Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2021) | Viewed by 49592

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea
Interests: carbon fiber for energy applications; biomaterials; carbon-based materials; hydrogels; device fabrication
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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Interests: nanocrystal electronics; 1-D, 2-D nanomaterials; optoelectronics; photovoltaic systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pyrogenic carbonaceous materials such as mesoporous carbon, biochar, activated carbon, graphene and carbon nanotubes exhibit strong sorption affinities for a wide range of organic contaminants, including heavy metals, inorganic ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzenederivatives, phenolic compounds, and pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and pesticides. The interactions of such contaminants with carbonaceous materials in water, sediments, and soil may result in strong or weak bindings that can significantly affect the environmental fate of contaminants and their remediation rates. The underlying physical and chemical phenomena potentially responsible for these apparent interactions of contaminants with carbonaceous materials are of great importance.

This Special Issue on “Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal” mainly aims to widen and stregthen carbonaceous materials application and their synthesis methods to address the following challenges.  This Special Issue will include but not be limited to:

  • Synthesis and applicaiton of novel carbonaceous materials;
  • Synthesis and application of composite carbonaceous materials;
  • Carbon dominated materiasls for removal of organic and inorganic pollutants as well as gas capature;
  • Review articles based on carbon materials in the application in gas capture and pollutants removal;
  • Any new ideas on development of carbonancous materials;
  • Adsorption, catalysis, photocatalysis, and electrochemical removal of pollutants.

