Special Issue "Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Yizhak Marcus
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel
Interests: The chemistry of liquids and solutions, dealing with inter alia with solvent properties and applications, including those of supercritical fluids, as well as liquid–liquid solvent extraction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The search for neoteric solvents to replace ecologically unfriendly organic solvents, in addition to room temperature ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents, also includes supercritical solvents. The latter are used as reaction media and for the extraction of valuable substances from a variety of materials. The term ‘supercritical fluid extraction’ is generally applied to the use of supercritical carbon dioxide, neat or with entrainers (co-solvents). However, this term should also include other fluids, namely supercritical water, methanol, or ethanol, among a few others.

The use of supercritical carbon dioxide for the decaffeination of coffee beans is presently a well-established industry, but decaffeination of other beverages is coming to the forefront. Other uses of supercritical carbon dioxide are for extraction processes in the food industry and in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, and these are maturing. On the other hand, supercritical water has found uses in the fuel production industry for extraction of liquid or gaseous fuels from coal or the conversion of plant biomass to biodiesel oil. Supercritical methanol is useful for transesterification processes during such extractions.

It is the purpose of this Special Issue of Process on “Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction” to highlight recent progress and to point out trends, prospects, and areas in which further research will be very beneficial for this area.

Prof. Dr. Yizhak Marcus
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Please note that for papers submitted after 30 June 2020 an APC of 1500 CHF applies. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • supercritical carbon dioxide
  • supercritical water
  • supercritical methanol
  • supercritical ethanol
  • food industry
  • pharmaceutical industry
  • cosmetic industry
  • fuel processing
  • biomass processing
  • coal

