color accuracy as compared to the spectrophotometer data. We used these methods on different sets of samples with various degrees of gloss, both for training the models underlying the methods and for independent tests of model accuracy. Average color accuracy of the Node+ChromaPro improves from dECMC (1:1) = 1.82 to 1.16 with respect to spectrophotometer data. The percentage of samples with dECMC (1:1) < 1.0 increases from 30.9% (uncorrected) to 64%. With the improved color accuracy, these sensors become useful for many more applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Miniaturized Colorimeter with a Novel Design and High Precision for Photometric Detection
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030818 - 08 Mar 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Water quality detection plays an increasingly important role in environmental protection. In this work, a novel colorimeter based on the Beer-Lambert law was designed for chemical element detection in water with high precision and miniaturized structure. As an example, the colorimeter can detect [...] Read more.
Water quality detection plays an increasingly important role in environmental protection. In this work, a novel colorimeter based on the Beer-Lambert law was designed for chemical element detection in water with high precision and miniaturized structure. As an example, the colorimeter can detect phosphorus, which was accomplished in this article to evaluate the performance. Simultaneously, a modified algorithm was applied to extend the linear measurable range. The colorimeter encompassed a near infrared laser source, a microflow cell based on microfluidic technology and a light-sensitive detector, then Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) processing technology was used to form a stable integrated structure. Experiments were performed based on the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method, including the preparation of phosphorus standard solution, reducing agent, chromogenic agent and color reaction. The device can obtain a wide linear response range (0.05 mg/L up to 7.60 mg/L), a wide reliable measuring range up to 10.16 mg/L after using a novel algorithm, and a low limit of detection (0.02 mg/L). The size of flow cell in this design is 18 mm × 2.0 mm × 800 μm, obtaining a low reagent consumption of 0.004 mg ascorbic acid and 0.011 mg ammonium molybdate per determination. Achieving these advantages of miniaturized volume, high precision and low cost, the design can also be used in automated in situ detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Overview of the Evolution of Silica-Based Chromo-Fluorogenic Nanosensors
Sensors 2019, 19(23), 5138; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19235138 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
This review includes examples of silica-based, chromo-fluorogenic nanosensors with the aim of illustrating the evolution of the discipline in recent decades through relevant research developed in our group. Examples have been grouped according to the sensing strategies. A clear evolution from simply functionalized [...] Read more.
This review includes examples of silica-based, chromo-fluorogenic nanosensors with the aim of illustrating the evolution of the discipline in recent decades through relevant research developed in our group. Examples have been grouped according to the sensing strategies. A clear evolution from simply functionalized materials to new protocols involving molecular gates and the use of highly selective biomolecules such as antibodies and oligonucleotides is reported. Some final examples related to the evolution of chromogenic arrays and the possible use of nanoparticles to communicate with other nanoparticles or cells are also included. A total of 64 articles have been summarized, highlighting different sensing mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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Open AccessReview
Novel Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Sensors and Nanoprobes for the Characterization of Food and Biological Antioxidants
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010186 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Since an unbalanced excess of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes various diseases, determination of antioxidants that can counter oxidative stress is important in food and biological analyses. Optical/electrochemical nanosensors have attracted attention in antioxidant activity (AOA) assessment because of their increased sensitivity and [...] Read more.
Since an unbalanced excess of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes various diseases, determination of antioxidants that can counter oxidative stress is important in food and biological analyses. Optical/electrochemical nanosensors have attracted attention in antioxidant activity (AOA) assessment because of their increased sensitivity and selectivity. Optical sensors offer advantages such as low cost, flexibility, remote control, speed, miniaturization and on-site/in situ analysis. Electrochemical sensors using noble metal nanoparticles on modified electrodes better catalyze bioelectrochemical reactions. We summarize the design principles of colorimetric sensors and nanoprobes for food antioxidants (including electron-transfer based and ROS/RNS scavenging assays) and important milestones contributed by our laboratory. We present novel sensors and nanoprobes together with their mechanisms and analytical performances. Our colorimetric sensors for AOA measurement made use of cupric-neocuproine and ferric-phenanthroline complexes immobilized on a Nafion membrane. We recently designed an optical oxidant/antioxidant sensor using N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylene diamine (DMPD) as probe, from which ROS produced colored DMPD-quinone cationic radicals electrostatically retained on a Nafion membrane. The attenuation of initial color by antioxidants enabled indirect AOA estimation. The surface plasmon resonance absorption of silver nanoparticles as a result of enlargement of citrate-reduced seed particles by antioxidant addition enabled a linear response of AOA. We determined biothiols with Ellman reagent−derivatized gold nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colorimetric Nanosensors)
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