Dr. Mohammad Boshir Ahmed
Dr. Md Ashraf Hossain
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • carbon
  • CO2 capture
  • pollutant removal
  • materials synthesis
  • adsorption
  • reduction
  • degradation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
Carbon Sequestration in Support of the “4 per 1000” Initiative Using Compost and Stable Biochar from Hazelnut Shells and Sunflower Husks
by Klaus Mikula, Gerhard Soja, Cristina Segura, Alex Berg and Christoph Pfeifer
Processes 2020, 8(7), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8070764 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2992
Abstract
The achievement of carbon neutrality till 2050 will require the deployment of negative carbon emission technologies like the production and soil incorporation of biochar, produced from pyrolyzed plant-based residues. The carbon sequestration potential of biochar (BC) from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shells [...] Read more.
The achievement of carbon neutrality till 2050 will require the deployment of negative carbon emission technologies like the production and soil incorporation of biochar, produced from pyrolyzed plant-based residues. The carbon sequestration potential of biochar (BC) from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shells (HNS) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) husks (SFH) was evaluated when the biomass was carbonized in a fixed bed reactor, in a rotary kiln and in a screw reactor. In all tested reactors, higher temperatures (>500 °C) and longer retention times increased the C concentration and stability of the biochar, with negligible effects of the reactor type and feedstock. A national case study was developed for Austria concerning the potential use of SFH- and HNS-BC in combination with compost for reaching the “4 per mille” objective. An annual soil organic carbon increase of 2.5 Mt C would be needed, requiring amendment rates of 2.2 Mt C a−1 for all annual crop areas and 0.3 Mt C a−1 for all vineyards and orchards. If compost only were used, the annual cost would be about 200 EUR ha−1 but short-term re-mineralization would have to be considered. If the more recalcitrant biochar were used only, about 2.3 t BC ha−1 would be needed at a cost of 1400–1870 EUR ha−1. The study shows in principle the feasibility of applying compost–biochar mixtures for achieving the “4 per mille” objective but in practice, supplemental soil management strategies for sequestering C will be required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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16 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Pyrolytic Carbon Black Waste for the Development of Sustainable Materials
by Faizan Ali, Mishmal Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Ahmed Qurashi, Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah, Nasir Mahmood Khan, Zia Khursheed, Hafiz Shahzaib Rahim, Hunain Arshad, Muhammad Farhan and Muhammad Waseem
Processes 2020, 8(2), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020174 - 4 Feb 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5692
Abstract
The sustainable development of materials is one of the key targets in the modern era of engineering. These materials are developed by different waste products, following the concept of the circular economy. This study focuses on investigating the properties of concrete using carbon [...] Read more.
The sustainable development of materials is one of the key targets in the modern era of engineering. These materials are developed by different waste products, following the concept of the circular economy. This study focuses on investigating the properties of concrete using carbon black as a partial replacement of natural fine aggregate at different percentages. Experiments were designed according to the British Standard (BS1881-Part-119) and American Standard (ASTM C-78) by including carbon black in concrete beams to perform as filler material to develop sustainable concrete. In this study, mechanical properties of concrete were targeted by developing beams using different percentages (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) as a replacement of fine aggregates. These beams were tested for flexural strength and, later on, the same beams were cut in the form of cubes, following the equivalent cube test mechanism for the compressive strength test. The waste carbon black lightweight concrete developed in this study was utilized for both structural and non-structural purposes. At 25% and 50% replacement, the strength of lightweight concrete varied from 20–18 MPa, and according to American Concrete Institute (ACI) standards, lightweight concrete at 28 days strength with ≥17 MPa can be used as structural concrete, and the remaining 75% and 100% replacement concrete can be used for non-structural purposes. This study will help in the development of economical eco-friendly sustainable concrete materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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13 pages, 3228 KiB  
Communication
Enhancing the Pore Properties and Adsorption Performance of Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH)-Derived Biochars via Post-Acid Treatment
by Wen-Tien Tsai, Chien-Hung Hsu, Yu-Quan Lin, Chi-Hung Tsai, Wen-Shing Chen and Yao-Tsung Chang
Processes 2020, 8(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020144 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4786
Abstract
In this work, the cocoa pod husk (CPH) was converted into biochar products at higher carbonization temperatures (i.e., 400–800 °C). The pore and chemical properties of the resulting biochars and its post-leaching biochars by acid washing, including specific surface area, total pore volume, [...] Read more.
In this work, the cocoa pod husk (CPH) was converted into biochar products at higher carbonization temperatures (i.e., 400–800 °C). The pore and chemical properties of the resulting biochars and its post-leaching biochars by acid washing, including specific surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution, true density, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were studied. Based on the pore properties, pyrolysis temperature at around 800 °C seemed to have the most profound impact on the pore development for producing biochar, where its Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area is 101 m2/g. More noticeably, more pores in the CPH-based biochar could be significantly created during the acid-washing, resulting in an increase of BET surface area from 101 to 342 m2/g. According to the data on the EDS and FTIR, the resulting biochars seemed to have oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface. Furthermore, the methylene blue (MB) adsorption performance of the optimal biochar product with maximal BET surface area was tested to fit its kinetics by the pseudo-second order model, showing a strong interaction between the biochar adsorbent and the cationic adsorbate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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16 pages, 2031 KiB  
Article
Performance and Kinetic Model of a Single-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System Operated at Different Successive Operating Stages for the Treatment of Food Waste
by Sagor Kumar Pramanik, Fatihah Binti Suja, Mojtaba Porhemmat and Biplob Kumar Pramanik
Processes 2019, 7(9), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090600 - 6 Sep 2019
Cited by 89 | Viewed by 6812
Abstract
A large quantity of food waste (FW) is generated annually across the world and results in environmental pollution and degradation. This study investigated the performance of a 160 L anaerobic biofilm single-stage reactor in treating FW. The reactor was operated at different hydraulic [...] Read more.
A large quantity of food waste (FW) is generated annually across the world and results in environmental pollution and degradation. This study investigated the performance of a 160 L anaerobic biofilm single-stage reactor in treating FW. The reactor was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 124, 62, and 35 days under mesophilic conditions. The maximum biogas and methane yield achieved was 0.934 L/g VSadded and 0.607 L CH4/g VSadded, respectively, at an HRT of 124 days. When HRT decreased to 62 days, the volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia accumulation increased rapidly whereas pH, methane yield, and biogas yield decreased continuously. The decline in biogas production was likely due to shock loading, which resulted in scum accumulation in the reactor. A negative correlation between biogas yield and volatile solid (VS) removal efficiency was also observed, owing to the floating scum carrying and urging the sludge toward the upper portion of the reactor. The highest VS (79%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency (80%) were achieved at an HRT of 35 days. Three kinetic models—the first-order kinetic model, the modified Gompertz model, and the logistic function model—were used to fit the cumulative biogas production experimental data. The kinetic study showed that the modified Gompertz model had the best fit with the experimental data out of the three models. This study demonstrates that the stability and performance of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, namely biogas production rate, methane yield, intermediate metabolism, and removal efficiency, were significantly affected by HRTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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14 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Catalytic Activity of Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated Carbon Graphene Composite on Oxygen Electroreduction for Fuel Cells
by Halima Begum and Young-Bae Kim
Processes 2019, 7(9), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7090586 - 3 Sep 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3565
Abstract
High-performance platinum (Pt)-based catalyst development is crucially important for reducing high overpotential of sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at Pt-based electrocatalysts, although the high cost and scarcity in nature of Pt are profoundly hampering the practical use of it in fuel cells. Thus, [...] Read more.
High-performance platinum (Pt)-based catalyst development is crucially important for reducing high overpotential of sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at Pt-based electrocatalysts, although the high cost and scarcity in nature of Pt are profoundly hampering the practical use of it in fuel cells. Thus, the enhancing activity of Pt-based electrocatalysts with minimal Pt-loading through alloy, core−shell or composite making has been implemented. This article deals with enhancing electrocatalytic activity on ORR of commercially available platinum/carbon (Pt/C) with graphene sheets through a simple composite making. The Pt/C with graphene sheets composite materials (denoted as Pt/Cx:G10−x) have been characterized by several instrumental measurements. It shows that the Pt nanoparticles (NPs) from the Pt/C have been transferred towards the π-conjugated systems of the graphene sheets with better monolayer dispersion. The optimized Pt/C8:G2 composite has higher specific surface area and better degree of graphitization with better dispersion of NPs. As a result, it shows not only stable electrochemical surface area but also enhanced ORR catalytic activity in respect to the onset potential, mass activity and electron transfer kinetics. As shown by the ORR, the Pt/C8:G2 composite is also better resistive to the alcohol crossover effect and more durable than the Pt/C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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Review

