Special Issue "Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Arcady Zhukov
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Guest Editor
1. Advanced Polymers and Materials: Physics, Chemistry and Technology, Chemistry Faculty, University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 20018, San Sebastian, Spain
2. Department Applied Physics I, Escuela de Ingeniería de Gipuzkoa, EIG, University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain
3. IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain
Interests: advanced magnetic materials; amorphous; nanocrystalline and granular magnetic materials; hysteretic magnetic properties; magnetic wires; magneto-electric effects; giant magnetoimpedance effect; magneto-resistance effect; applications
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Prof. Dr. Sergei Alexandrov
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Technological Processes, Ishlinsky Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119526, Russia; School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
Interests: materials mechanics of metals and composites; damage and fracture; fatigue; forming limitation in metal forming; soft materials mechanics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Valeria Rodionova
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Guest Editor
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia
Interests: thin films and nanostructures; amorphous and soft magnetic materials; magnetic shape memory materials; magnetic methods in biology; ecology and medicine
Prof. Dr. Valentina Zhukova
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Advanced Polymers and Materials: Physics, Chemistry and Technology, Chemistry Faculty, University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 20018, San Sebastian, Spain
2. Department Applied Physics I, Escuela de Ingeniería de Gipuzkoa, EIG, University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain
Interests: Advanced magnetic materials; Amorphous; nanocrystalline and Granular magnetic materials; post-processing of magnetic materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Recent advances in technology and engineering are greatly associated with the development of advanced innovated materials with improved properties. Certain industrial sectors, such as construction, automobile and aerospace industries, microelectronics, sensors, medicine, and security, demand cost-effective materials with tuneable and optimized properties (i.e., enhanced physical (magnetic or mechanical) or chemical, biocompatible, etc.). 

On the other hand, insecure supplies of critical materials (i.e., rare-earth or Co) could hinder the development of new technologies related to massive applications. Another issue is related to the miniaturization of modern magnetoelectronic devices that tend to stimulate the rapid development of nanoscale magnetic materials, including nanostructured thin films, nanowires, nano-dots, and nanoparticle assemblies. However, most of materials need post-processing in order to exhibit physical and chemical properties suitable for technological progress. Process engineering is intrinsically related to the understanding and application of the fundamental principles and laws of nature, allowing one to transform raw material and energy into products that are useful to society, at an industrial level. Process engineering therefore focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization, and intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Consequently, the development of processes and post-processing allowing improvement of physical properties of materials has become crucial for large-scale applications.

The overall goal of this Special Issue is to provide most up-to-date information about recent developments in the processing of innovative materials for the achievement of advanced functional properties, making them suitable for technological applications. Both reviews and original research papers will be considered. Reviews should provide an up-to-date, well-balanced overview of the current state-of-the-art in a particular application and the include main results from other groups.

This Special Issue on “Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes” aims to  promote research and developmental activities in innovative engineering materials and process engineering. We hope this Issue “Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes” will stimulate further interest in materials and processes research.

Potential topics of interest include but are not limited to the following areas:

New advanced functional materials;
Development of innovating post-processing and materials;
Properties optimization techniques;
Process design and optimization;
Process synthesis and design;
Process control and operations;
Process safety management;
Chemical and physical engineering fundamentals;
Chemical and physical engineering equipment design and process design;
Process system, instrumentation, and control;
Nanomanufacturing;
Environmental engineering and sustainable development;
Multiscale modeling.

Prof. Dr. Arcady Zhukov
Prof. Sergei Alexandrov
Assoc. Prof. Valeria Rodionova
Dr. Valentina Zhukova
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced materials
  • innovating post-processing and materials
  • properties optimization techniques
  • process engineering
  • chemical and physical properties
  • biological processes

