Special Issue "Multifunctional Hybrid Materials Based on Polymers: Design and Performance"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (19 August 2021) | Viewed by 15086

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Shaghayegh Hamzehlou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
POLYMAT and Kimika Aplikatua Saila, Kimika Fakultatea, University of the Basque Country UPV-EHU, Joxe Mari Korta Zentroa, Tolosa Hiribidea 72, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain
Interests: polymer reaction engineering; modeling and simulation of kinetics, topology, microstructure, and morphology of the complex polymerization systems; emulsion polymerization; polymer synthesis and characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. M. Ali Aboudzadeh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, University Pau & Pays Adour, 64000 Pau, France
Interests: polymer synthesis and characterization; supramolecular assemblies; rheology; DNA nanotechnology; encapsulation via emulsion-based systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multifunctional hybrid materials based on polymers have already displayed excellent commitment in addressing and presenting solutions to existing demands in priority areas such as the environment, human health, and energy. These hybrid materials can lead to unique superior multifunction materials with a broad range of envisaged applications. However, their design, performance, and practical applications are still challenging. Thus, it is highly advantageous to provide a breakthrough in state-of-the-art manufacturing and scale-up technology to design and synthesize advanced multifunctional hybrid materials based on polymers with improved performance.

The main objective of this interdisciplinary Special Issue of Processes is to bring together, at an international level, high-quality elegant collection of reviews, original articles, and short communications dealing with polymeric hybrid materials within different areas such as the following:

  • Biomaterials chemistry, physics, engineering, and processing
  • Polymer chemistry, physics, engineering, and processing
  • Organic chemistry
  • Composites science
  • Colloidal chemistry and physics
  • Porous nanomaterials science
  • Energy storage
  • Automotive and aerospace manufacturing

All the articles submitted to the Special Issue will undergo a thorough review process. This editorial will interest the broadest possible section of readership among materials scientists and engineers.

Dr. Shaghayegh Hamzehlou
Dr. M. Ali Aboudzadeh
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • particles
  • processing
  • composites
  • polymer
  • synthesis
  • porous nanomaterials
  • characterization
  • colloidal dispersions

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Special Issue on “Multifunctional Hybrid Materials Based on Polymers: Design and Performance”
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081448 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 458
Abstract
Hybrids and composite materials offer a synergic combination of polymer and inorganic features [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Silica-Supported Styrene-Co-Divinylbenzene Pickering Emulsion Polymerization: Tuning Surface Charge and Hydrophobicity by pH and Co-Aid Adsorption
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9101820 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 628
Abstract
In this work, polymerizations of styrene (St) in the presence of divinylbenzene (DVB) as a crosslinking agent and sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate (VBS) have been performed in Pickering emulsions, using silica nanoparticles (SNps) as stabilizing agents and ammonium persulfate as a hydrophilic initiator. In oil-in-water [...] Read more.
In this work, polymerizations of styrene (St) in the presence of divinylbenzene (DVB) as a crosslinking agent and sodium 4-vinylbenzenesulfonate (VBS) have been performed in Pickering emulsions, using silica nanoparticles (SNps) as stabilizing agents and ammonium persulfate as a hydrophilic initiator. In oil-in-water Pickering emulsions with alkaline continuous phase (pH = 9) at 1, 2, and 3 wt% DVB (relative to St), polydisperse spheroid copolymer submicronic nanoparticles were obtained. Comparatively, polymerizations performed in Pickering emulsions with acidic continuous phase (pH = 5) allowed preparing St-co-DVB microspheres with core–shell structures at 1 wt% DVB and St-co-DVB hybrid monoliths with bi-continuous morphologies at 2 and 3 wt% DVB. It is noteworthy that this work reports Pickering emulsion polymerization as a new strategy for preparing hybrid percolated scaffolds with bi-continuous porosity. The proposed mechanisms originated by pH, DVB, and VBS and the drastic impact caused on the final morphology obtained, either hybrid particles or monoliths, are discussed herein. Full article
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Article
Characterizations of Polypropylene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Prepared by the Novel Melt Processing Technique with a Controlled Residence Time
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081395 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Melt processing is considered one of the favored techniques to produce polymer nanocomposites with various inorganic fillers such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Due to their superior conductivity and tensile properties, among others, CNTs have been applied in broad applications. When a [...] Read more.
