Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2021) | Viewed by 25736

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Guest Editor
Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Interests: biopolymers; medical textiles; modification and compounding of nanocellulose of bacterial and plant origin; microstructure; scaffolds; membranes; biomaterials for medicine; composite membranes for fuel cells
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Dear Colleagues,

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is one of the most established biopolymers in the field of biomedical materials research. It is an exopolysaccharide and firmly structured at the air–liquid interphase when produced by gram-negative aerobic bacteria species, mainly Komagataeibacter xylinus. As randomly assembled nonwoven from ribbon-like fibrils composed of elementary nanofibrils, it delivers a combination of exclusive properties, such as biomimetic, collagen-like structure with high flexibility and water holding capacity, crystallinity, mouldability, compounding capacity, and lignin and hemicellulose-free chemistry. These characteristics contribute to its inherent biocompatibility, thus, attracting wide research interest in regeneration medicine, in areas such as development of artificial skin, wound dressing, blood vessels, nerve surgery, dura mater prosthesis, hemostatic material, electronic platforms, implants for cartilage and bone repair, etc. Commercial BC-based products, currently on the market, are evidence for its inherent relevance in areas such as burn and wound care, as well as periodontal treatment.

The propensity of hydroxyl surface groups opens a variety of pathways toward the surface functionalization of BC. Periodate oxidation offers partial control over BC’s degradability, even evoking physiological resorption. On the other hand, the intrinsic nanofibrilar structure allows accommodation/embedding of bioactive agents of interest. The composites containing neat or in situ or ex situ modified BC even outperforms the single (membrane) material, advancing the bionic design and leading to further progress in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering

Even comprehensively described, BC processing and applications in biomedical filed present an inexhaustible source of research ideas, encouraging many research teams to work on it.

To this end, we invite you to submit original research articles and review articles, covering the following topics:

  • BC production and cost-effective carbon sources
  • BC-based particles, membranes, and 3D matrices
  • Amino acid and protein-supplemented BC membranes
  • BC/polymer-based composites
  • BC in regenerative medicine
  • BC in organoids development
  • BC toxicity and safety

We look forward to your submissions of new and perspective studies involving BC.

