Special Issue "New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pau Loke Show
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, Semenyih 43500, Malaysia.
Interests: bioprocessing from upstream to downstream; separation and purification technology; algae biorefinery engineering
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kit Wayne CHEW
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, 43900, Malaysia
Interests: biorefinery engineering; bioprocess engineering; chemical engineering
Dr. Aydin Berenjian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Engineering, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Interests: Bioprocess engineering and intensification; functional foods; nanobiotechnology; smart industry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A change from a consumer society to a sustainable, conserver society must be focused on the welfare of the planet and future generations, through balance rather than maximizing exploitation of resources. This will bring about further growth as an option for both per capita consumption and population. So far, the muddled and tepid response makes it clear that the society has not developed a vision of what a truly sustainable society looks like. It is essential to bring awareness to the possibility of creating a sustainable society which will incorporate the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to generate a future with more possibilities. Below are a few practical parameters which will heavily influence what a sustainable society actually looks like.

In order for a society to remain sustainable, it must be:

  • Energetically sustainable;
  • Resource-sustainable;
  • Environmentally sustainable;
  • Fiscally sustainable;
  • Socially sustainable.

In order to move towards a sustainable society, it is vital to provide the highest standard of wellbeing for the environment, human and economic. We can contribute by providing technical as well as scientific work that can be accessed freely and implemented by all. We welcome submission of the following topics (but not limited to):

  • Sustainable procesess and technologies in chemical engineering
  • Green bioproducts, food and bioprocessing
  • New nanotechnology and advanced materials
  • Environmentally friendly waste treatment and management