Melt processing is considered one of the favored techniques to produce polymer nanocomposites with various inorganic fillers such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Due to their superior conductivity and tensile properties, among others, CNTs have been applied in broad applications. When a low filler fraction is desired, a high degree of dispersion is required in order to benefit from the intrinsic properties of CNTs. However, due to their high cohesive energy, dispersing CNTs in polymer melts is a difficult task. This study employed the melt mixing technique with a controlled residence time of 20 min to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into a polypropylene matrix. The composites were prepared by using a corotating twin-screw extruder equipped with a back-conveying element with varying amounts of SWNTs from 0.29 to 6.56 wt.%. Mechanical, electrical, morphological, and rheological properties were evaluated. Due to the filler effect, storage, loss modulus, and complex viscosity increased with the SWNT content. Based on the van Gurp–Palmen plot, 0.29 wt.% SWNTs was the rheological percolation threshold, and the electrical property measurement revealed a 1.4 wt.% SWNT electrical percolation threshold based on the statistical percolation theory. Relatively large agglomerates were found when the SWNT content increased more than 1.28 wt.%. Full article
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Article
Process Transferability of Friction Riveting of AA2024-T351/Polyetherimide (PEI) Joints Using Hand-Driven, Low-Cost Drilling Equipment
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081376 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
The present work deals with the transferability of Friction Riveting joining technology from laboratory equipment to adapted in-house, low-cost machinery. A G13 drilling machine was modified for the requirements of the selected joining technique, and joints were performed using polyethermide plates and AA2024 [...] Read more.
The present work deals with the transferability of Friction Riveting joining technology from laboratory equipment to adapted in-house, low-cost machinery. A G13 drilling machine was modified for the requirements of the selected joining technique, and joints were performed using polyethermide plates and AA2024 aluminum alloy rivets of 6 mm diameter. This diameter was not previously reported for Friction Riveting. The produced joints were mechanically tested under tensile loading (pullout tests) with ultimate tensile forces of 9500 ± 900 N. All tested specimens failed through full-rivet pullout, which is the weakest reported joint in Friction Riveting. In order to understand this behavior, FE models were created and analyzed. The models produced were in agreement with the experimental results, with failure initiated within the polymer under stress concentrations in the polymeric material above the deformed metallic anchor at an ultimate value of the stress of 878 MPa at the surface of the joint. Stresses decreased to less than half of the maximum value around the anchoring zone while the rivet was removed and towards the surface. The paper thus demonstrates the potential ease of applying and reproducing Friction Riveting with simple machinery, while contributing to an understanding of the mechanical behavior (initialization of failure) of joints. Full article
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Article
Mesoscale Morphologies of Nafion-Based Blend Membranes by Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Processes 2021, 9(6), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060984 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) composed of polymer or polymer blend is a vital element in PEM fuel cell that allows proton transport and serves as a barrier between fuel and oxygen. Understanding the microscopic phase behavior in polymer blends is very crucial to [...] Read more.