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38 pages, 5483 KiB  
Review
The Potentiality of Rice Husk-Derived Activated Carbon: From Synthesis to Application
by Md Masruck Alam, Md Ashraf Hossain, Md Delowar Hossain, M.A.H. Johir, Jewel Hossen, Md Saifur Rahman, John L. Zhou, A.T.M. Kamrul Hasan, Aneek Krishna Karmakar and Mohammad Boshir Ahmed
Processes 2020, 8(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020203 - 6 Feb 2020
Cited by 80 | Viewed by 24492
Abstract
Activated carbon (AC) has been extensively utilized as an adsorbent over the past few decades. AC has widespread applications, including the removal of different contaminants from water and wastewater, and it is also being used in capacitors, battery electrodes, catalytic supports, and gas [...] Read more.
Activated carbon (AC) has been extensively utilized as an adsorbent over the past few decades. AC has widespread applications, including the removal of different contaminants from water and wastewater, and it is also being used in capacitors, battery electrodes, catalytic supports, and gas storage materials because of its specific characteristics e.g., high surface area with electrical properties. The production of AC from naturally occurring precursors (e.g., coal, biomass, coconut shell, sugarcane bagasse, and so on) is highly interesting in terms of the material applications in chemistry; however, recently much focus has been placed on the use of agricultural wastes (e.g., rice husk) to produce AC. Rice husk (RH) is an abundant as well as cheap material which can be converted into AC for various applications. Various pollutants such as textile dyes, organic contaminants, inorganic anions, pesticides, and heavy metals can be effectively removed by RH-derived AC. In addition, RH-derived AC has been applied in supercapacitors, electrodes for Li-ion batteries, catalytic support, and energy storage, among other uses. Cost-effective synthesis of AC can be an alternative for AC production. Therefore, this review mainly covers different synthetic routes and applications of AC produced from RH precursors. Different environmental, catalytic, and energy applications have been pinpointed. Furthermore, AC regeneration, desorption, and relevant environmental concerns have also been covered. Future scopes for further research and development activities are also discussed. Overall, it was found that RH-derived AC has great potential for different applications which can be further explored at real scales, i.e., for industrial applications in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonaceous Materials for CO2 Capture and Pollutants Removal)
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