Redox Biology in Plants

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 13490

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Guest Editor
School of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Interests: redox signaling; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen sulfide; hydrogen gas; nitric oxide
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,  

The redox potential of plant cells has a profound effect on plant growth and survival. Redox active compounds are involved in the interactions of pollen and the stigma, in the growth of the pollen tube, and remain important in the growth of roots and shoots, and in senescence. Redox compounds are also instrumental in a cell’s resistance to stress, both biotic and abiotic. At a molecular level, redox is maintained as a balance between reductive and oxidative stress, allowing the subtle control of cell function. Many dedicated enzymes produce reactive redox compounds, and a suite of enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat), are active in removing oxidation molecules, thus preventing the onset of oxidative stress. Above all, many small diffusible compounds, such as glutathione, are important for the maintenance of redox balance. Controlling cellular redox is immensely complex in all biological systems, including plants. It is hoped, therefore, that this Special Issue in Plants will bring together articles which encompass all aspects of plant physiology and biochemistry where redox potential and redox active compounds have an influence on plant growth and survival.

Prof. Dr. John T. Hancock
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • ascorbate
  • glutathione
  • hydrogen gas, hydrogen peroxide
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species
  • reactive oxygen species
  • redox potentials, thioredoxin

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 4101 KiB  
Article
Involvement of NO in V-ATPase Regulation in Cucumber Roots under Control and Cadmium Stress Conditions
by Magdalena Zboińska, Anna Janeczko and Katarzyna Kabała
Plants 2023, 12(15), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12152884 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that participates in plant adaptation to adverse environmental factors. This study aimed to clarify the role of NO in the regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the roots of cucumber seedlings grown under control [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that participates in plant adaptation to adverse environmental factors. This study aimed to clarify the role of NO in the regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the roots of cucumber seedlings grown under control and Cd stress conditions. In addition, the relationship between NO and salicylic acid (SA), as well as their interrelations with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), have been verified. The effect of NO on V-ATPase was studied by analyzing two enzyme activities, the expression level of selected VHA genes and the protein level of selected VHA subunits in plants treated with a NO donor (sodium nitroprusside, SNP) and NO biosynthesis inhibitors (tungstate, WO42 and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME). Our results indicate that NO functions as a positive regulator of V-ATPase and that this regulation depends on NO generated by nitrate reductase and NOS-like activity. It was found that the mechanism of NO action is not related to changes in the gene expression or protein level of the V-ATPase subunits. The results suggest that in cucumber roots, NO signaling interacts with the SA pathway and, to a lesser extent, with two other known V-ATPase regulators, H2O2 and H2S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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15 pages, 5819 KiB  
Article
NADP-Dependent Malic Enzyme Genes in Sweet Pepper Fruits: Involvement in Ripening and Modulation by Nitric Oxide (NO)
by Jorge Taboada, Salvador González-Gordo, María A. Muñoz-Vargas, José M. Palma and Francisco J. Corpas
Plants 2023, 12(12), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12122353 - 17 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
NADPH is an indispensable cofactor in a wide range of physiological processes that is generated by a family of NADPH dehydrogenases, of which the NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME) is a member. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is a horticultural product consumed worldwide [...] Read more.
NADPH is an indispensable cofactor in a wide range of physiological processes that is generated by a family of NADPH dehydrogenases, of which the NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME) is a member. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is a horticultural product consumed worldwide that has great nutritional and economic relevance. Besides the phenotypical changes that pepper fruit undergoes during ripening, there are many associated modifications at transcriptomic, proteome, biochemical and metabolic levels. Nitric oxide (NO) is a recognized signal molecule with regulatory functions in diverse plant processes. To our knowledge, there is very scarce information about the number of genes encoding for NADP-ME in pepper plants and their expression during the ripening of sweet pepper fruit. Using a data mining approach to evaluate the pepper plant genome and fruit transcriptome (RNA-seq), five NADP-ME genes were identified, and four of them, namely CaNADP-ME2 to CaNADP-ME5, were expressed in fruit. The time course expression analysis of these genes during different fruit ripening stages, including green immature (G), breaking point (BP) and red ripe (R), showed that they were differentially modulated. Thus, while CaNADP-ME3 and CaNADP-ME5 were upregulated, CaNADP-ME2 and CaNADP-ME4 were downregulated. Exogenous NO treatment of fruit triggered the downregulation of CaNADP-ME4. We obtained a 50–75% ammonium–sulfate-enriched protein fraction containing CaNADP-ME enzyme activity, and this was assayed via non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results allow us to identify four isozymes designated from CaNADP-ME I to CaNADP-ME IV. Taken together, the data provide new pieces of information on the CaNADP-ME system with the identification of five CaNADP-ME genes and how the four genes expressed in pepper fruits are modulated during ripening and exogenous NO gas treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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17 pages, 3359 KiB  
Article
The ROP2 GTPase Participates in Nitric Oxide (NO)-Induced Root Shortening in Arabidopsis
by Erzsébet Kenesi, Zsuzsanna Kolbert, Nikolett Kaszler, Éva Klement, Dalma Ménesi, Árpád Molnár, Ildikó Valkai, Gábor Feigl, Gábor Rigó, Ágnes Cséplő, Christian Lindermayr and Attila Fehér
Plants 2023, 12(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040750 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a versatile signal molecule that mediates environmental and hormonal signals orchestrating plant development. NO may act via reversible S-nitrosation of proteins during which an NO moiety is added to a cysteine thiol to form an S-nitrosothiol. In plants, several [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a versatile signal molecule that mediates environmental and hormonal signals orchestrating plant development. NO may act via reversible S-nitrosation of proteins during which an NO moiety is added to a cysteine thiol to form an S-nitrosothiol. In plants, several proteins implicated in hormonal signaling have been reported to undergo S-nitrosation. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis ROP2 GTPase is a further potential target of NO-mediated regulation. The ROP2 GTPase was found to be required for the root shortening effect of NO. NO inhibits primary root growth by altering the abundance and distribution of the PIN1 auxin efflux carrier protein and lowering the accumulation of auxin in the root meristem. In rop2-1 insertion mutants, however, wild-type-like root size of the NO-treated roots were maintained in agreement with wild-type-like PIN1 abundance in the meristem. The ROP2 GTPase was shown to be S-nitrosated in vitro, suggesting that NO might directly regulate the GTPase. The potential mechanisms of NO-mediated ROP2 GTPase regulation and ROP2-mediated NO signaling in the primary root meristem are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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Review