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) composed of polymer or polymer blend is a vital element in PEM fuel cell that allows proton transport and serves as a barrier between fuel and oxygen. Understanding the microscopic phase behavior in polymer blends is very crucial to design alternative cost-effective proton-conducting materials. In this study, the mesoscale morphologies of Nafion/poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) (Nafion-PVTri) and Nafion/poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) (Nafion-PVPA) blend membranes were studied by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation technique. Simulation results indicate that both blend membranes can form a phase-separated microstructure due to the different hydrophobic and hydrophilic character of different polymer chains and different segments in the same polymer chain. There is a strong, attractive interaction between the phosphonic acid and sulfonic acid groups and a very strong repulsive interaction between the fluorinated and phosphonic acid groups in the Nafion-PVPA blend membrane. By increasing the PVPA content in the blend membrane, the PVPA clusters’ size gradually increases and forms a continuous phase. On the other hand, repulsive interaction between fluorinated and triazole units in the Nafion-PVTri blend is not very strong compared to the Nafion-PVPA blend, which results in different phase behavior in Nafion-PVTri blend membrane. This relatively lower repulsive interaction causes Nafion-PVTri blend membrane to have non-continuous phases regardless of the composition. Full article
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Article
Simulation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Nanocomposites for Small Wind Turbine Blades
Processes 2021, 9(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040622 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the performance of glass fiber (GF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) for wind turbine blades. Support for theoretical blade movement of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), simulation, and analysis were performed with [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the performance of glass fiber (GF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) for wind turbine blades. Support for theoretical blade movement of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), simulation, and analysis were performed with the Ansys computer package to gain insight into the durability of polypropylene-chopped E-glass for application in turbine blades under aerodynamic, gravitational, and centrifugal loads. Typically, polymer nanocomposites are used for small-scale wind turbine systems, such as for residential applications. Mechanical and physical properties of material composites including tensile and melt flow indices were determined. Surface morphology of polypropylene-chopped E-glass fiber and functionalized MWCNTs nanocomposites showed good distribution of dispersed phase. The effect of fiber loading on the mechanical properties of the PP nanocomposites was investigated in order to obtain the optimum composite composition and processing conditions for manufacturing wind turbine blades. The results show that adding MWCNTs to glass fiber-reinforced PP composites has a substantial influence on deflection reduction and adding them to chopped-polypropylene E-glass has a significant effect on reducing the bias estimated by finite element analysis. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study on the Effect of Basalt Fiber and Sodium Alginate in Polymer Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperature
Processes 2021, 9(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030510 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
Polymer concrete contains aggregates and a polymeric binder such as epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester, or normal epoxy mixture. Since polymer binders in polymer concrete are made of organic materials, they have a very low heat and fire resistance compared to minerals. This paper [...] Read more.
Polymer concrete contains aggregates and a polymeric binder such as epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester, or normal epoxy mixture. Since polymer binders in polymer concrete are made of organic materials, they have a very low heat and fire resistance compared to minerals. This paper investigates the effect of basalt fibers (BF) and alginate on the compressive strength of polymer concrete. An extensive literature review was completed, then two experimental phases including the preliminary phase to set the appropriate mix design, and the main phase to investigate the compressive strength of samples after exposure to elevated temperatures of 100 °C, 150 °C, and 180 °C were conducted. The addition of BF and/or alginate decreases concrete compressive strength under room temperature, but the addition of BF and alginate each alone leads to compressive strength increase during exposure to heat and increase in the temperature to 180 °C showed almost positive on the compressive strength. The addition of BF and alginate both together increases the rate of strength growth of polymer concrete under heat from 100 °C to 180 °C. In conclusion, BF and alginate decrease the compressive strength of polymer concretes under room temperature, but they improve the resistance against raised temperatures. Full article
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Article
Ameliorated Electrical-Tree Resistant Characteristics of UV-Initiated Cross-Linked Polyethylene Nanocomposites with Surface-Functionalized Nanosilica
Processes 2021, 9(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020313 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Given the high interest in promoting crosslinking efficiency of ultraviolet-initiated crosslinking technique and ameliorating electrical resistance of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) materials, we have developed the funcionalized-SiO2/XLPE nanocomposites by chemically grafting auxiliary crosslinkers onto nanosilica surfaces. Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) as an effective [...] Read more.
Given the high interest in promoting crosslinking efficiency of ultraviolet-initiated crosslinking technique and ameliorating electrical resistance of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) materials, we have developed the funcionalized-SiO2/XLPE nanocomposites by chemically grafting auxiliary crosslinkers onto nanosilica surfaces. Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) as an effective auxiliary crosslinker for polyethylene is grafted successfully on nanosilica surfaces through thiolene-click chemical reactions with coupling agents of sulfur silanes and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane (MPTMS), as characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles could be dispersively filled into polyethylene matrix even at a high filling content that would generally produce agglomerations of neat SiO2 nanofillers. Ultraviolet-initiated polyethylene crosslinking reactions are efficiently stimulated by TMPTA grafted onto surfaces of SiO2 nanofillers, averting thermal migrations out of polyethylene matrix. Electrical-tree pathways and growth mechanism are specifically investigated by elucidating the microscopic tree-morphology with fractal dimension and simulating electric field distributions with finite-element method. Near nano-interfaces where the shielded-out electric fluxlines concentrate, the highly enhanced electric fields will stimulate partial discharging and thus lead to the electrical-trees being able to propagate along the routes between nanofillers. Surface-modified SiO2 nanofillers evidently elongate the circuitous routes of electrical-tree growth to be restricted from directly developing toward ground electrode, which accounts for the larger fractal dimension and shorter length of electrical-trees in the functionlized-SiO2/XLPE nanocomposite compared with XLPE and neat-SiO2/XLPE nanocomposite. Polar-groups on the modified nanosilica surfaces inhibit electrical-tree growth and simultaneously introduce deep traps impeding charge injections, accounting for the significant improvements of electrical-tree resistance and dielectric breakdown strength. Combining surface functionalization and nanodielectric technology, we propose a strategy to develop XLPE materials with high electrical resistance. Full article
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Article
Development of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil Active Packaging Films via a Melt-Extrusion Process Using Novel Chitosan/Basil Oil Blends
Processes 2021, 9(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9010088 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Following the global trend toward a cyclic economy, the development of a fully biodegradable active packaging film is the target of this work. An innovative process to improve the mechanical, antioxidant, and barrier properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan films is presented using essential basil [...] Read more.
