Special Issue "Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sébastien Leveneur
Website
Guest Editor
1. Normandie Univ, INSA Rouen, UNIROUEN, LSPC, EA4704, 76000 Rouen, France
2. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Åbo/Turku, Finland
Interests: biomass valorization; kinetic modeling; thermal safety of chemical process & calorimetry
Prof. Dr. Dimitri Lefebvre
Website
Guest Editor
Université Le Havre Normandie, GREAH –EA3220, 75 rue Lebon, 76600, Le Havre, France
Interests: safety, security and performance evaluation; fault detection and diagnosis; robust control

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal runaway is one of the main reasons for accidents in the chemical industry, originating from technical problems such as cooling failures, errors of operators, or poor risk analysis. The well-established, thermal safety of chemical processes is essential to ensure the development of the chemical industry. From this viewpoint, assessment of a chemical process is challenging, as it requires knowledge of the kinetics and thermodynamics at different thermal modes, characteristics of the chemical reactor, and all possible operating conditions.

In this Special Issue, “Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes”, we wish to present the diversity of this research area and focus on the research efforts regarding prevention and protection against thermal runaway incidents. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Thermal analysis and calorimetry for measurements of thermal or thermal risk parameters (specific heat capacity, TMRad, ΔTad, …)—development of kinetic and thermodynamic models;
  • Modeling of thermal runaway phenomena in chemical reactions, description or simulation of accident scenarios due to thermal runaways;
  • Thermal risk analysis—development of risk matrix, new thermal risk parameters, and definition of assessment criteria;
  • Development of safety barriers and prevention in the case of thermal runaway—rupture disks, early warning detection systems, and temperature control;
  • Early detection of thermal runaway, diagnosis of the causes of thermal runaway;
  • Robust or smart control for thermal runaway, operation reconfiguration;

Contributions in the form of full-length articles, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sébastien Leveneur
Prof. Dr. Dimitri Lefebvre
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • calorimetry
  • thermal risk assessment
  • early warning detection system
  • thermal runaway
  • reactor stability
  • safety criteria