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Martensitic Transformation, Thermal Analysis and Magnetocaloric Properties of Ni-Mn-Sn-Pd Alloys
Processes 2020, 8(12), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8121582 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Martensitic transition and magnetic response of Ni50−x Pdx,y Mn36 Sn14−y (x = 0, 1, 2 and y = 0, 1) Heusler alloys were analysed. The crystalline structure of each composition was solved by X-ray diffraction pattern fitting. For x [...] Read more.
Martensitic transition and magnetic response of Ni50−x Pdx,y Mn36 Sn14−y (x = 0, 1, 2 and y = 0, 1) Heusler alloys were analysed. The crystalline structure of each composition was solved by X-ray diffraction pattern fitting. For x = 1 and 2, the L21 austenite structure is formed and, for y = 1, the crystallographic phase is a modulated martensitic structure. From differential scanning calorimetry scans, we determine characteristic transformation temperatures and the entropy/enthalpy changes. The temperatures of the structural transformation increase with the addition of Pd to replace Ni or Sn, whereas the austenitic Curie temperature remains almost unvarying. In addition, the magneto-structural transition, investigated by magnetic measurements, is adjusted by suitable Pd doping in the alloys. The peak value of the magnetic entropy changes reached 4.5 J/(kg K) for Ni50Mn36Sn13Pd1 (external field: 50 kOe). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Strain Hardening Laws on Solution Behavior Near Frictional Interfaces in Metal Forming Processes: A Simple Analytical Example
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111471 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The main objective of the present paper is to compare, by means of a problem leading to a closed-form solution, the qualitative behavior of solutions based on three strain hardening laws: Swift’s law, Ludwik’s law, and Voce’s law. The boundary value problem involves [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present paper is to compare, by means of a problem leading to a closed-form solution, the qualitative behavior of solutions based on three strain hardening laws: Swift’s law, Ludwik’s law, and Voce’s law. The boundary value problem involves the maximum friction law as one of the boundary conditions. Such features of the solutions as nonexistence and singularity are emphasized. An important feature of Swift’s and Ludwik’s laws is that the equivalent stress approaches infinity as the equivalent strain approaches infinity. On the contrary, Voce’s law involves saturation stress as one of the constitutive parameters. This qualitative difference in the equivalent stress behavior as the equivalent strain approaches infinity results in the qualitative difference in solutions’ behavior. In particular, Swift’s and Ludwik’s hardening laws are compatible with the regime of sticking independently of other conditions. In the case of Voce’s law, the solution under sticking conditions may break down. Moreover, Voce’s law predicts intensive strain levels near the friction surface at sliding, and the other strain hardening laws do not. Thin layers of intensive plastic deformation often occur near frictional interfaces in metal forming processes. Voce’s law predicts the occurrence of such layers without any additional assumptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Controlled Degradation of Lubricating Media by Means of an Accelerated Electron Beam
Processes 2020, 8(11), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8111452 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
The article deals with the possibilities of using electron accelerator for controlled aging of lubricating media used in special vehicles. During use, e.g., in combustion engines, the lubricants get contaminated and thermo-oxidative degradation also occurs. The pilot project confirms the hypothesis that ionizing [...] Read more.
The article deals with the possibilities of using electron accelerator for controlled aging of lubricating media used in special vehicles. During use, e.g., in combustion engines, the lubricants get contaminated and thermo-oxidative degradation also occurs. The pilot project confirms the hypothesis that ionizing radiation makes it possible to simulate the operating load of lubricating media, which was repeatedly confirmed by long-term monitoring of changes in viscosity of statistically significant samples of motor oils used in special equipment. Preliminary test results also show that there are likely to be possibilities to influence other selected properties, such as the coefficient of friction depending on the radiation dose. The authors describe physicochemical processes during irradiation and, in the example of kinematic viscosity, present summary results for selected lubricating media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of β-Stabilizers on the α-Ti→ω-Ti Transformation in Ti-Based Alloys
Processes 2020, 8(9), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8091135 - 11 Sep 2020
Viewed by 555
Abstract
The development of next generation Ti-based alloys demand completely new processes and approaches. In particular, the Ti-alloys of next generation will contain not only α-Ti and β-Ti phases, but also small amounts of ω-phase and intermetallic compounds. The β→ω phase transformation induced by [...] Read more.
The development of next generation Ti-based alloys demand completely new processes and approaches. In particular, the Ti-alloys of next generation will contain not only α-Ti and β-Ti phases, but also small amounts of ω-phase and intermetallic compounds. The β→ω phase transformation induced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) has been studied in detail recently. In this work, we investigated the HPT-induced α→ω phase transformation. For this purpose, we added various β-stabilizers into α-Ti matrix of studied Ti-alloys. Ti-alloys with 4% Fe, 2% Cr, 3% Ni, and 4% Co (wt. %) have been annealed at the temperatures below their point of eutectoid decomposition, from β-Ti to α-Ti, and respective intermetallics (TiFe, Ti2Co, Ti2Ni, TiCr2). Volume fraction of HPT-driven ω-phase (from ≤5 up to ~80%) depended on the amount of alloying element dissolved in the α-matrix. Evaluation of lattice parameters revealed accelerated mass transfer during HPT at room temperature corresponding to bulk diffusion in α-Ti at ~600 °С. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Movement, Structural Stability, and Electrical Performance for Harvesting Ocean Kinetic Energy Based on IPMC Material
Processes 2020, 8(6), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060641 - 27 May 2020
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The movement of water in the oceans generates a vast store of kinetic energy, which has led to the development of a wide variety of offshore energy harvesters all over the world. In our energy harvester, we used ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) to [...] Read more.