Following the global trend toward a cyclic economy, the development of a fully biodegradable active packaging film is the target of this work. An innovative process to improve the mechanical, antioxidant, and barrier properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan films is presented using essential basil oil extract. A Chitosan/Basil oil blend was prepared via a green evaporation/adsorption method as a precursor for the development of the Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil active packaging film. This Chitosan/Basil Oil blend was incorporated directly in the Poly(L-Lactic Acid) matrix with various concentrations. Modification of the chitosan with the Basil Oil improves the blending with the Poly(L-Lactic Acid) matrix via a melt-extrusion process. The obtained Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan/Basil Oil composite films exhibited advanced food packaging properties compared to those of the Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Chitosan films without Basil Oil addition. The films with 5%wt and 10%wt Chitosan/Basil Oil loadings exhibited better thermal, mechanical, and barrier behavior and significant antioxidant activity. Thus, PLLA/CS/BO5 and PLLA/CS/BO10 are the most promising films to potentially be used for active packaging applications. Full article
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Article
Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Based Hydrogel Copolymeric for Controlled Delivery of Galantamine Hydrobromide in Dementia
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111350 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
The study aims to prepare a smart copolymeric for controlled delivery of Galantamine hydrobromide. The synthesis of the hydrogel was executed through free radical polymerization using HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and pectin as polymers and acrylic acid as monomer. Cross-linking was performed by methylene [...] Read more.
The study aims to prepare a smart copolymeric for controlled delivery of Galantamine hydrobromide. The synthesis of the hydrogel was executed through free radical polymerization using HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) and pectin as polymers and acrylic acid as monomer. Cross-linking was performed by methylene bisacrylamide (MBA). HPMC-pectin-co-acrylic acid hydrogel was loaded with Galantamine hydrobromide (antidementia drug) as a model drug for treatment of Alzheimer based dementia. Formulated hydrogels (SN1–SN9) were characterized for Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray. Drug loading efficiency, gel fraction, measurements of porosity, and tensile strength were reported. Swelling and release studies were performed at pH 1.2 and 7.4. Drug liberation mechanism was evaluated by applying different release kinetic models. Galantamine hydrobromide was released from prepared hydrogels by Fickian release mechanism. Swelling, gel fraction, porosity, and drug release percentages were found to be dependent on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, pectin, acrylic acid, and methylene bisacrylamide concentrations. By increasing HPMC amount, swelling was increased from 76.7% to 95.9%. Toxicity studies were conducted on albino male rabbits for a period of 14 days. Hematological and histopathological studies were carried out to evaluate safety level of hydrogel. Successfully prepared HPMC-pectin-co-acrylic acid hydrogel showed good swelling and release kinetics, which may help greatly in providing controlled release drug effect leading to enhanced patient compliance for dementia patients. Full article
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Review

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Review
Onco-Receptors Targeting in Lung Cancer via Application of Surface-Modified and Hybrid Nanoparticles: A Cross-Disciplinary Review
Processes 2021, 9(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040621 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and leading causes of death worldwide. The major reason for high mortality is the late diagnosis of the disease, and in most cases, lung cancer is diagnosed at fourth stage in which the cancer has metastasized [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and leading causes of death worldwide. The major reason for high mortality is the late diagnosis of the disease, and in most cases, lung cancer is diagnosed at fourth stage in which the cancer has metastasized to almost all vital organs. The other reason for higher mortality is the uptake of the chemotherapeutic agents by the healthy cells, which in turn increases the chances of cytotoxicity to the healthy body cells. The complex pathophysiology of lung cancer provides various pathways to target the cancerous cells. In this regard, upregulated onco-receptors on the cell surface of tumor including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), integrins, transferrin receptor (TFR), folate receptor (FR), cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) receptor, etc. could be exploited for the inhibition of pathways and tumor-specific drug targeting. Further, cancer borne immunological targets like T-lymphocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and dendritic cells could serve