All the authors of accepted contributions at APCChE 2021 with topics related to sustainable developments are invited to submit manuscripts to Processes under the Special Issue of “New Processes: Working Towards a Sustainable Society”.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pau Loke Show
Dr. Kit Wayne CHEW
Dr. Aydin Berenjian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainability
  • SDGs
  • effective management
  • processes
  • green technology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparative Study of a Life Cycle Assessment for Bio-Plastic Straws and Paper Straws: Malaysia’s Perspective
Processes 2021, 9(6), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9061007 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Plastics are used for various applications, including in the food and beverage industry, for the manufacturing of plastic utensils and straws. The higher utilization of plastic straws has indirectly resulted in the significant disposal of plastic waste, which has become a serious environmental [...] Read more.
Plastics are used for various applications, including in the food and beverage industry, for the manufacturing of plastic utensils and straws. The higher utilization of plastic straws has indirectly resulted in the significant disposal of plastic waste, which has become a serious environmental issue. Alternatively, bio-plastic and paper straws have been introduced to reduce plastic waste. However, limited studies are available on the environmental assessment of drinking straws. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies for bio-plastic and paper straws have not been comprehensively performed previously. Therefore, the impact of both bio-plastic and paper straws on the environment are quantified and compared in this study. Parameters, such as the global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP), were evaluated. The input–output data of the bio-plastic and paper straws processes from a gate-to-grave analysis were obtained from the literature and generated using the SuperPro Designer V9 process simulator. The results show that bio-plastic straws, which are also known as polylactic acid (PLA) straws, had reduced environmental impacts compared to paper straws. The outcomes of this work provide an insight into the application of bio-plastic and paper straws in effectively reducing the impact on the environment and in promoting sustainability, especially from the perspective of Malaysia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Article
Removal of Anionic and Cationic Dyes from Wastewater Using Activated Carbon from Palm Tree Fiber Waste
Processes 2021, 9(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030416 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 309
Abstract
This study focuses on using a facile method for the green preparation of activated carbon (AC) from palm tree fiber (PTF) waste. The synthesized cost-effective AC was investigated for the removal of an anionic dye (Congo red, CR) and a cationic dye (Rhodamine [...] Read more.
This study focuses on using a facile method for the green preparation of activated carbon (AC) from palm tree fiber (PTF) waste. The synthesized cost-effective AC was investigated for the removal of an anionic dye (Congo red, CR) and a cationic dye (Rhodamine B, RhB) from wastewater. The morphological and structural characterization of the synthesized AC were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), surface area, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), total pore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution, zeta potential, and zero-point charge. To investigate the adsorption efficiency, different parameters such as adsorbent dosage, solution pH, initial dye concentration, and duration were applied using the batch experiments. Various adsorption isotherm and kinetics models were applied to study the adsorption mechanism and dynamics. The results showed that chemical activation with a weak acid (H3PO4) at 400 °C for 30 min is a fast method for the activation of each precursor and produces a high yield. The result of analysis showed an increase in the adsorption capacity at pH 2. The maximum adsorption capacity was 9.79 and 26.58 mg g−1 at 30 min for CR dye and RhB dye, respectively. The optimum adsorbent dosage for the activated carbon from palm tree fiber (PTFAC) was 0.15 g with a high percentage removal of CR (98.24%) and RhB (99.86%) dyes. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies were found to be favorable and feasible for assessing the adsorption of dyes with the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order reaction, respectively. In addition, the AC showed reusability up to five cycles. The results showed that the synthesized AC was environmentally friendly and successfully removed dyes from wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Article
Sequential Abatement of FeII and CrVI Water Pollution by Use of Walnut Shell-Based Adsorbents
Processes 2021, 9(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020218 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 320
Abstract
In this study walnut shells, an inexpensive and readily available waste, were used as carbonaceous precursor for preparation of an innovative adsorbent (walnut-shell powder (WSP)) which was successfully tested for the removal of FeII from synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD). Then, the [...] Read more.
In this study walnut shells, an inexpensive and readily available waste, were used as carbonaceous precursor for preparation of an innovative adsorbent (walnut-shell powder (WSP)) which was successfully tested for the removal of FeII from synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD). Then, the exhausted iron-contaminated adsorbent (WSP-FeII) was recovered and treated with sodium borohydride for the reduction of adsorbed FeII to Fe0. The resulting material (WSP-Fe0) was subsequently tested for the removal of CrVI from aqueous solutions. Treatability batch experiments were employed for both FeII and CrVI-contaminated solutions, and the influence of some important experimental parameters was studied. In addition, the experimental data was interpreted by applying three kinetic models and the mechanism of heavy metal removal was discussed. The overall data presented in this study indicated that fresh WSP and WSP-Fe0 can be considered as promising materials for the removal of FeII and CrVI, respectively. Furthermore, the present work clearly showed that water treatment residuals may be converted in upgraded materials, which can be successfully applied in subsequent water treatment processes. This is an example of sustainable and environmentally-friendly solution that may reduce the adverse effects associated with wastes and delay expensive disposal methods such as landfilling or incineration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Article
Effects of Ethanol Concentration on Organosolv Lignin Precipitation and Aggregation from Miscanthus x giganteus
Processes 2020, 8(7), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070845 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
This work assesses the behavior of organosolv lignin aggregates derived from Miscanthus x giganteus using different ethanol concentrations (10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% by volume). The percentage of lignin recovery was found to decrease from 75.8% to 71.4% and 25.1%, as the ethanol [...] Read more.
This work assesses the behavior of organosolv lignin aggregates derived from Miscanthus x giganteus using different ethanol concentrations (10%, 25%, 50%, and 75% by volume). The percentage of lignin recovery was found to decrease from 75.8% to 71.4% and 25.1%, as the ethanol concentration was increased from 10% to 25% and 50%, respectively. Increasing the ethanol concentration further to 75% led to zero recovery. The purity of the precipitated lignin was consistently found to be ≥90%. Lignin derived from the dried supernatant obtained at 50% ethanol concentration resulted in high lignin purity (51.6%) in comparison with the other ethanol concentrations used. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the precipitated lignin and dried supernatant at 50% ethanol concentration possessed the highest peak intensity apportioned to wavenumber of lignin as compared to that of at 25% and 10% ethanol concentrations, and the results linked with the percentage of lignin purity. The results of particle size analysis for precipitated lignin demonstrated particle sizes of 306, 392, and 2050 nm for 10%, 25%, and 50% ethanol concentrations, respectively, and the remaining supernatant with average particle sizes of 1598, 1197, and 875 nm, respectively. These results were verified with the morphology of lignin macromolecules in scanning electron microscopy images. Results of the particle size distribution of lignin revealed that the overall size of lignin aggregates decreased with decreasing ethanol concentration. In summary, these findings suggest that ethanol concentration affected the behavior of lignin aggregates in water–ethanol solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Article
Industrial Processes Management for a Sustainable Society: Global Research Analysis
Processes 2020, 8(5), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050631 - 24 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Few decades ago, the development of the industrial sector was disconnected from society’s protection. Negative effects awareness emerges from the current industrial processes through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), considering the causal implications to build up a more sustainable society. The aim of [...] Read more.
Few decades ago, the development of the industrial sector was disconnected from society’s protection. Negative effects awareness emerges from the current industrial processes through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), considering the causal implications to build up a more sustainable society. The aim of this study is to analyze the state of the art in industrial processes management to obtain positive and sustainable effects on society. Thus, a bibliometric analysis of 1911 articles was set up during the 1988–2019 period, bringing up the authors’ productivity indicators in the scientific field, that is, journals, authors, research institutions, and countries. We have identified environmental management; the impact assessments of industrial processes on the environment and its relation with a more sustainable society; as well as the study of the sustainable management of water resources as the related axes in the study of environmental protection with political, economic, and educational approaches. The growing trend of world scientific publications let us observe the relevance of industrial processes management in the implementation of efficient models to achieve sustainable societies. This research contributes to the academic, scientific, and social debate on decision-making both in public and private institutions, and in multidisciplinary groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Article
Does Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility Drive Better Organizational Performance through Integration with a Public Sector Scorecard? Empirical Evidence in a Developing Country
Processes 2020, 8(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050596 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 943
Abstract
This paper sets its sights on propounding a structural model to delve into the interrelationship between the impact of the integration of corporate social responsibility activities into the public sector scorecard management framework on the corporate social responsibility disclosure and enhancement of the [...] Read more.
This paper sets its sights on propounding a structural model to delve into the interrelationship between the impact of the integration of corporate social responsibility activities into the public sector scorecard management framework on the corporate social responsibility disclosure and enhancement of the organizational performance among public sector organizations. The conceptual framework in company with hypothesis framing were established after examining the related literature. Data were gathered from a sample of 723 respondents in public sector organizations in South Vietnam via convenience sampling method. Structural equation modeling was employed to validate the goodness of model fit and examine the hypotheses. These findings revealed that integration of corporate social responsibility activities into the public sector scorecard management framework was significantly and positively related to the corporate social responsibility disclosure and organizational performance. Additionally, it also asserted that corporate social responsibility disclosure was considerably associated in a positive manner with organizational performance. Thus, some detailed implications in connection with each causal relationship and several orientations were underlined to ameliorate the capacity of managing and measuring the organizational corporate social responsibility practices in a strategic manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Review