The movement of water in the oceans generates a vast store of kinetic energy, which has led to the development of a wide variety of offshore energy harvesters all over the world. In our energy harvester, we used ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) to convert the ocean energy into electricity. This paper presents a simulated model of an IPMC-based electrochemical kinetic energy harvesting system installed in the ocean and produced using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation processes focused on the movement and structural stability of the system design in the ocean for the protection of the IPMC module against possible damage, which would directly affect the power output. Furthermore, the experimental tests under real marine conditions were also studied to analyze the electrical harvesting performance of the IPMC system. These results showed that the use of IPMC materials has many advantages as they are soft and durable; as a result, they can respond faster to wave parameters such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of the Technological Parameters for Obtaining Zn-Ti Based Composites to Increase the Performance of H2S Removal from Syngas
Processes 2020, 8(5), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050562 - 10 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
The realization of some composite materials that allow the best removal of H2S from syngas was the main objective of this work. Thus, the optimization of the technological parameters for obtaining composites based on Zn-Ti was achieved. The paper studies the [...] Read more.
The realization of some composite materials that allow the best removal of H2S from syngas was the main objective of this work. Thus, the optimization of the technological parameters for obtaining composites based on Zn-Ti was achieved. The paper studies the influence of calcination temperature on the characteristics of the binary ZnO-TiO2 system used to synthesize a composite material with suitable properties to be used subsequently for syngas treatment. The mineralogical and structural analyzes showed that starting with the calcination temperature of 700 °C the material synthetized is composed mainly of zinc orthotitanate which possess the corresponding characteristics to be finally used in the treatment of the syngas for its desulfurization. At this calcination temperature the material has a compact structure most likely due to sintering of the formed titanates. These composites have a texture that places them rather in the category of non-porous materials, the pore volume and their surface area obviously decreasing as the calcination temperature increases. A maximum sulfur removal degree of about 97% was obtained by using a composite synthetized at a temperature of 700 °C (ZT-700). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Plastic Bending at Large Strain: A Review
Processes 2021, 9(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030406 - 24 Feb 2021
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Finite plastic bending attracts researchers’ attention due to its importance for identifying material properties and frequent occurrence in sheet metal forming processes. The present review contains theoretical and experimental parts. The theoretical part is restricted to analytic and semi-analytic solutions for pure bending [...] Read more.
Finite plastic bending attracts researchers’ attention due to its importance for identifying material properties and frequent occurrence in sheet metal forming processes. The present review contains theoretical and experimental parts. The theoretical part is restricted to analytic and semi-analytic solutions for pure bending and bending under tension. The experimental part mainly focuses on four-point bending, though other bending tests and processes are also outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessReview
Optimization of Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Microwires by Post-Processing
Processes 2020, 8(8), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8081006 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
The influence of post-processing conditions on the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires has been thoroughly analyzed, paying attention to the influence of magnetoelastic, induced and magnetocrystalline anisotropies on the hysteresis loops of Fe-, Ni-, and Co-rich microwires. We showed that magnetic [...] Read more.
The influence of post-processing conditions on the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires has been thoroughly analyzed, paying attention to the influence of magnetoelastic, induced and magnetocrystalline anisotropies on the hysteresis loops of Fe-, Ni-, and Co-rich microwires. We showed that magnetic properties of glass-coated microwires can be tuned by the selection of appropriate chemical composition and geometry in as-prepared state or further considerably modified by appropriate post-processing, which consists of either annealing or glass-coated removal. Furthermore, stress-annealing or Joule heating can further effectively modify the magnetic properties of amorphous magnetic microwires owing to induced magnetic anisotropy. Devitrification of microwires can be useful for either magnetic softening or magnetic hardening of the microwires. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic nucleus and on structural features (grain size, precipitating phases), nanocrystalline microwires can exhibit either soft magnetic properties or semi-hard magnetic properties. We demonstrated that the microwires with coercivities from 1 A/m to 40 kA/m can be prepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Methods Used for the Compaction and Molding of Ceramic Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes
Processes 2020, 8(8), 1004; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8081004 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 772
Abstract
Ceramic matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes are becoming increasingly popular in industry due to their astonishing mechanical properties and taking into account the fact that advanced production technologies make carbon nanotubes increasingly affordable. In the present paper, the most convenient contemporary methods [...] Read more.
Ceramic matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes are becoming increasingly popular in industry due to their astonishing mechanical properties and taking into account the fact that advanced production technologies make carbon nanotubes increasingly affordable. In the present paper, the most convenient contemporary methods used for the compaction of molding masses composed of either technical ceramics or ceramic matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes are surveyed. This stage that precedes debinding and sintering plays the key role in getting pore-free equal-density ceramics at the scale of mass production. The methods include: compaction in sealed and collector molds, cold isostatic and quasi-isostatic compaction; dynamic compaction methods, such as magnetic pulse, vibration, and ultrasonic compaction; extrusion, stamping, and injection; casting from aqueous and non-aqueous slips; tape and gel casting. Capabilities of mold-free approaches to produce precisely shaped ceramic bodies are also critically analyzed, including green ceramic machining and additive manufacturing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Innovative Engineering Materials and Processes)
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