as a target site to modulate tumor activity through targeting various surface-expressed receptors or interfering with immune cell-specific pathways. Hence, novel approaches are required for both the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancers. In this context, several researchers have employed various targeted delivery approaches to overcome the problems allied with the conventional diagnosis of and therapy methods used against lung cancer. Nanoparticles are cell nonspecific in biological systems, and may cause unwanted deleterious effects in the body. Therefore, nanodrug delivery systems (NDDSs) need further advancement to overcome the problem of toxicity in the treatment of lung cancer. Moreover, the route of nanomedicines’ delivery to lungs plays a vital role in localizing the drug concentration to target the lung cancer. Surface-modified nanoparticles and hybrid nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in the field of theranostics. This cross-disciplinary review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways implicated in the different classes of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. Furthermore, it focuses specifically on the significance and emerging role of surface functionalized and hybrid nanomaterials as drug delivery systems through citing recent examples targeted at lung cancer treatment. Full article
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Review
Effect of Alumina Additives on Mechanical and Fresh Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete: A Review
Processes 2021, 9(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030554 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been increasingly used in the construction sector due to its favorable characteristics in improving various durability and rheology aspects of concrete such as deformability and segregation resistance. Recently, the studies on the application of nano-alumina (NA) produced from factory [...] Read more.
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been increasingly used in the construction sector due to its favorable characteristics in improving various durability and rheology aspects of concrete such as deformability and segregation resistance. Recently, the studies on the application of nano-alumina (NA) produced from factory wastes have been significantly considered to enhancing the performance, and mechanical strength, of SCC. Many experimental works show that NA can be used in SCC with appropriate proportion to enjoy the benefits of improved microstructure, fresh and hardened properties, durability, and resistance to elevated temperature. However, a limited detailed review is available to particularly study using NA to improve the performance of SCC, so far. Hence, the present study is conducted to fill the existing gap of knowledge. In this study, the effect of using NA in improving rheological, mechanical parameters, and elevated temperature resistance of SCC is reviewed. This research summarized the studies in this area, which have been different from the previous researches, and provided a discussion on limitations, practical implications, and suggestions for future studies. Full article
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Review
Processes and Properties of Ionic Liquid-Modified Nanofiller/Polymer Nanocomposites—A Succinct Review
Processes 2021, 9(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030480 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Ionic liquids can typically be synthesized via protonation, alkylation, metathesis, or neutralization reactions. The many types of ionic liquids have increased their attractiveness to researchers for employment in various areas, including in polymer composites. Recently, ionic liquids have been employed to modify nanofillers [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids can typically be synthesized via protonation, alkylation, metathesis, or neutralization reactions. The many types of ionic liquids have increased their attractiveness to researchers for employment in various areas, including in polymer composites. Recently, ionic liquids have been employed to modify nanofillers for the fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with improved physicochemical properties. In this succinct review, four types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids that are employed as modifiers—specifically alkylimidazolium halide, alkylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, alkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, and alkylimidazolium bistriflimide—are reviewed. Additionally, three types of ionic liquid-modified nanofiller/polymer nanocomposites—namely ionic liquid-nanofiller/thermoplastic nanocomposites, ionic liquid-nanofiller/elastomer nanocomposites, and ionic liquid-nanofiller/thermoset nanocomposites—are described as well. The effect of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the thermo-mechanico-chemical properties of the polymer nanocomposites is also succinctly reviewed. This review can serve as an initial guide for polymer composite researchers in modifying nanofillers by means of ionic liquids for improving the performance of polymer nanocomposites. Full article
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