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of Elimination of Stagnation of Solar Thermal Systems
Processes 2020, 8(5), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050621 - 22 May 2020
Abstract
The study deals with the possibility of elimination of stagnation of thermal systems. The state of stagnation of thermal systems leads to overheating and evaporation of the heat transfer medium, which increases pressure and can lead to damage to the solar thermal system. [...] Read more.
The study deals with the possibility of elimination of stagnation of thermal systems. The state of stagnation of thermal systems leads to overheating and evaporation of the heat transfer medium, which increases pressure and can lead to damage to the solar thermal system. Stagnation can occur due to a fault and stopping of the circulation pump, which causes the circulation of the heat transfer medium to stop. Another possibility is to achieve thermal saturation in the system, which can be affected by low heat consumption from the system. Elimination of stagnation is possible by various construction designs of collectors or by using other technical means. This study describes an experiment verifying the usability of a thermal collector’s tilting system to eliminate thermal stagnation of the system. The system is fully automatic, and when recording the limit values, ensures that the panel is rotated out of the ideal position, thus reducing the amount of received energy. In this way, the temperature of the medium in the system can be reduced by up to 10% in one hour. In the case of thermal saturation of the system, the solution is the automatic circulation of heat-transfer fluid through the system during the night and the release of thermal energy to the outside. These results suggest that the methods used actively eliminate stagnation of thermal systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Evolutionary Game Theory in Safety Management of Chemical Production
Processes 2020, 8(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040472 - 16 Apr 2020
Abstract
The chemical industry is essential in the social economy, and the issue of production safety has aroused widespread concern. Chemical safety incidents occupy the headlines from time to time, and chemical production safety management is particularly important. This paper presents an application model [...] Read more.
The chemical industry is essential in the social economy, and the issue of production safety has aroused widespread concern. Chemical safety incidents occupy the headlines from time to time, and chemical production safety management is particularly important. This paper presents an application model based on evolutionary game theory in the assessment and analysis of chemical production safety management. The model uses evolutionary game theory to construct a strategic interactive payoff matrix between the management department of a chemical plant and the chemical plant using a replicated dynamic equation to analyze their strategic interaction and to reveal the evolution of behavioral strategy selection. The evolution results were verified and simulated. The application of this model provides an effective safety management basis and recommendations for the management of chemical plants, providing a foundation for the safe production and healthy development of chemical plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Investigation into the Suppression Effects of Inert Powders on the Minimum Ignition Temperature and the Minimum Ignition Energy of Polyethylene Dust
Processes 2020, 8(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030294 - 04 Mar 2020
Abstract
The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety. One effective principle is to add an inert material to a [...] Read more.
The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety. One effective principle is to add an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease its ignition sensitivity. This paper deals with an experimental investigation of the influence of inert dust on the minimum ignition temperature and the minimum explosion energy of combustible dust. The experiments detailed here were performed in a Godbert–Greenwald (GG) furnace and a 1.2 L Hartmann tube. The combustible dust (polyethylene—PE; 800 mesh) and four inert powders (NaHCO3, Na2C2O4, KHCO3, and K2C2O4) were used. The suppression effects of the four inert powders on the minimum ignition temperature and the minimum explosion energy of the PE dust have been evaluated and compared with each other. The results show that all of the four different inert dusts have an effective suppression effect on the minimum ignition temperature and the minimum explosion energy of PE dust. However, the comparison of the results indicates that the suppression effect of bicarbonate dusts is better than that of oxalate dust. For the same kind of bicarbonate dusts, the suppression effects of potassium salt dusts are better than those of the sodium salt. The possible mechanisms for the better suppression effects of bicarbonate dusts and potassium salt dusts have been analyzed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Thermal Analysis of Vacuum Resistance Furnace
Processes 2019, 7(12), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7120907 - 03 Dec 2019
Abstract
The current paper describes the effect of insulation thickness in a vacuum resistance furnace. An existing furnace was optimized for insulation thickness using analytical and numerical studies. Furnace heating efficiency was improved up to 64% by controlling the heat flow at the insulation [...] Read more.
The current paper describes the effect of insulation thickness in a vacuum resistance furnace. An existing furnace was optimized for insulation thickness using analytical and numerical studies. Furnace heating efficiency was improved up to 64% by controlling the heat flow at the insulation face. The numerical results were validated experimentally and vice versa. The numerical results predicted a decrease in heat flow of 70%, while the experimentally achieved value was 64%. The percentage difference in numerical and experimental results was calculated to be 1.5–5% maximum in temperature value. The effect of mesh finesse was evaluated for thermal analysis and it was concluded that a very little difference of 5 °C occurs when element size is reduced 5 times. The study using numerical methods will help in designing better and upgraded furnaces with greater energy savings. Also, the application of numerical methods is proposed as an effective design and performance prediction tool during manufacturing and operational activities of vacuum furnaces, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway Propagation for Large Scale Applications Fire Hazard Quantification
Processes 2019, 7(10), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7100703 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The high capacity and voltage properties demonstrated by lithium-ion batteries render them as the preferred energy carrier in portable electronic devices. The application of the lithium-ion batteries which previously circulating and contained around small-scale electronics is now expanding into large scale emerging markets [...] Read more.
The high capacity and voltage properties demonstrated by lithium-ion batteries render them as the preferred energy carrier in portable electronic devices. The application of the lithium-ion batteries which previously circulating and contained around small-scale electronics is now expanding into large scale emerging markets such as electromobility and stationary energy storage. Therefore, the understanding of the risk involved is imperative. Thermal runaway is the most common failure mode of lithium-ion battery which may lead to safety incidents. Transport process of immense amounts of heat released during thermal runaway of lithium-ion battery to neighboring batteries in a module can lead to cascade failure of the whole energy storage system. In this work, a model is developed to predict the propagation of lithium-ion battery in a module for large scale applications. For this purpose, kinetic of material thermal decomposition is combined with heat transfer modelling. The simulation is built based on chemical kinetics at component level of a singular cell and energy balance that accounts for conductive and convective heat transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessCase Report
Investigation and Analysis of a Hazardous Chemical Accident in the Process Industry: Triggers, Roots, and Lessons Learned
Processes 2020, 8(4), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040477 - 18 Apr 2020
Abstract
This paper performs an in-depth investigation and analysis on a catastrophic hazardous chemical accident involving domino effects in China based on an emerging accident causation model—the 24Model. The triggers and roots of the incident from the individual and organizational levels have been identified [...] Read more.
This paper performs an in-depth investigation and analysis on a catastrophic hazardous chemical accident involving domino effects in China based on an emerging accident causation model—the 24Model. The triggers and roots of the incident from the individual and organizational levels have been identified and several useful lessons have been summarized to avoid similar mistakes. This accident began with a leak of vinyl chloride caused by the failure of the gas holder’s bell housing and the operators’ mishandling. Leaked vinyl chloride was ignited by a high-temperature device in the process of diffusion and the fire quickly spread to the illegally parked vehicles. Several organizations were involved in this accident, and the chemical company should bear the main responsibility for it, and shall establish and implement an effective safety management system in its organizational structure and staffing, facilities management, hazards identification, emergency disposal, etc., to improve safety performance in a systematic way. Enterprises in the chemical industry park shall enhance the communication to clarify major hazard installations in their domains, and conduct regular safety evaluation for the plant as the external environment changed. Government agencies shall plan the layout of the chemical industry park scientifically and ensure safety starts with the design stage. The case study provides a practical procedure for accident investigation and analysis, and thus, preventive measures can be made according to the various causations at different levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop