Design, Simulation and Applications of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage Systems

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 15049

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architectural and Urban Systems Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
Interests: phase change materials (PCMs); thermal energy storage (TES); thermally-activated building system; building energy simulation; curtain wall system

E-Mail
Guest Editor
School of Architecture, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
Interests: building service; environmental materials; building energy; indoor air quality; building environment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phase change materials (PCMs) have been used to increase the thermal mass of buildings and to store thermal energy from renewable energy sources in building and unban systems. These technologies have been of great interests in recent years due to their good performance of thermal storage within narrow temperature ranges. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using PCMs in building and urban systems have become a hot topic within the research community in recent years. When considering energy efficiency and a comfortable indoor thermal environment in a building or urban context, heat storage technology using PCMs can be a good alternative to reduce the maximum heat load of a building, utilize solar heat or unused energy, or mitigate thermal fluctuations in building and urban systems.

This Special Issue on “Design, Simulation, and Applications of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage Systems” will collect papers exploring scientific advances in phase change material technology focused on building and urban system applications, including research articles on all aspects of basic thermophysical properties, PCM types, PCM incorporation methods, design methods, manufacturing processes, simulation, performance evaluation, application technology of energy systems, and structures in building and urban infrastructure.

Dr. Jae-Han Lim
Dr. Su-Gwang Jeong
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phase change materials
  • thermal energy storage
  • thermally-activated building system
  • building envelope
  • renewable energy system
  • urban infrastructure
  • design methods
  • simulation
  • performance evaluation
  • application technology

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

25 pages, 50445 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two CFD Approaches Using Constant and Temperature Dependent Heat Capacities during the Phase Transition in PCMs with Experimental and Analytical Results
by Christoph Reichl, Svenja Both, Philipp Mascherbauer and Johann Emhofer
Processes 2022, 10(2), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10020302 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
Modeling phase change materials (PCMs) has been a topic of research interest in the past, carried out experimentally and by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The implemented solidification and melting (SM) model in Ansys Fluent-based on the enthalpy-porosity formulation is widely used [...] Read more.
Modeling phase change materials (PCMs) has been a topic of research interest in the past, carried out experimentally and by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The implemented solidification and melting (SM) model in Ansys Fluent-based on the enthalpy-porosity formulation is widely used in the literature. To the authors’ knowledge, few publications apply the apparent heat capacity (AHC) method in Ansys Fluent and even fewer have discussed both. The SM approach applies a linear relationship of the liquid fraction between solidus and liquidus temperature although it is known that the phase transition follows a non-linear behavior, which can be captured using the AHC method as a curve shape and location of the specific heat capacity containing information about the nature of phase transition behavior. Important factors in modeling are the temperature dependent thermophysical material properties density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. They are often considered constant in the respective phase (solid or liquid) with a (linear) transition over the melting range. Temperature-dependent density is taken into account by using the Boussinesq approximation to model convective heat transfer. SM and AHC are compared to the analytical solution of the two-phase Stefan problem. As this does not include gravity and thus natural convection behavior, an additional comparison to two different PCMs, one from literature and a second data set gained in a new experiment is provided. The present work helps to evaluate the differences between the SM and AHC approach and to decide which is better suited for intended studies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 6918 KiB  
Article
Silica-Based Core-Shell Nanocapsules: A Facile Route to Functional Textile
by Chi Zhang, Chunyan Hu, Shuo Chang, Jianchao Zhan, Jiajia Shen and Henggen Shen
Processes 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010006 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
In this work, we present a surfactant-free miniemulsion approach to obtain silica-based core-shell nanocapsules with a phase change material (PCM) core via in-situ hydrolytic polycondensation of precursor hyperbranched polyethoxysiloxanes (PEOS) as silica shells. The obtained silica-based core-shell nanocapsules (PCM@SiO2), with diameters [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a surfactant-free miniemulsion approach to obtain silica-based core-shell nanocapsules with a phase change material (PCM) core via in-situ hydrolytic polycondensation of precursor hyperbranched polyethoxysiloxanes (PEOS) as silica shells. The obtained silica-based core-shell nanocapsules (PCM@SiO2), with diameters of ~400 nm and silica shells of ~14 nm, reached the maximum core content of 65%. The silica shell had basically no significant influence on the phase change behavior of PCM, and the PCM@SiO2 exhibited a high enthalpy of melt and crystallization of 123–126 J/g. The functional textile with PCM@SiO2 has been proposed with thermoregulation and acclimatization, ultraviolet (UV) resistance and improved mechanical properties. The thermal property tests have shown that the functional textile had good thermal stability. The functional textile, with a PCM@SiO2 concentration of 30%, was promising, with enthalpies of melting and crystallization of 27.7 J/g and 27.8 J/g, and UV resistance of 77.85. The thermoregulation and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) value could be maintained after washing 10 times, which demonstrated that the functional textile had durability. With good thermoregulation and UV resistance, the multi-functional textile shows good prospects for applications in thermal comfort and as protective and energy-saving textile. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4735 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort Considering the Heat Storage Capacity and Thermal Conductivity of Biocomposite Phase Change Materials
by Su-Gwang Jeong, Taemin Lee and Jeonghun Lee
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122191 - 05 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
The application of phase change materials (PCMs) has been verified as an effective strategy for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biocomposite PCMs (Bc-PCM) exhibit large latent heat, chemical stability, and a wide temperature range. In this study, thermal conductivity improved [...] Read more.
The application of phase change materials (PCMs) has been verified as an effective strategy for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biocomposite PCMs (Bc-PCM) exhibit large latent heat, chemical stability, and a wide temperature range. In this study, thermal conductivity improved Bc-PCM (TBc-PCM) was made via vacuum impregnation with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). Chemical stability analysis and thermal performance analyses of the Bc-PCM and TBc-PCM were carried out as well as building energy simulations and thermal comfort analyses. Our results show Bc-PCM showed a higher heat storage capacity and enthalpy value compared to TBc-PCM. TBc-PCM exhibited a 378% increase in thermal conductivity compared to Bc-PCM. Building energy simulation results revealed that annual heating and cooling energy consumption decreased as the thickness of the PCM layer increased. In addition, the Bc-PCM with a larger PCM capacity was more effective in reducing energy consumption during the heating period. On the other hand, the cooling energy reduction effect was greater when TBc-PCM with high thermal conductivity was applied because of the high heat transfer during the cooling period. Thermal comfort evaluation revealed it was more comfortable when PCM was applied. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 4683 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Metal Foam Pore Density Effect on Sensible and Latent Heats Storage through an Enthalpy-Based REV-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Method
by Riheb Mabrouk, Hassane Naji and Hacen Dhahri