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamic Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Internal Combustion Engine Waste Heat Recovery
Processes 2020, 8(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020216 - 12 Feb 2020
Abstract
Waste heat recovery of the internal combustion engine (ICE) has attracted much attention, and the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) cycle was considered as a promising technology. In this paper, a comparison of four S-CO2 cycles for waste heat recovery from [...] Read more.
Waste heat recovery of the internal combustion engine (ICE) has attracted much attention, and the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) cycle was considered as a promising technology. In this paper, a comparison of four S-CO2 cycles for waste heat recovery from the ICE was presented. Improving the exhaust heat recovery ratio and cycle thermal efficiency were significant to the net output power. A discussion about four different cycles with different design parameters was conducted, along with a thermodynamic performance. The results showed that choosing an appropriate inlet pressure of the compressor could achieve the maximum exhaust heat recovery ratio, and the pressure increased with the rising of the turbine inlet pressure and compressor inlet temperature. The maximum exhaust heat recovery ratio for recuperation and pre-compression of the S-CO2 cycle were achieved at 7.65 Mpa and 5.8 MPa, respectively. For the split-flow recompression cycle, thermal efficiency first increased with the increasing of the split ratio (SR), then decreased with a further increase of the SR, but the exhaust heat recovery ratio showed a sustained downward trend with the increase of the SR. For the split-flow expansion cycle, the optimal SR was 0.43 when the thermal efficiency and exhaust heat recovery ratio achieved the maximum. The highest recovery ratio was 24.75% for the split-flow expansion cycle when the total output power, which is the sum of the ICE power output and turbine mechanical power output, increased 15.3%. The thermal performance of the split-flow expansion cycle was the best compared to the other three cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraction of Oil and Minor Compounds from Oil Palm Fruit with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Processes 2019, 7(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7020107 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A significant quantity of tocochromanols and carotenoids remains in the residual from palm oil production by traditional screw pressing. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was used as alternative method with the purpose to recover better these valuable minor compounds. Total oil yield and co-extracted [...] Read more.
A significant quantity of tocochromanols and carotenoids remains in the residual from palm oil production by traditional screw pressing. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was used as alternative method with the purpose to recover better these valuable minor compounds. Total oil yield and co-extracted water were investigated in the course of extraction. Tocochromanols and carotenoids were evaluated, not only in the extraction oil, but also in the oil of residual fibre. Modelling of extraction process was also performed for a further up-scaling. The results showed that oil yield up to 90% could be observed within 120 min. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) could extract tocochromanols and carotenoids with concentration in the same range of normal commercial processing palm oil, while co-extracted water remained rather low at a level of 2–4%. Moreover, recovery efficiencies of these minor compounds were much higher in case of extraction processed with supercritical carbon dioxide than those with screw pressing method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Analysis of the S-CO2 Brayton Cycle with Improved Heat Regeneration
Processes 2019, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7010003 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles (BC) are promising alternatives for power generation. Many variants of S-CO2 BC have already been studied to make this technology economically more viable and efficient. In comparison to other BC and Rankine cycles, S-CO [...] Read more.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycles (BC) are promising alternatives for power generation. Many variants of S-CO2 BC have already been studied to make this technology economically more viable and efficient. In comparison to other BC and Rankine cycles, S-CO2 BC is less complex and more compact, which may reduce the overall plant size, maintenance, and the cost of operation and installation. In this paper, we consider one of the configurations of S-CO2 BC called the recompression Brayton cycle with partial cooling (RBC-PC) to which some modifications are suggested with an aim to improve the overall cycle’s thermal efficiency. The type of heat source is not considered in this study; thus, any heat source may be considered that is capable of supplying temperature to the S-CO2 in the range from 500 °C to 850 °C, like solar heaters, or nuclear and gas turbine waste heat. The commercial software Aspen HYSYS V9 (Aspen Technology, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) is used for simulations. RBC-PC serves as a base cycle in this study; thus, the simulation results for RBC-PC are compared with the already published data in the literature. Energy analysis is done for both layouts and an efficiency comparison is made for a range of turbine operating temperatures (from 500 °C to 850 °C). The heat exchanger effectiveness and its influence on both layouts are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Some Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction for Fuels, Bio-Materials and Purification
Processes 2019, 7(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7030156 - 13 Mar 2019
Abstract
Supercritical fluids are used for the extraction of desired ingredients from natural materials, but also for the removal of undesired and harmful ingredients. In this paper, the pertinent physical and chemical properties of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures are [...] Read more.
Supercritical fluids are used for the extraction of desired ingredients from natural materials, but also for the removal of undesired and harmful ingredients. In this paper, the pertinent physical and chemical properties of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures are provided. The methodologies used with supercritical fluid extraction are briefly dealt with. Advances in the application of supercritical extraction to fuels, the gaining of antioxidants and other useful items from biomass, the removal of undesired ingredients or contaminants, and the preparation of nanosized particles of drugs are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Supercritical Fluid Extraction)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Study on supercritical fluid extraction and Bioactivity of essential oil from Baopuxianggui
Author: Dr. Hua Zhang
Abstract: In order to investigate the functional properties of essential oils from Baopuxianggui. This paper studied the extraction of essential oil by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with dry and crushed Baopuxianggui as raw material. Through single factor analysis, the research discussed the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, extraction pressure and extraction time on the extraction rate of the essential oil. Then the study used the response surface software to optimize the extraction of the process conditions and discussed the antioxidant of it. The best extraction process parameters were: the extraction pressure was 18 MPa, the extraction temperature was 40℃, and the extraction time was 1.6h. Under this condition, the extraction rate of the essential oil was 0.97%. The research evaluated the antioxidant properties of the essential oil through the determination of DPPH., ·OH、ABTS. radical scavenging capacity, and the determination of total reducing power. Based on the results of the four methods, the research concluded that the essential oil has strong antioxidant activity.

 

2. Title: Structure and properties of super-critical water explored by the statistical mechanics theory of molecular liquids

Author: Dr. Hirata

Abstract: Water in the supercritical region in the phase diagram exhibits a markedly different structure and properties from that in the ambient condition, which are useful to control the chemical reactions. Nonetheless, the theoretcial treatment of the matter is not so easy because the region is right next to the critical point. The article is devoted to review the theoretical studies on water in the super-critical region and its properties as a solvent of chemical reaction, carried out by the authors based on the statistical mechanics theory of molecular liquids, or the RISM theory. The manuscript includes the following sections:
(1) Properties of water in a wide range of pressure and temperature
including the super-critical region.
(2) Characterization of super-critical region in terms of the concept of
“Ridge” in the phase diagram.
(3) pKw in the super critical water.
(4) The Diels-Alder reaction in the super-critical water.

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