Dr. Selestina Gorgieva
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 4797 KiB  
Article
Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Produced Using White and Red Grape Bagasse as a Nutrient Source
by Linda Ogrizek, Janja Lamovšek, Franc Čuš, Mirjam Leskovšek and Marija Gorjanc
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071088 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to investigate the possibility of using wine industry wastes, such as red and white grape bagasse, to produce bacterial cellulose (BC) instead of using a costly commercial medium. BC was produced using grape bagasse as a carbon [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the possibility of using wine industry wastes, such as red and white grape bagasse, to produce bacterial cellulose (BC) instead of using a costly commercial medium. BC was produced using grape bagasse as a carbon source replacement and the sole nutrient in the medium. The BC films were evaluated for their productivity and water-holding capacity. The BC films were also investigated for their morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), their viscoelastic properties using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and their chemical composition using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Although the use of grape bagasse as the sole nutrient was successful in the preparation of BC, the BC films had inferior viscoelastic properties to other produced BC films. White grape bagasse proved to be an excellent carbon substitute as the production of BC and its water-holding capacity were five times higher and the produced BC films were up to 72% more flexible than the bacterial cellulose produced using standard HS medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 4536 KiB  
Article
Rheological Properties of Aqueous Dispersions of Bacterial Cellulose
by Markel I. Vinogradov, Igor S. Makarov, Lyudmila K. Golova, Peter S. Gromovykh and Valery G. Kulichikhin
Processes 2020, 8(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040423 - 3 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3961
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose as polysaccharide possessing outstanding chemical purity and a unique structure compared with wood cellulose, attracts great attention as a hydrocolloid system. It was shown, that at intense mechanical action on a neat bacterial cellulose film in presence of water, the gel-like [...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose as polysaccharide possessing outstanding chemical purity and a unique structure compared with wood cellulose, attracts great attention as a hydrocolloid system. It was shown, that at intense mechanical action on a neat bacterial cellulose film in presence of water, the gel-like dispersions are obtained. They retain stability in time (at least, up to several months) and temperature (at least, up to 60 °C) without macro-phase separation on aqueous and cellulose phases. The main indicator of the stability is constant viscosity values in time, as well as fulfilling the Arrhenius dependence for temperature dependence of viscosity. Flow curves of diluted dispersions (BC content less than 1.23%) show strong non-Newtonian behavior over the entire range of shear rates. It is similar with dispersions of micro- and nanocrystalline cellulose, but the absolute viscosity value is much higher in the case of BC due to more long fibrils forming more dense entanglements network than in other cases. Measuring the viscosity in increase and decrease shear rate modes indicate an existence of hysteresis loop, i.e., thixotropic behavior with time lag for recovering the structural network. MCC and NCC dispersions even at cellulose content more than 5% do not demonstrate such behavior. According to oscillatory measurements, viscoelastic behavior of dispersions corresponds to gel-like systems with almost total independence of moduli on frequency and essentially higher values of the storage modulus compared with the loss modulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Films of Bacterial Cellulose Prepared from Solutions in N-Methylmorpholine-N-Oxide: Structure and Properties
by Igor S. Makarov, Gulbarshin K. Shambilova, Markel I. Vinogradov, Pavel V. Zatonskih, Tatyana I. Gromovykh, Sergey V. Lutsenko, Nаtalia A. Arkharova and Valery G. Kulichikhin
Processes 2020, 8(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020171 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5408
Abstract
In the present study, one of the possible methods of the bacterial cellulose processing is proposed via its dissolution in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide using the stage of mechano-chemical activation of the solid polymer–solvent system. Preliminary solid-phase activation is apparently a decisive factor [...] Read more.
In the present study, one of the possible methods of the bacterial cellulose processing is proposed via its dissolution in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide using the stage of mechano-chemical activation of the solid polymer–solvent system. Preliminary solid-phase activation is apparently a decisive factor affecting the dissolution rate of bacterial cellulose in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide. The effects of bacterial cellulose concentration, solvent nature, degree of polymerization and temperature on dissolution time were studied. The rheological behavior of the solutions does not change at 120 °C for at least half an hour that allowed us to process such solutions for films preparation. The films from these solutions by means of dry-wet jet spinning in aqueous coagulant were formed. The structure of the nascent cellulose and formed films was tested by the X-ray diffraction method and SEM. The thermal behavior of the films revealed an increase in the carbon yield for the formed films compared to the nascent bacterial cellulose. The process of film pyrolysis is accompanied by exothermic effects, which are not typical for wood cellulose. Some reasons of such thermal behavior are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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14 pages, 2135 KiB  
Review
Preparation of Tubular Biocellulose Implants and Its Use in Surgery—A Review
by Dieter Otto Klemm, Vanessa Raddatz, Katrin Petzold-Welcke, Friederike Kramer, Carola Ruhe, Sandor Nietzsche, Utz Settmacher and Falk Rauchfuß
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122114 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
This review highlights the current state regarding the preparation and characterization of tubular biocellulose materials as well as their application and application potential with a special focus on abdominal oncologic surgery. Biocellulose is a natural polymer synthesized by acetic acid bacteria from low [...] Read more.
This review highlights the current state regarding the preparation and characterization of tubular biocellulose materials as well as their application and application potential with a special focus on abdominal oncologic surgery. Biocellulose is a natural polymer synthesized by acetic acid bacteria from low molecular sugars and alcohols as a mechanically stable nanofiber network at the interface between the aqueous culture medium and air. This hydrogel is characterized by very high purity and biocompatibility, dimensional stability, and good surgical handling. With this property profile, biocellulose proves to be a promising candidate for the development of novel medical soft tissue implants. This requires close R&D cooperation between chemists, material scientists, biotechnologists, and surgeons. In this sense, this review spans from the natural polymer to the design of biocellulose implants and surgical suitability. It is also a concern of this article to show concretely the great need for such implants and the fields of application in oncological abdominal surgery where tubular biocellulose is or could be the focus of research. Furthermore, a critical assessment for the use of biocellulose materials concerning incidence malignancy and surgical interventions, complication rates, and current studies is emphasized. The regeneration of damaged bile ducts by the use of biocellulose implants is a first example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications)
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26 pages, 2358 KiB  
Review
Bacterial Cellulose as a Versatile Platform for Research and Development of Biomedical Materials
by Selestina Gorgieva
Processes 2020, 8(5), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050624 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 71 | Viewed by 10545
Abstract
The unique pool of features found in intracellular and extracellular bacterial biopolymers attracts a lot of research, with bacterial cellulose (BC) being one of the most versatile and common. BC is an exopolysaccharide consisting solely of cellulose, and the variation in the production [...] Read more.
The unique pool of features found in intracellular and extracellular bacterial biopolymers attracts a lot of research, with bacterial cellulose (BC) being one of the most versatile and common. BC is an exopolysaccharide consisting solely of cellulose, and the variation in the production process can vary its shape or even its composition when compounding is applied in situ. Together with ex situ modification pathways, including specialised polymers, particles or exclusively functional groups, BC provides a robust platform that yields complex multifunctional compounds that go far beyond ultra-high purity, intrinsic hydrophilicity, mechanical strength and biocompatibility to introduce bioactive, (pH, thermal, electro) responsive, conductive and ‘smart’ properties. This review summarises the research outcomes in BC-medical applications, focusing mainly on data from the past decade (i.e., 2010–2020), with special emphasis on BC nanocomposites as materials and devices applicable in medicine. The high purity and unique structural/mechanical features, in addition to its capacity to closely adhere to irregular skin surfaces, skin tolerance, and demonstrated efficacy in wound healing, all stand as valuable attributes advantageous in topical drug delivery. Numerous studies prove BC compatibility with various human cells, with modifications even improving cell affinity and viability. Even BC represents a physical barrier that can reduce the penetration of bacteria into the tissue, but in its native form does not exhibit antimicrobial properties, therefore carious modifications have been made or specific compounds added to confer antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory properties. Progress in the use of BC-compounds as wound dressings, vascular grafts, and scaffolds for the treatment of cartilage, bone and osteochondral defects, the role as a basement membrane in blood-brain barrier models and many more are discussed to particular extent, emphasising the need for BC compounding to meet specific requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Biomedical Applications)
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