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10 pages, 607 KiB  
Review
Are Protein Cavities and Pockets Commonly Used by Redox Active Signalling Molecules?
by John T. Hancock
Plants 2023, 12(14), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12142594 - 9 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
It has been well known for a long time that inert gases, such as xenon (Xe), have significant biological effects. As these atoms are extremely unlikely to partake in direct chemical reactions with biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, there must [...] Read more.
It has been well known for a long time that inert gases, such as xenon (Xe), have significant biological effects. As these atoms are extremely unlikely to partake in direct chemical reactions with biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, there must be some other mode of action to account for the effects reported. It has been shown that the topology of proteins allows for cavities and hydrophobic pockets, and it is via an interaction with such protein structures that inert gases are thought to have their action. Recently, it has been mooted that the relatively inert gas molecular hydrogen (H2) may also have its effects via such a mechanism, influencing protein structures and actions. H2 is thought to also act via interaction with redox active compounds, particularly the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO), but not nitric oxide (NO·), superoxide anions (O2·−) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, instead of having a direct interaction with H2, is there any evidence that these redox compounds can also interact with Xe pockets and cavities in proteins, either having an independent effect on proteins or interfering with the action of inert gases? This suggestion will be explored here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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18 pages, 1073 KiB  
Review
Nitric Oxide, a Key Modulator in the Alleviation of Environmental Stress-Mediated Damage in Crop Plants: A Meta-Analysis
by Murtaza Khan, Tiba Nazar Ibrahim Al Azzawi, Sajid Ali, Byung-Wook Yun and Bong-Gyu Mun
Plants 2023, 12(11), 2121; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12112121 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small, diatomic, gaseous, free radicle, lipophilic, diffusible, and highly reactive molecule with unique properties that make it a crucial signaling molecule with important physiological, biochemical, and molecular implications for plants under normal and stressful conditions. NO regulates plant [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small, diatomic, gaseous, free radicle, lipophilic, diffusible, and highly reactive molecule with unique properties that make it a crucial signaling molecule with important physiological, biochemical, and molecular implications for plants under normal and stressful conditions. NO regulates plant growth and developmental processes, such as seed germination, root growth, shoot development, and flowering. It is also a signaling molecule in various plant growth processes, such as cell elongation, differentiation, and proliferation. NO also regulates the expression of genes encoding hormones and signaling molecules associated with plant development. Abiotic stresses induce NO production in plants, which can regulate various biological processes, such as stomatal closure, antioxidant defense, ion homeostasis, and the induction of stress-responsive genes. Moreover, NO can activate plant defense response mechanisms, such as the production of pathogenesis-related proteins, phytohormones, and metabolites against biotic and oxidative stressors. NO can also directly inhibit pathogen growth by damaging their DNA and proteins. Overall, NO exhibits diverse regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and defense responses through complex molecular mechanisms that still require further studies. Understanding NO’s role in plant biology is essential for developing strategies for improved plant growth and stress tolerance in agriculture and environmental management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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37 pages, 3135 KiB  
Review
Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species during Salt Stress in Plants and Their Crosstalk with Other Signaling Molecules—Current Perspectives and Future Directions
by Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Neela Satheesh, Bhagwat Singh Kherawat, Ajay Kumar, Hyun-Uk Kim, Sang-Min Chung and Manu Kumar
Plants 2023, 12(4), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040864 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 5745
Abstract
Salt stress is a severe type of environmental stress. It adversely affects agricultural production worldwide. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most frequent phenomenon during salt stress. ROS are extremely reactive and, in high amounts, noxious, leading to destructive processes [...] Read more.
Salt stress is a severe type of environmental stress. It adversely affects agricultural production worldwide. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most frequent phenomenon during salt stress. ROS are extremely reactive and, in high amounts, noxious, leading to destructive processes and causing cellular damage. However, at lower concentrations, ROS function as secondary messengers, playing a critical role as signaling molecules, ensuring regulation of growth and adjustment to multifactorial stresses. Plants contain several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants that can detoxify ROS. The production of ROS and their scavenging are important aspects of the plant’s normal response to adverse conditions. Recently, this field has attracted immense attention from plant scientists; however, ROS-induced signaling pathways during salt stress remain largely unknown. In this review, we will discuss the critical role of different antioxidants in salt stress tolerance. We also summarize the recent advances on the detrimental effects of ROS, on the antioxidant machinery scavenging ROS under salt stress, and on the crosstalk between ROS and other various signaling molecules, including nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, calcium, and phytohormones. Moreover, the utilization of “-omic” approaches to improve the ROS-regulating antioxidant system during the adaptation process to salt stress is also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology in Plants)
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