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Review
New Perspectives on Iron-Based Nanostructures
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091128 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Among all minerals, iron is one of the elements identified early by human beings to take advantage of and be used. The role of iron in human life is so great that it made an era in the ages of humanity. Pure iron [...] Read more.
Among all minerals, iron is one of the elements identified early by human beings to take advantage of and be used. The role of iron in human life is so great that it made an era in the ages of humanity. Pure iron has a shiny grayish-silver color, but after combining with oxygen and water it can make a colorful set of materials with divergent properties. This diversity sometimes appears ambiguous but provides variety of applications. In fact, iron can come in different forms: zero-valent iron (pure iron), iron oxides, iron hydroxides, and iron oxide hydroxides. By taking these divergent materials into the nano realm, new properties are exhibited, providing us with even more applications. This review deals with iron as a magic element in the nano realm and provides comprehensive data about its structure, properties, synthesis techniques, and applications of various forms of iron-based nanostructures in the science, medicine, and technology sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Processes: Working towards a Sustainable Society)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Comparative Study of Life Cycle Assessment for Bio-plastic Straws and Paper Straws
Authors: Jully Tan
Affiliation: Chemical Engineering Discipline Room 5-4-53, Monash University Malaysia Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Plastics are used for various applications including the food and beverage industry for the manu-facturing of plastic utensils and straws. Higher utilization of plastic straws has indirectly resulted in significant disposal of plastic waste which leads to a serious environmental issue. Alternatively, bio-plastic and paper straws are introduced to reduce plastic waste. However, limited studies are available on the environmental assessment of drinking straws. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies for bio-plastic and paper straws are still not comprehensively performed. Therefore, the impact of both bio-plastic and paper straws on the environment are quantified and compared in this study. Parameters such as global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophica-tion potential (EP) were evaluated. Input-output data of the bio-plastic and paper straws process-es from gate to grave analysis were obtained from literature and generated using a process simu-lator, SuperPro Designer V9. The results showed that the bio-plastic straws which are also known as the polylactic acid (PLA) straws reduced the environmental impacts compared to the paper straws. The outcomes of this work provide an insight into the application of bio-plastic and paper straws in reducing the impact on the environment effectively and promote sustainability.

Title: Does Environmental Management Moderate the Relationship between Green Innovation and Firm Performance?
Authors: Muhammad Safdar
Affiliation: Assistant Professor COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI),Pakistan

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