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071165 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
In this work, an unsteady forced convection heat transfer in an open-ended channel incorporating a porous medium filled either with a phase change material (PCM; case 1) or with water (case 2) has been studied using a thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) at [...] Read more.
In this work, an unsteady forced convection heat transfer in an open-ended channel incorporating a porous medium filled either with a phase change material (PCM; case 1) or with water (case 2) has been studied using a thermal lattice Boltzmann method (TLBM) at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale. The set of governing equations includes the dimensionless generalized Navier–Stokes equations and the two energy model transport equations based on local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE). The enthalpy-based method is employed to cope with the phase change process. The pores per inch density (10PPI60) effects of the metal foam on the storage of sensible and latent heat were studied during charging/discharging processes at two Reynolds numbers (Re) of 200 and 400. The significant outcomes are discussed for the dynamic and thermal fields, the entropy generation rate (Ns), the LTNE intensity, and the energy and exergy efficiencies under the influence of Re. It can be stated that increasing the PPI improves the energy and exergy efficiencies of the latent heat model, reduces energy losses, and improves the stored energy quality. Likewise, at a moderate Re (=200), a low PPI (=10) would be suitable to reduce the system irreversibility during the charging period, while a high value (PPI = 60) might be advised for the discharging process. As becomes clear from the obtained findings, PPI and porosity are relevant factors. In conclusion, this paper further provides a first analysis of entropy generation during forced convection to improve the energy efficiency of various renewable energy systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4875 KiB  
Article
Storing Energy from External Power Supplies Using Phase Change Materials and Various Pipe Configurations
by Daniel Aprile, Samer Al-Banna, Arraventhan Maheswaran, Joshua Paquette and Mohamad Ziad Saghir
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071160 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2095
Abstract
Phase change materials are commonly used for energy storage. Heat transfer enhancement and heat storage are the two main goals in this paper. A cylindrical pipe covered with phase change material is investigated numerically. Ideally, a high temperature liquid flows through the pipe, [...] Read more.
Phase change materials are commonly used for energy storage. Heat transfer enhancement and heat storage are the two main goals in this paper. A cylindrical pipe covered with phase change material is investigated numerically. Ideally, a high temperature liquid flows through the pipe, resulting in heat transferred to the phase change material. To enhance the heat transfer, various configurations involving the addition of a twisted tape inside of the pipe and the use of helical shape pipes were investigated. A straight pipe with no twisted tape insert was also analyzed and used as a benchmark case. All the configurations had constant properties such as material selection, overall size, pipe diameter and inlet Reynold’s number, so the performance could be compared under similar conditions. All initial configurations were simulated and the heat transfer rate, Nusselt number, friction factor and performance evaluation criterion (PEC) of the designs were determined. It was found that the heat transfer rate and Nusselt number of all the various designs yielded higher results than the reference straight pipe configuration. Additionally, due to the added complexity in the flow caused by the insert, the friction factor of all the configurations was also higher. The helical pipe configuration was the only configuration that had a PEC higher than that of the reference straight pipe. This is because the negative impacts caused by the friction factor outweighed the gains in Nusselt number for the twisted tape designs. It was also hypothesized that lowering the inner diameter of the helical pipe would increase the PEC. Further simulations with modified inner diameters were done to test the hypothesis. The simulations confirmed the hypothesis, as the pipes with inner diameters 0.75 and 0.5 cm led to a 50% and 150% increase in the PEC respectively, when compared to an inner diameter of 1 cm. It was also determined that smaller inner diameters led to lower outlet temperatures meaning a higher percentage of the thermal energy from the fluid was transferred to the phase change material. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4987 KiB  
Article
Study on a Novel Filter Media Incorporating with Core Shell Nanoencapsulated Phase Change Material: Fabrication and Evaluation
by Chi Zhang, Shuo Chang, Gaoju Song, Jianlin Liu and Henggen Shen
Processes 2021, 9(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9050731 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
Thermal performance of filter media plays a significant effect on the filtration efficiency of baghouse, especially its tolerance of high temperature air and chemical erosion. In this study, nano-encapsulated phase change material within the silica shell (NPCMs) is synthesized through a self-assembly method [...] Read more.
Thermal performance of filter media plays a significant effect on the filtration efficiency of baghouse, especially its tolerance of high temperature air and chemical erosion. In this study, nano-encapsulated phase change material within the silica shell (NPCMs) is synthesized through a self-assembly method based on polymer—hyperbranched precursor polyethoxysiloxane (PEOS). Filter media is fabricated by NPCMs through a facile dip-dry-cure process to enhance its thermal regulation and serving durability. Filter media acts as frame-supporting of the functional structure NPCMs. Incorporating NPCMs into filter media optimizes the microstructure and filtration efficiency of baghouse. The penetration rate was reduced from 457 × 10−4% of the control filter media to 5 × 10−4%. Meanwhile, the novel filter media lowers the temperature up to 20 °C than the surroundings. The novel filter media exhibits not only better mechanical properties, but also much less tensile strength loss after suffering 100 thermal shock cycles with simultaneous chemical exposure, from 37.58% to 20.37%. Overall, the filter media incorporated with NPCMs demonstrates excellent performances on filter efficiency, thermal regulation, and environmental endurance, which has the potential for extending lifespans and enhancing operation stability of filter bags in industrial air pollutant control. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop